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• The warming of the Earth’s surface is a natural

• According to World Health Organization, 80%
of the people living in urbanized areas are
exposed to air quality levels that exceed the
WHO limits.
• In the said database, around 98% of cities in
low to middle countries with more than
100,000 inhabitants do not meet the WHO air
quality guidelines.
• As urban air quality declines, the risk of
stroke, heart diseases, lung cancer, and
chronic acute respiratory diseases, including
asthma, increases for the people that live in it.
• However, not all pollution exists outside
homes. In the database compile by WHO,
most households in Southeast Asia uses wood
as their primary medium in cooking. Others
include coal, gas and other materials.
• The WHO also noted a key trend in 2008-
2013. There is an increase in global air
pollution despite improvements of air quality
in some part of the world.
• The highest urban air pollution are found in
low income to middle income countries in
Eastern Mediterranean and Southeast Asian
• Ambient air pollution causes more than
3,000,000 premature deaths worldwide every
• However, other problems have also been
identified that does not fall within the three
generic groups of air, land or water pollution, and
are in themselves needing of separate and unique
counter- measures specific to each in order to
mitigate their harmful effects to human health
and the environment.
• Prime example of the impacts of human activity on
environmental degradation is the developing and
maintenance of nuclear weapons by North Korea
• Solid waste management also poses a large threat on
the natural environment and human health.
• It is predicted that Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are
expected to double by 2025. The World Bank correlates
that the higher the income level and rate of
urbanization of a place, the greater the amount of solid
waste produced.
• In a study conducted and compiled by Yale
University in 2014, the Philippines rank 85th
among the 178 countries included in the study in
terms of air quality based on its Environmental
Performance Index. This is compared to other
Asian countries that placed much higher on the
list like Singapore (15th place), Brunei (47th
place) and Japan (70th place).
• In 2016, Manila is now ranked 1st in terms of
pollution index among the Southeast Asian
• Republic Act No. 8749 was authored by
Representative Neric Acosta in 1999 which
received various environmental awards.
• According to Greenpeace, the enactment of the
Clean Air Act in the Philippines was the first law
to ban the use of waste incinerators.
• Part also of its important provisions was the
setting up of progressive targets for cleaner fuel
and elimination of persistent organic pollutants.
• As stated, air pollution is one of the leading
causes of death in low and middle income
countries especially in areas where the air
quality is particularly low.
• In 2016, it was reported that a total of 6.5
million people die from air pollution in the
country, and a total of 6. 76 billion people
around the globe live in cosmic dust.
• Basically, the said Act focuses on two main points:
1. the creation of a program that shall be
implemented by the government to ensure that the
provisions of the law are executed, and set up a system of
accountability for any violations found out or reported;
2. to encourage the people to regulate themselves
in this undertaking and be informed of their rights and
responsibilities as citizens of this country when it comes
to achieving the goal of clean air
• The primary right being upheld is the right of
the citizens to breathe clean air.
• Other rights include: right to participate in the
policy- making, right to be informed of the
potential hazard of any activity and also to
access public records, and the right to bring an
action in court and ask for compensation for
personal damages.
1. Ambient air quality guideline values mean the
concentration of air over specified periods classified
as short-term and long-term which are intended to
serve as goals or objectives for the protection of
health and/or public welfare.
2. Certificate of Conformity means a certificate issued by
the Department of Environment and Natural
Resources to a vehicle manufacturer/assembler or
importer certifying that a particular new vehicle or
vehicle type meets the requirements provided under
this Act and its rules and regulations
3. Mobile source means any vehicle propelled by or
through combustion of carbon-based or other fuel,
constructed and operated principally for the
conveyance of persons or the transportation of
property or goods
4. Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) mean those
substances that significantly deplete or otherwise
modify the ozone layer in a manner that is likely to
result in adverse effects on human health and the
5. Pollution control device means any device or
apparatus used to prevent, control or abate the
pollution of air caused by emissions from identified
pollution sources at levels within the air pollution
control standard established by the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources.
6. Stationary source means any building or
immobile structure, facility or installation which
emits or may emit any air pollutant

Air Quality Monitoring Integrated Air Quality Air Quality Action Plan
and Information Network Improvement • Among others, this step
• National Air Quality Status Framework includes the creation of
Report airsheds and other measures
• For the creation of necessary for the abatement of
program, setting of goals air pollution
and devising strategy and
control measures
• The designation of airsheds shall be on the basis
of, but not limited to, areas with similar climate,
meteorology and topology which affect the
interchange and diffusion of pollutants in the
atmosphere, or areas which share common
interest or face similar development programs,
prospects or problems.
• This is further detailed and implemented by
DENR Memorandum Circular No. 2002-03.
• So far, there are 16 existing airsheds in the
country designated by the DENR including
Metro Cebu, Metro Manila, Davao, Cordillera
Autonomous Region, Naga City, Leyte, and
other more.
• As defined previously, stationary sources also
contribute to the ambient air quality in the country.
• DENR shall have the authority to issue permits as it
may determine necessary for the prevention and
m abatement of air pollution. Said permits shall cover
emission limitations for the regulated air pollutants.
• The DENR, within two years from effectivity of this law,
and for every two years afterwards, shall review, or as
the need arises, revise and publish emission standards
to further improve the emission standards for
stationary sources of air pollution.
• The said law bans incineration which is
defined as the burning of municipal, bio-
medical and hazardous wastes, which process
emits poisonous and toxic fumes, and is
hereby prohibited. However, such prohibition
does not apply to traditional, small- scale
method of community or neighbourhood
sanitation “siga”, traditional, agricultural,
health, and food preparation and crematoria.
• The DOTC shall implement the emission
standards set forth in the law.
• Any imported new or locally assembled motor
vehicle shall not be registered unless it complies
with the emission standards set pursuant to RA
8749 as evidenced by a Certificate of Conformity
(COC) issued.
• No Motor Vehicle Registration (MVR) shall be
issued unless such motor vehicle passes the
emission testing requirement.
• The said Act provides that no person shall
manufacture, import, sell, supply, offer for sale,
dispense, transport or introduce into commerce
unleaded premium gasoline fuel which has:
– an antiknock index (AKI) of not less than 87.5 and
Reid vapor pressure of not more than 9 psi;
– unleaded gasoline fuel shall contain aromatics not to
exceed forty-five percent (45%) by volume and
benzene not to exceed four percent (4%) by volume.;
– the same is with automotive diesel which must not
contain a concentration of sulphur in excess of 0.20%.
• Consistent with the terms and conditions of
the Montreal Protocol on Substances that
Deplete the Ozone Layer and other
international agreements and protocols to
which the Philippine is a signatory, the DENR
shall phase out ozone-depleting substances.
• Like with any other
laws, poor
and lax monitoring
by the government
of the different key
players in the
society diminish
the viability of the
law to succeed.