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Meaning and Nature of Research

Prof. Anil Palve


Meaning and Nature of Research
1. Research refers to a search for
knowledge.
2. A careful investigation or inquiry
specially through search for new facts
in any branch of knowledge.
3. Redman and Mory define research as,
“ systematized efforts to gain
knowledge.”
Meaning and Nature of Research
4. According to Clifford Woody research
comprises defining and redefining
problems, formulating hypothesis or
suggested solutions, collecting, organizing
and evaluating data, making deductions
and reaching conclusions: and at last
carefully testing the conclusions to
determine weather they fit the formulating
hypothesis.
Meaning and Nature of Research
5. D. Slensinger & M. Stephenson in the
encyclopedia of Social Sciences define
research as “ the manipulation of things,
concepts or symbols for the purpose of
generalizing to extend, correct, verify
knowledge weather that knowledge aids
in construction of theory or in the
practice of an art.”
Meaning and Nature of Research
6. Research is, thus an original
contribution to the existing stock of
knowledge making for its advancement.
7. The search for knowledge through
objective and systematic method of
finding solutions to a problem in
research for any branch.
Nature of Research
1. Systematic and analytic
2. Solution of a problem or inquiry
3. Search for knowledge, truth with study
observation and comparison
4. New facts, voyage of discovery
5. Original contribution to existing stock
6. Generalization of some theoretical
formulation
Nature of Research
7. Generation of hypothesis
8. Collection and analysis of data
9. Validation of the data
10. Reaching to certain conclusions
11. Involves getting consequential benefits of
research
12. Observations, comparison and
experiments
Nature of Research
13. Manipulation of things, concepts or
symbol for the purpose of generalization
14. What everybody is thinking and what
nobody is thinking
15. Research is purposive, objective & logical
16. It is based on observable experience and
empirical evidence
Objective or Purpose of Research
1. Extends knowledge of human beings
2. Unveil mysteries of nature, hidden facts
3. Research is purposive, objective &
logical
4. Verifies and tests existing facts and
theory.
Objective or Purpose of Research
5. General laws are developed.
6. Analyze inter relationships between
variables (Hypothesis testing)
7. Casual relationships
8. Finding solutions to problems…Socio
economic Problem.
Objective or Purpose of Research
9. Developing new tools and concepts.
10. National Development.
11. Evaluate alternative strategies and
choose best one
12. Finding solutions to problems…Socio
economic Problem.
Objective or Purpose of Research
13. Rational decision making.
14. To offer inventions and discoveries
(Exploratory or formulatory)
15. Making reliable predictions and forecasts
16. To improve quality of human life.
17. To portray actual characteristic of human,
situations and group (Descriptive)
Motivation of Research
1. Solving un solved problems
2. Intellectual work
3. Creative work
4. Desire of service to society
5. Desire to get respect
6. Developing concepts, theory
7. Developing innovative products, services
Role/Significance of Research
1. Enhanced productivity for industrial and economic
activity
2. Facts finding play important role in decision
making
3. Quantitative treatment can be given to business
problems
4. Identification of new projects, feasibility study and
project implementation
5. Implement managerial functions effectively
6. Analysis, interpretation, evaluation of business
environment
Role/Significance of Research
7. Formulation of business policy and
strategy
8. Developing new products, markets,
segments, R & D
9. Functional areas & relationship
10.Cost reduction improving product
quality.
Role/Significance of Research
11.When to buy, why to buy, how to buy,
how much to buy ? (Purchase Dept)
12.Market research studies-Marketing
13.Maintaining liquidity, profitability, fund
management, assets management etc.
14. Update business, attitude, products,
goals, approaches, methods, machinery
with changing environment.
Methodology
Dhondyal (1994) defines research
methodology as, “A procedure designed
to the extend to which it is planned and
evaluated before conducting the inquiry
and the extend to which the method for
decision making is evaluated.”
Research Process
1. Identification and selection of research
problem.
2. Review of Literature
a. Preliminary review prior to problem
selection
b. Systematic review after selection
3. Formulation of selected problems
a. Definition of problem
Research Process
b. Conceptual mode
c. Delimitation of study
d. Objectives of the study
e. Formulation of the hypothesis of study
f. Investigating problems
4. Operationalisation of concepts
a. Definition of concepts.
Research Process
b. Construction of indexes/scales for
measuring variables.
5. Preparation of the research plan
a. Statement of the problem
b. Objectives of the study
c. Hypothesis
d. Operational definition of the concept
e. Geographical area of the study
Research Process
f. Research methodology
g. Research Design-type of research
h. Methods of data collection-Primary
&Secondary data
i. Sampling design- sample size, area,
sampling methods
j. Tools of collection of data
k. Plan for analysis
l. Overview of research report
Research Process
m. Time Schedule
6. Construction of tools of data collection
a. Identification of data needs
b. Delineation of data sources
c. Drafting observation schedule/interview
schedule/mailing questionnaire
d. Check lists Time Schedule
e. Pretesting and possible revision
Research Process
7. Collection of Data
a. Experimental Work/Field work
b. Preparing sample frame
c. Drawing samples of respondents
d. Interviewing/Observing
e. Mailing Questionnaire
f. Follow Up
Research Process
8. Processing of Data
a. Editing
b. Coding
c. Transcription
d. Tabulation
e. Construction of tables, charts
Research Process
9. Analysis of Data
a. Analysis
b. Statistical Methods
c. Any other analytical method
d. Interpretation of findings
e. Testing of Hypothesis
Research Process
10.Report Writing
a. Planning of Report
b. Drafting of report
c. Finalization of report
Research Problems
1. Lack of training
2. Insufficient interaction
3. Misuse of data
4. Overlapping of studies
5. Code of conduct
6. Inadequate timely assistance
7. Library management
Research Problems
8. Acts rule not available
9. Published data not available in time
10. Problems in conceptualization
Research Process
Feed
forward
Formulate Research Data
Define Literature hypothesi design collecti
problem review s on

Interpret Data
and analysis
feedback
report
Research Types
1. Descriptive research
2. Analytical research
3. Applied Research
4. Fundamental Research
5. Quantitative Research
6. Qualitative Research
Research Types
7. Conceptual Research
8. Empirical Research (Experience)
9. Clinical or Diagnostic Research (Case
study, casual relationships)
10. Field Setting, Lab or Simulation
Research
Research Problem
1. What is a research problem?
a. Individual, organization with whom
problem is associated (I), environment
(N), uncontrolled variables (Y)
b. Course of action one, two more C1 and
C2.
c . Two possible outcomes O1, O2
Research Problem
d. Objectives to be attained.
e. Alternative means for achieving
objectives.
f. Confusion or doubt while selection of
objectives
Research Problem
Indian auto maker Mahindra and Mahindra
is facing problems in terms of reduced
sales of their vehicles in last few month.
Prepare statement of problem of this issue
and frame objectives to understand the
reason of decline in sales and also find out
the brands contributing the decline in
sales. State hypothesis if any.
Research Problem
VICCO Laboratories is doing well in the
market through their range of dental and
herbal products. Himalaya Drug Company
is also major competitor of VICCO.
Prepare a research plan to analyze the
marketing strategies, schemes and
discounts given by Himalaya to
understand the competitor in a better way.
Formulate research problem, objectives.
Research Types