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BAB 12

REKAYASA GENETIKA
DAN
MOLEKUL KEHIDUPAN

1

Pokok Bahasan
 The Chemistry of Heredity
 The Double Helix of DNA
 Cracking the Chemical Code
 Protein Structure and Activity: Form and Function
 The Human Genome Project
 Genetically Engineered Medical Treatments
 Genetically Engineered Agriculture
 Cloning Mammals and Humans
 The New Prometheus?

2

The Chemistry of Heredity
(Kimia Keturunan)

Konsep Dasar Genetik
Human Genome:
- 10 million million
(10x1012) cells with a
nucleus
- each cell has a complete
set of genetic instructions to
make
another you(biologically)
- 23 pairs of chromosomes
- 100,000 genes

- def’n: totality of human
hereditary information in molecular
form
4

Konsep Dasar Genetik
Human genome adalah sekumpulan informasi genetik
pada manusia

Yang terdiri atas :
 Berjuta-juta cell dengan intinya ( 10 x 1012 )
 Tiap-tiap cell memiliki sekumpulan perintah genetik untuk
membuat cell yang baru (membuat keturunan baru)
 23 pasangan khromosom
 100.000 gene [ rangkaian DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)]
 Informasi lengkap keturunan manusia dalam bentuk
molekular

Genome. the total genetic information possesed by an organism Human genome adalah informasi genetik pada manusia .

DNA of one cell unraveled = 2 meters long 3 parts to DNA: (i) Phosphate group (ii) Sugar (deoxyribose) (iii) Nitrogen bases 7 . DNA DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): molecule that carries genetic information in all species .

DNA Put all 3 groups together. called a nucleotide Adenosine phosphate A DNA molecule consists of thousands of nucleotides put together in a long chain (left) 8 .

3 24.5 24.0 23.6 24.6 Neuspora crassa Mold 23. The percenst base composition of DNA for various species Common Species Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine Name Homo sapiens Human 31.5 25.5 Zea mays Corn 25.4 29.0 31.6 9 .6 22.5 22.0 21.3 27.3 27.1 26.6 25.0 21.6 Bacillus subtillis Bacterium 28.4 Drosophila melanogaster Fruit fly 27.5 19.1 18.6 Escherichia coli Bacterium 24.3 25.

The Double Helix of DNA .

Watson & F. Crick • 1962 Nobel in Chemsitry 11 . X-Ray Diffraction of DNA • R. Franklin • J.

DNA Turns out that: Adenine bonds with Thymine Guanine binds with Cytosine Called complementary bases: A=T G=C 12 .

Ex. What is the complementary strand of DNA for the following sequence: ATAGCCG 13 .DNA Double Helix DNA is double stranded and is shaped like a spiral staircase.

DNA Replication 14 .

Cracking the Chemical Code .

where does the information come from? 16 .DNA: Blueprint of Life? How does DNA provide genetic information.

DNA: Blueprint of Life? How does DNA provide genetic information. DNA: blueprint for making proteins Proteins: made up of amino acids consist of/or regulate everything in the chemistry of life 17 . where does the information come from? Key is in the sequences of nitrogen bases.

There are 20 amino acids How many bases encode for an amino acid? 18 .DNA to Proteins OK. the instructions are in the sequence of bases.

DNA to Proteins OK. 19 . There are up to 20 amino acids found in proteins. There are 20 amino acids How many bases encode for an amino acid? if it were 1 base = 1 amino acid. then there would only be 4 amino acids found in proteins. the instructions are in the sequence of bases.

DNA to Proteins OK. then there would only be 4 amino acids found in proteins. not enough 20 . if it were 2: 42 = 16. There are up to 20 amino acids found in proteins. the instructions are in the sequence of bases. There are 20 amino acids How many bases encode for an amino acid? if it were 1 base = 1 amino acid.

not enough 3 bases: 43 = 64 3 bases = codon 21 . the instructions are in the sequence of bases. There are up to 20 amino acids found in proteins. There are 20 amino acids How many bases encode for an amino acid? if it were 1 base = 1 amino acid.DNA to Proteins OK. then there would only be 4 amino acids found in proteins. if it were 2: 42 = 16.

Codon table 22 .

DNA to Proteins Transcription: DNA to mRNA Translation: mRNA to protein 23 .

Protein Structure and Activity: Form and Function .

Polypeptide Backbone 25 .

