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Dar es Salaam institute of Technology (DIT)

ETCT 06204

Digital Cellular Network

Ally, J

jumannea@gmail.com

DIT
Course Material
 Text: Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice by T.
Rappaport

 References
 From GSM to LTE by Martin Sauter
 Wireless Communications by Andrea Goldsmith
 Wireless Communications by Roy Blake
 Wireless & Mobile Networks Architecture by Yi Bing and
Imrich Chlamtac
 Wireless Communications and Networks by W. Stallings

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Course Syllabus
 Introduction to Cellular Mobile Communication

 The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communication

 2G and 2.5G Technology

 3G and B3G (S3G) Networks

 4G and B4G Technology

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Introduction to Cellular Mobile
Communications

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Wired Vs. Wireless Communication

Wired Wireless
Each cable is a different channel One media (cable) shared by all
Signal attenuation is low High signal attenuation

No interference High interference


noise; co-channel interference; adjacent
channel interference

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Why go Wireless?
Advantages
 Sometimes it is impractical to lay cables

 User mobility

 Cost

Limitations
 Restricted frequency range

 Standards are often restricted

 Security

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Objectives of Wireless Systems
 Large Capacity

 Efficient use of Resources (Spectrum)

 Adaptability to traffic density

 Quality of Service

 Affordability

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Mobile Radio Communication Systems
 Garage door openers

 Remote controllers

 Cordless phones

 Hand held walkie-talkie

 Pagers

 Cell telephones

These systems differ in cost, complexity, performance


and application.

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What is wireless communication?
 Any form of communication that does not require
the transmitter and receiver to be in physical
contact

 Electromagnetic wave propagated through free-


space

 Radar, RF, Microwave, Optical (infrared, Laser).

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Classification of Mobile Radio Communication Systems
 Simplex Systems: Only one way communication
possible. Messages can be received but not
acknowledged. (paging systems)
 Half-Duplex Systems: 2 way communication
possible but the same radio channel used for both
transmission and reception. At any given time a user
can only transmit or only receive information; “Push
to talk” and “release to listen” systems.
 Full-Duplex Systems: Allow simultaneous
transmission and reception b/w subscriber and Base
Station
 Simultaneous transmission and reception are
achieved by:
 Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)
 Time Division Duplex (TDD)

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Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)
 It provides simultaneous radio transmission channels for
the subscriber and the base station, so that they both may
constantly transmit while simultaneously receiving signals
from one another.

 Uses a pair of frequency bands – one for Downlink


(Forward) Channel and another for Uplink (Reverse)
Channel.

 Downlink Channel (Forward Channel): used for


transmission of information from Base Station to Mobile.

 Uplink Channel (Reverse Channel): used for transmission


of information from Mobile to Base Station.

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Time Division Duplex (TDD)
 Shares a single radio channel in time
 a portion of the time is used to transmit from Base station to
mobile
 the remaining time is used to transmit from mobile to Base
Station

 TDD is only possible with digital transmission format


and digital modulation, and is very sensitive to timing.

 Used only for indoor or small area wireless application


where the physical coverage distance are much
smaller than the many kilometers used in conventional
cellular telephone systems.

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Paging Systems
 Broad coverage for short messaging
 Message broadcast from all base stations
 Simple terminals
 Optimized for 1-way transmission
 Answer-back hard
 Overtaken by cellular

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Paging Systems

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Cordless Telephone Systems
 It is full duplex communication systems that use radio to connect a
portable handset and a dedicated Base Station, which is then
connected to a dedicated telephone line with a specific telephone
number on a Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).
 First generation base station provides coverage to a few tens of
meters.
 Second generation base station provides coverage to a few hundred
meters.

Wireless Link
Fixed Port
PSTN (Base
Station)

Cordless
Handset

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Cellular Telephone Systems
 A cellular telephone system provides a wireless
connection to the PSTN for any user location
within the radio range of the system.

 Accommodate large number of users over a large


geographical area, within limited frequency
spectrum.

 Provide high quality service comparable to


landline telephone systems

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Examples of Mobile Radio Systems

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Mobile Communications Systems Definitions
 Base Station: a fixed station in a radio mobile system used for radio
communication with mobile stations.
 Mobile Station: a station in the cellular radio service intended for use
while in motion at unspecified location.
 Mobile Switching Centre (MSC): it connects the cellular base stations
and the mobiles to the (Public Switching Telephone Network (PSTN).
 Control Channel: radio channels used for transmission of call setup,
call request, call initiation, and other beacons or control purposes.
 Handover (Handoff): the process of transferring a mobile station from
one channel or base station to another.
 Page: a brief message which is broadcast over the entire service area,
usually in simulcast fashion by many base stations at the same time.
 Roamer: a mobile station which operates in a service area (market)
other than that which service has been subscribed.
 Subscriber: a user who pays subscription charges for using a mobile
communication system.
 Transceiver: a device capable of simultaneously transmitting and
receiving radio signals.

