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Discovering Computers

Technology in a World of Computers,


Mobile Devices, and the Internet

Chapter 2
The Internet
Objectives Overview

Describe the purpose


Briefly describe
Discuss the evolution of an IP address and
various broadband
of the Internet its relationship to a
Internet connections
domain name

Describe features of
Describe ways to Explain benefits and
browsers and identify
enter effective search risks of using social
the components of a
text networking sites
web address

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for Detailed Objectives Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Objectives Overview

Explain how the web


Identify and briefly
Describe uses of uses graphics,
describe the steps
various types of animation, audio,
required for web
websites video, and virtual
publishing
reality

Explain how email,


email lists, instant
Identify the rules of
messaging, chat rooms,
netiquette
discussion forums, VoIP,
and FTP work

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for Detailed Objectives Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
The Internet

• The Internet is a
worldwide collection of
networks that links
millions of businesses,
government agencies,
educational institutions,
and individuals

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Figure 2-1
Evolution of the Internet

• The Internet originated as ARPANET in September


1969 and had two main goals:
Allow scientists at
Function even if part of
different physical
the network were
locations to share
disabled or destroyed
information and work
by a disaster
together

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Evolution of the Internet

1969 ARPANET Today Millions of


becomes hosts connect to
functional the Internet

1984 ARPANET
has more than
1,000 individual
computers
linked as hosts
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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Connecting to the Internet

• With wired connections, a computer or device


physically attaches via a cable or wire to a
communications device
• Computers without a communications device can
use a wireless modem

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Connecting to the Internet

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Figure 2-2
Connecting to the Internet

Wired Wireless

• Cable Internet • Wi-Fi (wireless


service fidelity)
• DSL (digital • Mobile broadband
subscriber line) • Fixed wireless
• Fiber to the • Satellite Internet
Premises (FTTP) Service
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Cable Internet Service – TV line

Discovering Computers: Chapter 2 10


DSL – Digital Subscriber Line

Discovering Computers: Chapter 2 11


FTTP

Discovering Computers: Chapter 2 12


Wi-Fi

Discovering Computers: Chapter 2 13


Mobile Broadband

Discovering Computers: Chapter 2 14


Fixed Wireless

Discovering Computers: Chapter 2 15


Satellite Internet Service

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Connecting to the Internet

• A cybercafé is a location that provides computers with


Internet access, usually for a fee.
• A hot spot is a wireless network that provides Internet
connections to mobile computers and devices.

You can create mobile hot spot


using a communications device or
by tethering a smartphone.

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Figure 2-3
Connecting to the Internet

• An Internet service provider (ISP) is a business that


provides individuals and organizations access to the
Internet free or for a fee.
• ISPs often charge a fixed amount for an internet
connection, offering customers a variety of plans
based on desired speeds, bandwidth, and services.
• Bandwidth represents the amount of data that
travels over a network. Data sizes typically are stated
in terms of:
– Megabyte (MB) = 1 million characters
– Gigabyte (GB) = 1 billion characters

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2 20
Connecting to the Internet

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Figure 2-4
Connecting to the Internet

• An IP address is a sequence of numbers that uniquely


identifies each computer or device connected to the
Internet
• A domain name is a text-based name that corresponds to
the IP address
• A DNS server translates the domain name into its
associated IP address

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Figure 2-5
Connecting to the Internet
TLD = Top Level Domain

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Table 2-3
Connecting to the Internet

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Figure 2-6
The World Wide Web

• The World Wide Web (WWW), or web, consists of a


worldwide collection of electronic documents
(webpages)
• A website is a collection of related webpages and
associated items
• A web server is a computer that delivers requested
webpages to your computer
• Web 2.0 refers to websites that provide a means for
users to share personal information, allow users to
modify website content, and provide applications
through a browser
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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
The World Wide Web

• A browser is an application
that enables users with an
Internet connection to
access and view webpages
on a computer or mobile
device
• A home page is the first
page that a website
displays
• Desktop browsers typically
support tabbed browsing

