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Students: Advisors:

Thomas Carley Dr. Woonki Na


Luke Ketcham Dr. Brian Huggins
Brendan Zimmer Dr. Yufeng Lu
Greg Landgren

Bradley University
Department Of Electrical Engineering
11/30/11
Presentation Outline
 Summary and Overall System Block Diagram
 DC Subsystem
 Maximum Power Point Tracking
 Boost Converter Testing
 AC Subsystem
 Schedule
 Component List
Project Summary
 Supplies DC and AC Power
 Photovoltaic Array
 Boost Converter to step up PV voltage
 Maximum Power Point Tracking
 DC-AC converter for 120Vrms
 LC filter
System Block Diagram
AC Output
DC Output
Boost
Photovoltaic Inverter LC Filter Grid
Converter

DSP
Board
DC Subsystem
 Boost Converter
 Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) System
V Pmax
Vin Vo
L1
V 4.299m
V D1
V
S
A

C1 10k C2
100u 1u 0.001

T
800
20
Simulation Results
Vin Vo

100

80

60

40

20

-20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time (s)
Boost Converter Full Bridge

1000
T
25
DC Subsystem Requirements
 The boost converter shall accept a voltage from the
photovoltaic cells.
 The input voltage shall be 48 Volts.
 The average output shall be 200 Volts +/- 25 Volts.
 The voltage ripple shall be less than 3 Volts
 The boost converter shall perform maximum
power point tracking.
 The PWM of the boost converter shall be regulated
based on current and voltage from the PV array.
 The efficiency of the MPPT system shall be above 85%.
DC Subsystem Key Components
 MOSFET  Inductor
 Vds = 250V  1mH 25A
 Id = 110A  500uH 35A
 Pdiss = 694W  Gate Driver
 Heatsink  MOSFET or IGBT
 2.5A 500V
 Solar Panel x 4
 50W
 12V
DC Subsystem Components
 Current Sensor
 30A
 63-69 mV/A
 Sensing Op amp
 Used with voltage divider
 DSP Board
 TMS320F2812
MPPT
 “Perturb and Observe” method
 Change Boost Converter duty cycle based on change in
PV power
 Changing duty cycle changes the current drawn from
the PV
 Anytime the system is not at the
maximum power point, it is not
at it’s most efficient point
MPPT Flowchart
Calculate Power

Compare current power


with last power

Compare current duty cycle


with previous duty cycle

Calculate change in power


over change in duty cycle
(slope)

Is the slope
Negative positive or Positive
negative?

Increase Duty Decrease Duty


Boost Without MPPT
V Pmax_1
Vcell_1
S_1V Icell_1 V 330u V
S D1
A

C6
3000u
1000u
T R6 1000u
V Vgate_1 50
25

Without MPPT
V Po_1
Boost With MPPT
Maximum Power Point Tracking Using
Perturb and Observe Method

V Pmax
Vcell
S V Icell V 330u V
S D
A

Cout
3000u
1000u
T Rload 1000u
V Vgate 50
25

i
Gating
v

MPPT - Perturb and Observe method


V Po
MPPT Circuit
dv/dt
dP>0
v
i
dP<0

PI
Gating

Uref

dP>0 dP<0

dU1 dU2
Output Power Without MPPT
Pload_1 Pmax_1 Po_1

80

60

40

20

-20

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5


Time (s)
Output Power With MPPT
Pload Pmax Po

80

60

40

20

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5


Time (s)
PV Models in Simulink
 Made models of PVs using resources from the
University of Colorado at Boulder
 Insolation – a measure of solar energy on an area over a
given amount of time.
 Usually in units of W/m^2

Solar Insolation Peoria, IL


Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
kWh/(m^2 day) 3.271 4.109 4.642 4.921 5.239 5.740 5.880 5.727 5.639 4.562 2.957 2.721
W/m^2 136.292 171.208 193.417 205.042 218.292 239.167 245.000 238.625 234.958 190.083 123.208 113.375
PV cell characteristics

