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EEE G581

RF & Microwave Engineering


Dr. Praveen Kumar A.V.
BITS Pilani EEE Department
BITS Pilani, Pilani
Pilani Campus
FDTD

BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus
Finite Difference Method (FDM)
Given a geometry with certain boundary conditions, where a differential
equation needs to be evaluated using FDM

It involves three steps

(1)Divide the solution region into a grid of nodes

(2)Approximate the given differential equation by finite difference


equivalent (Taylor expansion method)

(3)Solve the difference equations subject to the prescribed boundary


conditions.

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FDM
1 2 1
F ( x0  x)  F ( x0 )  xF ( x0 )  x F ( x0 )  x 3 F ( x0 )  ........
2! 3!
1 2 1 3
 
F ( x0  x)  F ( x0 )  xF ( x0 )  x F ( x0 )  x F ( x0 )  ........
2! 3!
F ( x0  x)  F ( x0  x) 1
 F ( x0 )  x 2 F ( x0 )  ........
2x 3!

dF ( x) F ( x0  x)  F ( x0  x)
F ( x0 )    O(x 2 )
dx x  x0 2x

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FDM

• when x0
dF ( x) F ( x  x)  F ( x  x)
 or
dx 2x
dF ( x) F ( x  x / 2)  F ( x  x / 2)

dx x

• This is called the central difference scheme, having second order


accuracy

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Partial differential equations using FDM
Partial differential equations with 1st order variations in space and time

F ( x, t )  F ( x  x, t )  F ( x  x, t ) 

x 2x

F ( x, t )  F ( x, t  t )  F ( x, t  t ) 

t 2t

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Space and Time indexing
• x=ix so that x+x i+1, xx i1
• similarly t±t n±1
• Also the temporal index is superscripted

F ( x, t )  F ( x  x, t )  F ( x  x, t ) 

x 2x
 F (i  1, n)  F (i  1, n)   F (i  1)  F (i  1) 
n n

 
2x 2x

F ( x, t )  F ( x, t  t )  F ( x, t  t ) 

t 2t
 F (i, n  1)  F (i, n  1)   F (i )  F (i ) 
n 1 n 1

 
2t 2t

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FDTD method
• Formulation of the FDTD method begins by considering the differential form of
Maxwell's curl equations which govern the propagation of electric and magnetic
fields in a medium.
• For a simple, lossless medium H
xE    (1)
t
E
xH   (2)
t

• The geometry is sampled into cells and the above equations are evaluated at these
discrete cells (index i, j, k) at discrete intervals of time (index n)  time stepping

• Eq (1) is used to compute H-field


• Then Eq(2) is used to compute E-field using previously computed H-field data

• The time stepping is continued until a steady state is reached

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Maxwell’s curl equations
H E
 xE    xH  
t t

H x 1  E y Ez  Ex 1  H z H y 
       
t   z y  t   y z 
H y 1  Ez Ex  E y 1  H x H z
       
t   x z  t   z x 
H z 1  Ex E y  Ez 1  H y H x 
       
t   y x  t   x y 

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Sampling and Indexing

Er ( x, y, z, t )  Er (i, j , k , n)  Ern (i, j, k )


r  x, y or z

Eg :
n  0.5
Ex ( x  5x, y  2y, z, t  0.5t )  E x (i  5, j  2, k )

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Finite Difference Form

Ex 1  H z H y 
   
t   y z 

Exn 1 (i, j , k )  Exn 1 (i, j , k ) 1  H zn 1 (i, j  1, k )  H zn 1 (i, j  1, k )   H y (i, j , k  1)  H y (i, j , k  1)  


n 1 n 1

      
2t   2y   2 z  
t t
Exn 1 (i, j , k )  Exn 1 (i, j , k ) 
y
 H zn 1 (i, j  1, k )  H zn 1 (i, j  1, k )  
z
 H yn 1 (i, j , k  1)  H yn 1 (i, j , k  1) 

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