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Figure 2-7
The World Wide Web

• A webpage has a unique address called a web


address or URL

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Figure 2-8
Contoh URL: KUISAS (Fak. Pengajian Islam)
http://www.kuisas.edu.my/sweb/index.php/bm/widgetkit/akademik/fakulti-pengajian-islam

Discovering Computers: Chapter 2 28


The World Wide Web

• A web app is an application stored on a web


server that you access through a browser
– Web app hosts usually provide storage for users’ data
and information on their servers, known as cloud
storage

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Figure 2-10
Types of Websites
• A search engine is software that finds websites,
webpages, images, videos, news, maps, and other
information related to a specific topic
• A subject directory classifies webpages in an
organized set of categories, such as sports or
shopping, and related subcategories

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Types of Websites

• Search operators can help to refine your search

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Table 2-4
The World Wide Web

• There are thirteen types of Web sites

Online social Media sharing and


Informational
network bookmarking sites

News, weather, Business,


sports, and other Educational Governmental,
mass media and Organizational

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
The World Wide Web

Health and
Blogs Wikis
Science

Travel and
Entertainment Financial
Mapping

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The World Wide Web

Shopping Careers and


and Auctions Employment

E-Commerce Portals

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The World Wide Web

• Web publishing is the development and


maintenance of websites

Design Create Maintain


Plan the Host the
the the the
website website
website website website

5 major steps in web publishing

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Media on the Web

• Multimedia refers to any application that


combines text with:

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Media on the Web

• A graphic is a digital
representation of
nontext information
• Graphic formats include
BMP, GIF, JPEG, PNG,
and TIFF

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Figure 2-21
Media on the Web

• An infographic is a
visual representation of
data and information,
designed to
communicate quickly,
simplify complex
concepts, or present
patterns or trends

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Figure 2-22
Media on the Web

• Animation is the appearance of motion created


by displaying a series of still images in sequence

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Media on the Web

• Audio includes music, speech, or any other sound


– Compressed to reduce file size
• You listen to audio on your computer using a media
player

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Figure 2-23
Media on the Web

• Video consists of images displayed in motion


• Virtual reality (VR) is the use of computers to simulate a
real or imagined environment that appears as a three-
dimensional space

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Figure 2-24
Media on the Web
Most browsers have the capability of displaying basic multimedia elements on a webpage.
Sometimes, however a browser requires an additional program, called a plug-in, to
Display multimedia.

A plug-in is a program that


extends the capability of a
Web browser

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Other Internet Services

• Email is the
transmission of
messages and files via a
computer network
• An email program
allows you to create,
send, receive, forward,
store, print, and delete
email messages

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Other Internet Services

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Figure 2-25
Other Internet Services

• An email list is a group of email addresses used for mass


distribution of a message

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Figure 2-26
Other Internet Services

• Instant messaging (IM) is a real-time Internet


communications service

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Figure 2-27
Instant Messaging

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Other Internet Services

• A chat is a real-time
typed conversation that
takes place on a
computer or mobile
device
• A chat room is a
website or application
that permits users to
chat with others who
are online at the same
time

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Figure 2-30
Other Internet Services

• A discussion forum is an online area in which


users have written discussions about a particular
subject

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Figure 2-29
Other Internet Services

• VoIP (Voice over IP) enables users to speak to other


users over the Internet

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Figure 2-31
Other Internet Services

• FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is an Internet standard


that permits file uploading and downloading to
and from other computers on the Internet
• Many operating systems include FTP capabilities
• An FTP server is a computer that allows users to
upload and/or download files using FTP

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Netiquette

• Netiquette is the code of acceptable Internet


behavior

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Figure 2-30
Example: Flame War

Discovering Computers: Chapter 2 53


Summary

Evolution of Various types


The Web
the Internet of websites

Other services
available on Netiquette
the Internet

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Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Discovering Computers
Technology in a World of Computers,
Mobile Devices, and the Internet

Chapter 2
The Internet

Chapter 2 Complete