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Important First Generation Analog Systems
Type AMPS ETACS NTT

Region America Europe Japan

Multiple access FDMA FDMA FDMA

Duplexing FDD FDD FDD

Forward band 869 - 894 MHz 935 – 960 MHz 870 – 885 MHz

Reverse band 824 – 849 MHz 890 – 915 MHz 925 – 940 MHz

Channel spacing 30 KHz 25 KHz 25 KHz

No. of channels 831 1000 600

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Second Generation (2G) Cellular Networks
 Most of today’s ubiquitous cellular networks in use
 2G technologies which conform to the second
generation cellular standards
 It uses TDMA/FDD and CDMA/FDD multiple
access techniques
 Most popular 2G standard are:
 Global System Mobile (GSM) – TDMA (Europe)
 Interim Standard 136 (IS-136) – TDMA (North America)
 Pacific Digital Cellular (PDC) – TDMA (Japan)
 Interim Standard 95 Code Division Multiple Access (IS-
95 CDMA) – CDMA (North America)

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Important Second Generation Digital Systems
Type IS-136 IS-95 GSM PDC

Region America America Europe Japan

Multiple access TDMA/FDD CDMA/FDD TDMA/FDD TDMA/FDD


/Duplexing

Modulation /4 DQPSK QPSK/OQPSK GMSK /4 DQPSK

Forward Band 869 - 894 MHz 869 - 894 MHz 935 – 960 MHz 810 – 826 MHz

Reverse Band 824 – 849 MHz 824 – 849 MHz 890 – 915 MHz 940 – 956 MHz

Channel Spacing 30 KHz 1.25 MHz 200 KHz 25 KHz

Data/chip Rate 48.6 Kbps 1.2288 Mcps 270.833 Kbps 42 Kbps

Codec Rate Kbps 7.95 1.2/2.4/4.8/9.6 13.4 6.7

Users/channel 3 Up to 64 8 3

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3G Cellular Design: Voice and Data
 Data is bursty, whereas voice is
continuous
 Typically require different access and
routing strategies

 3G “widens the data pipe”:


 384 Kbps (802.11n has 600 Mbps)
 Standard based on wideband CDMA
 Packet-based switching for both voice and
data
 3G cellular popular in Asia and Europe
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4G/LTE/IMT Advanced
 Much higher peak data rates (100-1000
Mbps)
 Greater spectral efficiency (bits/s/Hz)
 Flexible use of up to 100 MHz of spectrum
 Low packet latency (<5ms).
 Increased system capacity
 Reduced cost-per-bit
 Support for multimedia
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WiMAX (802.16)
 Wide area wireless network standard
 System architecture similar to cellular
 Called “3.xG” (e.g. Sprint EVO), evolving into 4G
 OFDM/MIMO is core link technology
 Operates in 2.5 and 3.5 GHz bands
 Different for different countries, 5.8 also used.
 Bandwidth is 3.5-10 MHz
 Fixed (802.16d) vs. Mobile (802.16e) Wimax
 Fixed: 75 Mbps max, up to 50 mile cell radius
 Mobile: 15 Mbps max, up to 1-2 mile cell radius

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Wifi Networks:
Multimedia Everywhere, Without Wires

802.11n++

Streaming video
 Gbps data rates
 High reliability
 Coverage in every room

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Cellular Phones
Everything Wireless in One Device

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IMT-2000 Vision-Integration of Services and
Networks
Global
Satellite

Suburban Urban
In-Building

Picocell
Microcell
Macrocell

Basic Terminal
PDA Terminal
Audio/Visual Terminal

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Challenges
 Network Challenges
 Scarce spectrum
 Demanding/diverse applications
 Reliability
 Ubiquitous coverage
 Seamless indoor/outdoor operation

 Device Challenges
 Size, Power, Cost
 Multiple Antennas in Silicon
 Multiradio Integration
 Coexistance

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Simplified picture of most important evolution paths
from 2G technologies (e.g., GSM) to 4G technologies
(e.g., LTE-Advanced)
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