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PLASTICS

(Chapter 12)

3 ChEB

Bautista, Monica
Catangay, Marie
Lagundi, Jino
Odono, Vince
INTRODUCTION
Catangay, Marie Antoinette
INTRODUCTION
Greek word “plastikos”, meaning “moldable” or “formable”

PLASTIC When heated to a liquid or semi-solid form, plastics can be


molded into almost any desired shape; when cooled they
harden into a solid.

Plastic Packaging – cheap to manufacture and may last for a


long time which is now causing as a major environmental
problem.

Traditional plastics come from non-renewable resources


~ oil, coal and natural gas
POLYMERS
POLYMERS
o Consist of large molecules that are made of many small,
repeating units called MONOMERS.

o DEGREE OF POLYMERIZATION – number of repeating units in one


large molecule
o HIGH POLYMERS – materials with a very high degree of
polymerization.
POLYMERS
POLYMERS
 Plastics can be formed into desired shapes through EXTRUSION
MOLDING, CASTING, or SPINNING.
 Molecules can be :
 Natural: celluslose, wax, and natural rubber
 Synthetic: polyethylene and nylon

 The starting materials are RESINS in the form of pellets, powders, or


solutions.
POLYMERS

STRUCTURAL
GROUPS
POLYMERS
Linear Polymer
consist of long chains of monomers joined by bonds that are
rigid to a certain degree the monomers cannot rotate freely
with respect to each other.

Ex: polyethylene, polyvinyl alcohol, and polyvinyl chloride


(PVC)
POLYMERS
Branched Polymers
- Have side chains that are attached to the chain molecule itself.
- The presence of impurities or monomers that have several reactive
groups can cause branching.
- Chain polymers are not considered as branched polymers
POLYMERS
Cross-linked Polymers
- Two or more chains are joined together by side chains.
- Small degree of cross-linking – caused by chemical reactions, a loose
network is obtained that is essentially two-dimensional.
- High degrees of cross-linking – result in a right three-dimensional
structure.
- Thermosetting Plastics = examples of highly cross-linked polymers where
their structures are so rigid that when heated they decompose of burn,
rather than melt.
POLYMERS
POLYMERS
POLYMERS
POLYMERS
POLYMERS
POLYMERS
POLYMERS
POLYMERS
POLYMERS
POLYMERS
POLYMERS
HISTORY
HISTORY
1860 - the development of plastics began.
• After Phelan and Collander, a US firm manufacturing billiard and pool balls offered a
prize of $10,000 for a satisfactory substitute for natural ivory.
• JOHN WESLEY HYATT – one of those who tried to win this prize.
-he developed a method of pressure-working pyroxylin, a cellulose nitrate of low nitration
that had been plasticized with camphor and a minimum of alcohol solvent.
- his product was patented under the trademark CELLULOID, used in the manufacture of
objects ranging from dental plates to men’s collars.
HISTORY
1906 – the first totally synthetic plastics, the family of phenol-
formaldehyde resins developed by the Belgian American chemist Leo Hendrik
Bakeland.

1920 – an event occurred that set the stage for the future rapid development of
plastic materials.

- HERMANN STAUDINGER – a German chemist, hypothesized that plastics were truly


giant molecules.
HISTORY
1920s & 1930s – large numbers of new products were introduced,
including urea-formaldehyde resins, used in tableware and electrical
applications, later as plywood adhesive and textile finishing.
- Acrylic resin – developed as a binder for laminated glass.
HISTORY
1937 – development of polymerized methyl methacrylate.
- Marketed as Lucite and Plexiglas.
- Suitable for eyeglass and camera lenses of for producing special effects in
highway and advertising illumination.
- POLYSTYRENE RESINS – were first produced commercially.
HISTORY
1930s – NYLON was synthesized.
1938 – Polytetraflouroethylene was first made.
1950 – it was produced commercially as TEFLON
- The plastics industry proved to be a rich source of acceptable substitutes for
natural raw materials, during WORLD WAR II (1939-1945) when there was
severe shortage of the latter.
HISTORY
1953 – Karl Ziegler, German chemist, developed POLYETHYLENE.
1954 - Giulio Natta, Italian chemist, developed POLYPROPYLENE.
 Polyethylene and Polypropylene are two of today’s most important
plastics.