Protein structure • The peptide bond allows for rotation around it and therefore the protein can fold and orient the R groups in favorable positions • Weak non-covalent interactions will hold the protein in its functional shape – these are weak and will take many to hold the shape 26 .

Secondary structures • 2 regular folding patterns have been identified – formed between the bonds of the peptide backbone • -helix – protein turns like a spiral – fibrous proteins (hair. nails. horns) • -sheet – protein folds back on itself as in a ribbon –globular protein 27 .

intermolecular ionic and covalent bond and interactions of amino acid residues with water 28 .Tertiary structure • The overall fold result in increase in stability • The shape is maintained through H-bond.

exp: collagen. exp : chymotrypsin – Structural.Protein function – Enzymes. hair – Transport : hemoglobin – etc – Sickle cell anemia differs from normal blood cell due to replacement of hemoglobin amino acid two glutamic acid by valine – Hemoglobin is a transport protein 29 .

The Human Genome Project .

• Aims of the project: – to identify the approximate 100.000 genes in the human DNA. and social issues that arise from genome research. Watson • Finished June 26.What is the Human Genome Project? • International effort to map all gene in human organism • Started in 1989 lead by J. – address the ethical. – store this information in databases. legal. – develop tools for data analysis. – determine the sequences of the 3 billion bases that make up human DNA. 31 . 2000 (co-announced by President Bill Clinton and PM Tony Blair) Definition: GENOME – the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA.

32 . generated from 10-20 primary samples taken from numerous anonymous donors across racial and ethnic groups. the first reference genome is a composite genome from several different people.Whose genome is being sequenced? . .

• more accurate risk assessment. • better understanding of evolution and human migration. • DNA forensics.Benefits of Human Genome Project research • improvements in medicine. • improved agriculture and livestock. 33 . • microbial genome research for fuel and environmental cleanup.

Genetically Engineered Medical Treatment .

Human Growth Hormone (HGH): previously. a 1 year supply required harvesting the pituitary glands from 80 human cadavers . Coli plasmid (DNA) Ecoli reads DNA and starts making insulin.Recombinant DNA: manipulating gene pools Cut out DNA that encodes for human insulin Splice it into E.

• DNA recombinant technology offers many biocatalysis • Greener reaction condition • Atorsvastatin produced from (R)-4-cyano-3- hydroxybutyrate which was produced by process using biocatalyst (enzyme) • The enzyme was a product of DNA recombinant .

37 .

Genetically Engineered Agriculture .

Transgenic plants (organisms) • Artificially created higher plants and animals that share the genes of another species • The focus of development – Improve production stability – Give nutritional benefits to the consumer – Reduce environmental effect of intensive and extensive agriculture – Increase the availability of pharmaceutical and vaccines 39 .

How to create transgenic plants Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA containing Plant cell gene for desired trait Ti Recombinant plasmid Insertion of gene Ti plasmid Introduction Regeneration into plasmid using into plant of plant restriction enzyme cells in T DNA and DNA ligase culture T DNA carrying new gene within plant chromosome Plant with new trait Restriction site .

corn that capable in • Transgenic soybeans fixing N2 which is resistance to • Contain nitrogen fixing herbicides bacterial genes 41 .• Nitrogen fixing corn.

Mixing Genes: Transgenic Organisms .

Cloning Mammals and Humans .

Judge Dredd American Ninja 2 Twins Gattaca Alien Resurrection 44 .Do you know these movies? Jurassic Park The Lost World The Boys from Brazil Sleeper. Multiplicity Invasion of the Body Snatchers Stepford Wives A Stolen Life Clones The Clones of Bruce Lee Blade Runner Star Wars.

B) nucleus is sucked of cell (C) New nucleus is picked up (D) Nucleus/DNA is inserted into the egg 45 .Nuclear transfer/ Somatic cell nuclear transfer (A.

Dolly. 1996-2003 46 .

2005 Snuppy and his Snuppy and his “father” surrogate mother 47 .Snuppy.

Human cloning • Many reports said the success of the somatic nuclear transfer • After electrical jolt. the embryo started growing • No report of embryo development to human • The intention of researcher is to harvest stem cell 48 .

The New Prometheus? .

• We have found key natural compounds of life “DNA” • We have clone gene and took many advantage for human being • We have clone animals • Next logical step would be creating new organism or cloning human “the super one” • However we could not removed defective gene from the pools • And cloning or creating superman could end up with creating a new promatheus 50 .

Thank you 51 .