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It is a programme based on the principles of behavioral

psychology, also known as behavior modification, BBS is a
technique for modifying behavior of workers to make them work

Behavioural Based Safety is an approach to safety that focuses

on workers' behavior as the cause of most work-related injuries
and illnesses.

It is a process that helps employees identify and choose a safe

behavior over an unsafe one.

These behaviors are geared toward a safer work environment.

The system must have controls in place which will measure

whether or not these behaviors exist as a routine element in the
work environment.

Acceptable behaviors must be positively reinforced frequently

and immediately as the behavior occurs.

Behavior is what a person does or says.

What causes a person to take this
particular behavior or course of action
depends on other influencing factors.
Attitude and situational conditions cause
the particular behavior.

 Motivation
 Intelligence
 Emotions
 Experience
 Attitude
 Situational Conditions

Safety in the workplace is a combination of three measurable

components: the person, their environment, and their behavior.

Knowledge, Skills,
Abilities, Experience,
Intelligence, Motives,
Attitude, Personality


Engineering Control, Task, What person does (Putting
Work Culture, Tools, on PPE, Lifting properly,
Machines, Equipment, Following procedures etc.)
Housekeeping, Climate,
Management Systems

THE ABC MODEL Explain why we do what we do.



Why people speed ?

Suny Emergency
No Cops Road
sport car
Show off Late Others are

Save Fun
Crash Ticket Waste Wear &
Gas Tear


Core Features of BBS Program (*):

 Observation of workers by workers

 Extensive training provided to those participating in observation,
particularly the observers
 Development of a list of "critical worker behaviors" often with input
from workers themselves who are invited and welcomed into the
 Development of ‘model behaviors’ so that workers’ behaviors are
measured against their own standards – ie past behaviors.
 Substantial management commitment, including financial.

Most behavioral safety processes are tailored to the work and

management environment of the site. Despite these variations, all
behavioral safety processes have four major components (**):

1. Development of a list of at-risk behaviors,

2. Observations,
3. Feedback,
4. Improvement.
1. Development of a list of at-risk behaviors

The process starts with a behavioral hazard analysis to identify at-risk


These can be determined using accident/incident reports, job hazards

analysis, employee interviews, and brainstorming. In some instances, a
combination of all these tools could be used.

Using the at-risk behaviors, a checklist is then developed to assist in the

observation of work behavior. In addition, a list of corresponding
behavior definitions is helpful in maintaining consistency between
observers and the resulting data.
2. Observation

Observations provide direct, measurable information on employees’ safe

work practices.

Employees are observed performing their routine task. The observer

documents both safe and unsafe behaviors (safe and at-risk behaviors).
They are not evaluations of the person performing the work. The worker’s
identity is never recorded on the Observation Data Sheet

The data is then analyzed to determine the employee’s (or department’s)

improvement in safe behaviors. It can be looked at as an overall

Example: If there were 25 items on the checklist and the worker

performed 20 of them safely, then he would get a score of 80% safe.

The observation data are used to identify barriers to safe behavior.

Removing these barriers lowers the workers’ exposure to at-risk
conditions and makes it easier for employees to work safely. Removing
barriers and communicating successes increase employee involvement in
the process.
3. Feedback

The employee is provided positive feedback on the safe behaviors and

non-threatening feedback on the unsafe behaviors. They are also
provided with suggestions on correcting the unsafe behaviors.

Feedback is provided to the observed workers immediately upon

completion of the observation; the feedback and conversation with the
workers is arguably the most important part of the process.

Positive reinforcement and constructive feedback are essential; safe

behaviors are noted first, and at-risk behaviors last. Here is where the
open communication with the worker is so critical: the observer is not
“right” just because he is conducting the observation and the worker is
not “wrong” or “caught” if at-risk behaviors are noted.

The worker may not agree with the observed behaviors, and may use the
feedback opportunity to inform the observer of his reasons for
performing the job as he did.