1963 – these two men were awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their
studies of polymers.
PROPERTIES OF
PLASTICS
PROPERTIES
 Low strength
 Low stiffness (modulus of elasticity)
 Tendency to creep
 Low hardness (except formaldehyde plastics)
 Low density
 Brittleness at low temperatures and loss of strength and hardness at
moderately elevated temperatures.
 Flammability
PROPERTIES
 Outstanding electrical characteristics
 Durability on everyday uses
 Lightweight (compared to metal and wood)
 Resistant to corrosion
 Less expensive
 Wide variety of colors
 Versatile
 Ideal Materials for wide use in industry and craftwork.
ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF
PLASTICS
KINDS OF
PLASTICS
Odono, Vince
KINDS of PLASTICS

A. Polymerization
- first stage of manufacturing.
- is the process of building up continuous molecular chains from individual
identical monomer units.
 Two basic methods:
1. Addition Polymerization (Linear Addition Polymerization)
- is the simple linking of polymer units head o tail to form chains by
opening out a double bond to free a valency.
2. Condensation Polymerization
- in this process, free valencies linking up and removing atoms and a
molecule, such as water, is forced out at each stage in the making of the chain.
-ex: phenol-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde and melamine-
formaldehyde, polycarbonates, polyethylene terephthalate, polyurethane resins,
and polyamides
KINDS of PLASTICS

B. Processibility
- it depends on whether it is thermoplastic or thermosetting.
 Thermoplastic – made up of linear or branched polymers. They soften when
heated and harden when cooled. It can be resoftened and remolded many
times by the application of heat near 93 degrees Celsius.
 Thermosetting – they are highly cross-linked. Most of it harden when heated. It
can only be softened and molded once, because during polymerization process
the spare valencies of thermosetting plastics link with other atoms in different
molecular chains.
KINDS of PLASTICS

C. Chemical Nature
- it is defines by the monomer ( repeating unit) that makes up the chain of
the polymer.

 The manufacture of plastic and plastic products involves procuring the


raw materials, synthesizing the basic polymer, compounding the polymer
into a material useful for fabrication, and molding or shaping the plastic
into its final form.
RAW
MATERIALS
AND
ADDITIVES
RECYCLING
OF
PLASTICS
PROCESSING
Bautista, Monica Lea
PROCESSING
– Techniques used in shaping and finishing plastics depend on three
factors:
- time
- temperature
- flow (deformation)
– Some processes fall into categories of continuous or semi-
continuous operation
PROCESSING:
EXTRUSION
– Extruder – device that pumps a plastic through a desired
die or shape
– Extrusion products have a regularly shaped cross section
– Extruders are also used in blow molding and injection
molding
PROCESSING: EXTRUSION
BLOW MOLDING
1. Extruder fills the mold with a tube, which is then cut off
and clamped to form a hollow shape called a parison
2. The parison is then blown like a balloon and forced
against the walls of the mold to form the desired shape
PROCESSING: EXTRUSION
INJECTION MOLDING
1. One or more extruders are used with
reciprocating screws that move forward to inject
the melt
2. The extruders then retract to take on a new
material to continue process
PROCESSING: INJECTION
BLOW MOLDING
– Used in making bottles for carbonated beverages
– Parison is first injection-molded and then
reheated and blown
PROCESSING:
COMPRESSION MOLDING

- Uses pressure to force the plastic into a given


shape
PROCESSING:
TRANSFER MOLDING
– Hybrid of injection and compression molding
– Molten plastic is forced by a ram into a mold
PROCESSING:
CALENDERING
– Plastic sheets are formed into a desired
shape
APPLICATIONS
Lagundi, Jino Leon
APPLICATIONS
Construction

APLICATIONS

Other
Packaging
Uses
PACKAGING
• The leading user of plastics
– LDPE – marketed in rolls of clear-plastic wrap
– HDPE – used in plastic trash bags, containers
– PVDC – used primarily for its barrier properties to avoid gases
(oxygen) from passing in or out of a package
– PP – effective barrier against water vapor, fiber for carpeting and
rope
– PS
– PVC
CONSTRUCTION
– HDPE – used for pipes as in PVC
– PVC – used in sheets for siding and similar
components
– PS (foam) – serves as insulation for walls, roofs,
and other areas
– Plastic products – roofing, door, window frames,
moldings, hardware
OTHER USES
– Automobile and truck manufacturing – air intake
manifolds, fuel lines, emission canisters, fuel
pumps, electronic devices, interior paneling,
seats, trims.
– Textile fibers – small chips of nylon polymer
– Manufacture of fibers – underwear, blouses,
shirts, raincoats, etc.
HEALTH AND
ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS
– Manufacture of plastics have been shown to
cause cancer (benzene)
– Most synthetic plastics are not environmentally
degradable
– Disposal of plastics are a problem
– Recycling – most practical method of dealing with
the disposal of plastics (PET)
INNOVATION
INDUSTRY UPDATES

– Fompac Plastic Corporation – leading


manufacturers of PS in the country. It is
located in Valenzuela, Metro Manila
– Bataan PVC Plant – is one of Asia’s
most modern plant with its world-scale
capacity.
TRIVIA
TRIVIA