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DEJ5153

Programmable Logic Control


(PLC)
and Automation
CHAPTER 1
Understand electromechanical relays:

Explain relays
- Symbol
- Building diagram
- Operation
- Relay pole and throw
Definition

A relay is usually an electromechanical


device that is actuated by an electrical
current.
The current flowing in one circuit
causes the opening or closing of
another circuit.
WHAT IS RELAYS?
Are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low power signal or where
several circuits must be controlled by one signal
(A relay providing isolation between two circuits)

Low Voltage Relay High Voltage


Circuit Circuit

Relays are like remote control switches and are used in many applications because of
their relative simplicity, long life, and proven high reliability

Relays are used in a wide variety of applications throughout industry, such as in


telephone exchanges, digital computers and automation systems.
APPLICATION OF RELAYS
Highly sophisticated relays are utilized to protect electric power systems against
trouble and power blackouts as well as to regulate and control the generation and
distribution of power

In the home, relays are used in refrigerators, washing machine and dishwasher and
heating and air-conditioning control.
RELAYS
SYMBOL
NO – Normally-open
NC – Normally – closed
C - Common

COM
COIL

NC NO
RELAY TERMINOLOGY
Normally-Open (NO)
• Contact connect the circuit when the relay is activated
• The circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive
Normally-Closed (NC)
• Contacts disconnected the circuit when the relay is activated
• The circuit is connected when the relay is inactive
Double-throw (DT)
• Contact control two circuit
• One normally open contact and one normally-closed contact with a
common terminal

Coil
• Generates a magnetic field that attracts the armature when an electric
current is passed through it.
RELAYS
BUILDING DIAGRAM

Relay Design Relay Construction


RELAYS
BUILDING DIAGRAM

Relay Diagram

Relay Bottom View


RELAYS
HOW DOES A RELAY WORK?

 The input circuit with low current appliance such as sensor or switches.
 The output circuit operates a high-current appliance such as a lamp or an
electric motor.
 The first circuit is called the control unit and the second is called the load circuit
 The coil controls the operation of the switch.
RELAYS
HOW DOES A RELAY WORK?
 All relays contain a sensing unit, the electric coil, which is powered by AC or DC
current.
 When the applied current or voltage exceeds a threshold value, the coil activates the
armature, which operates either to close the open contacts or to open the closed
contacts.
 When a power is supplied to the coil, it generates a magnetic force that actuates the
switch mechanism.
 The magnetic force is, in effect, relaying the action from one circuit to another.
RELAYS
OPERATION (1)
 When no voltage is applied to pin 1, there is no current flow through the
coil.

 No current means no magnetic field is developed, and the switch is open.

 When voltage is supplied to pin 1, current flow though the coil creates the
magnetic field needed to close the switch allowing continuity between
pins 2 and 4.

De – Energized Relay (OFF) Energized Relay (ON)


RELAYS
OPERATION (2)
 When the relay is at rest, the switch is not actuated and the relay coil is not
energized.
 The normally close (NC) contact will remain close and bulb 1 will be lit.
 When the switch is closed, the relay coil will be energized and its associated
contacts will switch.
 The normally open (NO) contact, now closed. Bulb 1 will turn off as its
contact are open, and Bulb 2 will on through its normally open contact,
which are closed.
Bulb 2

NO Bulb 1

NC
Coil
RELAYS
OPERATION (example)
Now, imagine that someone wants to control a 220Volts 1 K-Watt load with a command
that comes from a 5 Volts battery. A load-Relay should be used for this application. The
Coil of the relay is driven with the 5 Volts. The contacts from this relay (NO) will be
connected in series with the power supply of the load. Thus, the load will only operate
when the relay is actuated. Our friend bellow will turn on an electric oven bare-handed!!!
THREE BASIC FUNCTION OF A RELAY
1. ON/OFF CONTROL
Example : Air conditioning control, used to limit and control a
“high power” load, such as a compressor.

2. LIMIT CONTROL
Example: Motor Speed Control, used to disconnect a motor if it
runs slower or faster than the desired speed.

3. LOGIC OPERATION
Example: Test Equipment, used to connect the instrument to a
number of testing points on the device under test.
TYPE OF RELAYS
Single Pole Single Throw (SPST)
• žThese have two terminals which can be connected or
disconnected
• Current will only flow through the contacts when the relay coil
is energized

Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT)


• A common terminal connects to either of two others.
• Current will flow between the movable contact and one fixed
contact when the coil is DE-energized and between the
movable contact and the alternate fixed contact when the
relay coil is energized.
• The most commonly used relay in car audio, the Bosch relay, is
a SPDT relay.
TYPE OF RELAYS
Double Pole Single Throw (DPST)
• These have two pairs of terminals.
• Equivalent to two SPST switches or relays actuated by a single coil.
• When the relay coil is energized, two separate and electrically
isolated sets of contacts are pulled down to make contact with
their stationary counterparts. There is no complete circuit path
when the relay is DE-energized.

Double Pole Double Throw (DPDT)


• These have two rows of change-over terminals.
• It operates like the SPDT relay but has twice as many contacts.
There are two completely isolated sets of contacts.
TYPE OF RELAYS

Relay Contact Configuration

Single Pole – relay have 1 common


Double Pole – relay have 2 common
Single Throw – relay have NC or NO
Double Throw – relay have NC and NO