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Strut and Tie Modelling of

Reinforced Concrete Deep Beam

Presented By :
Krishna Nandanam
• Introduction
• Deep beam
• Strut and tie model
• Suitability of model
• Evaluation of existing effectiveness factor
• Proposed effectiveness factor
• Evaluation of proposed model
• conclusion
• Complex phenomenon
• Crucial to predict capacity accurately
• Non linear strain distribution in cross section
• Adopted design approaches is STM
• STM based on lower bound theory of plasticity
• Relevance of paper
• Deep beams are those beams whose span to depth ratio is
2 or 2.5.
• RC deep beam behaviour is predominately govern by

Deep beam Deep beam Shallow beam

• Analysis is by using 2-D plane stress system.
• Example
• Utility
Strut and Tie Model
• Represent the stress field .
• Selection of adequate STM.
• Load transfer mechanism in RC deep beam
(TM and STM).
• Control of load transfer mechanism by span to
depth ratio and amount of reinforcement .
• Methods suitable( TM and STM).
• Simplicity of methods.
Concrete Effectiveness Factor
1.Node strength factor
a .nodes are generally named according to the type of interconnected member.
b. this paper adopts the uniaxial concrete strength to assess other strut
effectiveness factor.

2.Effectiveness factor inclined strut

a .transverse tension field within the shear span weaken the resistance of concrete
strut this is taken into the account through the use of concrete effectiveness factor.
Suitability of Model
• Comparative study between TM and STM
model with effectiveness factor of 1
• Scattered result of TM model shows that
approach cannot be used .
• Result of STM further improved by using an
appropriate effectiveness factor.
Evaluation of existing effectiveness
• Effectiveness factors are proposed by different
researchers on the basis of assumption.
• Used factors leads to unsafe and conservative
• The paper proposes new node strength factors
and effectiveness factor to yield more correct
Proposed effectiveness factor
• Experimental and numerical data from FEM used to
determine the lateral tensile strain in the shear span of RC
deep beam.
Evaluation of proposed model
• A tie arch mechanism is main resisting mechanism
in RC deep beams.
• The selection of an appropriate STM and the size of
its element is critical for accurate shear capacity.
• The effectiveness factor models based on the
modified compression field theory showed poor
correlation with experimental result.
• This paper proposed a new model which utilises a
concrete effectiveness factor based on predicted
lateral strain .it leads to less conservative yet safe
predictions and accurately accounted for the effect
of concrete compressive strength ,shear span :depth
ratio ,shear reinforcement and member depth.
• Karmaran S.Ismail;and Kypros ,Strut and tie
modelling of reinforced concrete deep beams
,ASCE Journal 2017.
• ACI(2014)”Building code requirements for
structural concrete and commentry”
Thank you