Observations of multiple workers are also conducted, which often

enhances the peer-to-peer aspect of the process and encourages the
workers to look out for one another.
4. Improvement

The improvement between observations could be graphed and

displayed for employees to view. When the graphs shows
improvement, it provides positive reinforcing feedback to

Setting improvement goals increases the effectiveness of feedback

and the success of the behavior-based safety process.
Steering Committee (SC)

Basic responsibilities of the SC are:

 Develop the at-risk behaviors inventory

 Participate in the training and coaching of observers to provide for
mentoring the observer process
 Design the observation process
 Analyze the observation data
 Build action plans to respond to the leading indicators seen in the data
 Ensure that communication with observers is maintained
 Ensure that BBS is promoted and communicated to all organizational
Traditional safety programs vs. BBS

Traditional Safety Programs Behavior Based Safety

Behavior Based Safety :

Traditional Safety Program focus on: - Focus on identification of factors that

influence an individual’s ability perform
-‘Accident rate’ safety measures which has safely
several disadvantages:
 Training
 Reactive (An injury must occur before the  Equipment
system can react)  Support
 Not Specific (Do not indicate exactly what
needs to be done on-the-job to maintain or
improve safety) - Focus Identification of behaviors or
conditions that are critical to performing
 Low Impact (Hard to change at-risk safely
behaviors that are at “habit strength”)
 Negative (focusing on accident rates
highlights worst aspect of work) - Is Proactive — by providing measures of safety
targets on-the-job that can be used to avoid
- Is Specific — safety target data indicates
exactly what can be done to maintain and improve
- Can Change Attitudes & Culture — higher
impact on at-risk behaviors that are at “habit
- Is Positive — safety achievements and
improvements are the focus
An Integrated Safety Management System
 Visible, demonstrated commitment
 Clear, meaningful policies and principles
Leadership  Challenging goals and plans
 High standards of performance

 Line management accountability

Safety  Supportive safety staff
Management Structure  Integrated committee structure
System  Performance measurement and progressive

 Thorough investigations and follow-up

 Effective audits and re-evaluation
Process &  Effective communication processes
Action  Safety management skills
Safety Excellence Requires A Culture Shift
Involvement / Ownership by All Employees

Reactive Dependent Independent Interdependent

• Safety by Natural • Management • Personal Knowledge, • Help Others Conform
Instinct Commitment Commitment, & • Others’ Keeper
• Compliance is the • Condition of Standards
• Networking
Goal Employment • Internalization Contributor
• Delegated to Safety • Fear/Discipline • Personal Value • Care for Others
Manager • Rules/Procedures • Care for Self • Organizational Pride
• Lack of • Supervisor Control, • Practice, Habits
Management Emphasis, and Goals • Individual
Involvement Recognition
• Value All People
• Training
Implementation phases of BBS

Phase 1 - assess the safety culture

Phase 2 - educate and train team

Phase 3 - educate and train
employees about the principles,
tools, and implementation strategies

Phase 4 - monitor the progress

The corporate safety culture

 Develop a clear safety mission and


 Communicate the vision and goals

 Enable each area to attain its own

safety goals
 Encourage individual participation

 Empower employees to set and

achieve their own goals

 Foster mutual
respect and support
The Safety Triad
Critical behaviors and barriers to safety

 At-risk behaviors that lead to

serious injury or fatality
 At-risk behaviors that lead to a
large number of minor injuries or
near misses
 At-risk behaviors that could
contribute to a large number of
injuries because many people
perform a given task

 Safe behaviors that need to occur

consistently in order to prevent
personal injury

Motivation is built on a solid corporate culture


Some examples of motivational

influences that can take precedence
over motivation include:

 an individual’s self worth

 a secure work environment

 desire for achievement

 desire for recognition

 how employees feel about

their jobs in general
Lack of motivation often centers around
attitudinal problems

Address the motivational influences to

increase energy and enthusiasm

Key motivational points include:

 asking employees for their input
 holding morale-building meetings
 providing employees with the tools
they need to do their work
 recognizing personal needs
 providing employees with
challenging tasks
 privately recognizing
employees for good work
 fostering a sense of
community at your facility
The “DO IT” process

Define behaviors

Observe behaviors


Test the intervention

Behavior-based safety

 Reflects a proactive approach to

safety and health management

 Reflects a proactive approach to

injury prevention
 Focuses on at-risk behaviors that
can lead to injury

 Focuses on safe behaviors that

can contribute to injury

 Is an injury prevention process


Remember... BBS doesn’t replace:

 Training — the knowledge to be safe

 Safe Equipment — the tools to be safe

 Engineering Solutions — hazard recognition and elimination

 Support — commitment & follow through.

Thank you for your kind attention!