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Rohollah.kord@yahoo.com
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‫پدیده های مخرب در شیرهای کنترل و راه کارهای مقابله با انها‬

‫ارائه دهنده‪ :‬روح اله کرد‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ایمیل‪rohollah.kord@yahoo.com :‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪Rohollah.kord@yahoo.com‬‬
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 Cavitation
 Flashing
 Chocked flow
 Noise
 Severe services treatments

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Server services
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 Cavitation
 Flashing
 Chocked flow
 Noise

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Vena contracta

 Vena contracta is the point in a fluid stream where the diameter of the stream is the least, and fluid
velocity is at its maximum, It is a place where the cross section area is minimum

Pvc

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Pressure recovery factor (FL)

 Downstream of the vena contracta the fluid decelerates and consequently the pressure
increases or recover. Different valve types exhibit different recovery factors.

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Pressure recovery factor (FL)

Low recovery High recovery valves

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Normal condition

 Pvc > Pv
 P2 > Pv

Pv

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High recovery valves are proven to cavitation

Pv

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Cavitation

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 Cavitation is a two stage process consisting of formation of vapor bubbles when the pressure
of the liquid falls below vapor pressure and the collapsing of the bubbles (Cavities) when the
pressure recovers above the vapor pressure.
 Pvc < Pv
 P2 > Pv
 Outlet: liquid

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Cavitation evidences

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 1) Noise
 2)Vibration
400 km/h
 3) Material damage
100000psi

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Cavitation solutions
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 Process control

 Piping design

 Staging pressure drop(anti cavitation trim)

 Using Hard material

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Flashing

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 Flashing occurs in the liquid flow when the internal pressure of the liquid falls below the
vapor pressure and remains below it
 P2 < Pv
 Pvc < Pv
 Outlet: liquid+ vapor

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Chocked flow

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 The severity of the cavitation damage increases as the pressure drop across the valve
increases and more liquid is flashed to vapor at the vena contracta. If the pressure drop across
the valve is high enough, the flow passage at the vena contracta becomes fully occupied by
vapor and choked flow occurs

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Choked flow
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 Choked flow is a limiting condition where the mass flow will not increase with a further
decrease in the downstream pressure environment while upstream pressure is fixed. Note that
the limited parameter is velocity, and thus mass flow can be increased with increased upstream
pressure (increased fluid density).

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Noise
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 ∆p/(p1 absolute)>0.5 noise


 Acceptable velocity limits
 Liquid Service < 8m/s
 Gas < 0.33Mach (110m/s)

 Acceptable noise level < 85db @ 1m

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Sources of noise
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1.Mechanical Vibration
2.Aerodynamic Noise
3.Hydrodynamic Noise

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Noise treatment
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 Path treatments

 Source treatments

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Source treatments

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 Special trim

 Larger valve size

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Path treatments

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 Insulation ( each inch reduce 4-5 db)


 Increasing of downstream pipe schedule
 Diffuser
 silencer

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Path treatments

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