PV power
Scope
Vpv
Ppv
Ipv PV
Ppv
Product To Workspace

1e-9*(exp(u/26e-3)-1) I-V characteristic


Vpv
Vpv PN-junction characteristic Id

Scope1
1000 1/1000
ISC Ipv
Insolation Insolation to
ISC current gain

I P

V V
PV Module Characteristics

Vpv
Vpv
Vpv
PV power

I-V characteristic
Ipv

PV module (V)
Vpv Ipv

Insolation Ppv

Insolation PV1

Insolation = 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 W/m2

I P

V V
4-module PV Array

PV module (I)
Ipv Vpv

1000 Insolation Ppv


I
Insolation PV1

PV module (I)
Ipv Vpv

Insolation Ppv
Vpv
PV2
V
Vpv

PV module (I) XY V-I


Ipv Vpv

Insolation Ppv

PV3
Ppv
Ppv
PV module (I) Product XY power
Ipv Vpv

Insolation Ppv

PV4 Add Ipv

P
Ipv Ramp

Ipv

V
Boost Converter Lab Testing
 Built boost converter from components Dr. Na
provided.

Vin Vo
V 330u MBR3045PT
V
A

5V 1k
220u 0.1u IRFZ34NL 470u 470u 470u 50
Boost Converter Lab Testing
 0 to 3.3V signal from DSP board controlling the MOSFET
 At a switching frequency of 10kHz with a 50% duty cycle
the 5V input voltage was boosted to about 10V.
 Increasing duty cycle, increased Vout
 Decreasing duty cycle, decreased Vout
 After testing this setup we will be able to build our Boost
converter circuit quickly.
DSP Board Programming
 Spectrum Digital eZdsp F2812
 Texas Instruments Code Composer
 Matlab/Simulink
Simulink A/D Interfacing
Simulink PWM Generation
Manual PWM Duty Ratio Control
PWM Generation
Experimental Results

80% Duty Ratio 30% Duty Ratio


AC Subsystem
 Inverter
 Output filter
AC Subsystem - Inverter
 Inverter topology
 Inverter operation
 Simulations
AC Subsystem
Inverter Topology

Inverter single phase H-bridge


AC Subsystem
Inverter Operation - Bipolar
 A reference sinusoidal waveform is compared to a
triangular carrier waveform
 When the reference voltage is equal to the carrier
voltage a transition in the switching signal occurs
AC Subsystem
Inverter Operation - Bipolar
10 1m

Simulation
schematic
Vcarr
V
V

V Vcontrol

Carrier Waveform
AC Subsystem
Inverter Operation - Bipolar
Reference (blue) and
carrier (red) waveforms

Switching signal
AC Subsystem
Inverter Operation - Bipolar

Inverter output. Switches from +Vd to -Vd


AC Subsystem
Inverter Operation - Bipolar
 Switching signal is inverted and fed to other pair of
switches
 Switch pairs are switched simultaneously
 Only one reference signal needed, but performance is
poor
AC Subsystem
Inverter Operation - Unipolar
 Two reference sinusoids are compared to a triangular
waveform
 Switch pairs not switched simultaneously
AC Subsystem
Inverter Operation - Unipolar
A

10 1m
450

Simulation
schematic

Va1
V Vcarr
V
V Vcont1 V Vcont2

Va2
V

Carrier Waveform
AC Subsystem
Inverter Operation - Unipolar
References and
carrier waves

Switching signal 1

Switching signal 2

Output

Image source: Tian


Inverter Operation - Comparison
Bipolar harmonic
output

Unipolar harmonic
output
AC Subsystem - Output Filter
 Inverter output includes switching harmonics
 Filter smoothes output
AC Subsystem Requirements
 The AC side of the system shall invert the output of the
boost converter.
 The output of the inverter shall be 120 Volts RMS.
 The output shall be 60Hz +/- 0.1Hz.
 The inverter output shall be filtered by a LC filter.
 The filter shall remove high switching frequency
harmonics.
 Total harmonic distortion of the output shall be less
than 15%.
AC Subsystem Key Components
 Inverter switches
 Gate drives
 Power supplies
Commercial Grid Tie Inverters
Company SMA Solar Technology Xantrex
Product Sunny Boy 700-US GT2.8
AC Power 460W, 120Vac 2700 W, 208Vac / 2800W, 240Vac
AC Voltage 106 - 132 Vac 183 - 229 Vac / 211 - 264 Vac
Output
Output Frequency 59.3 - 60.5 Hz 59.3 - 60.5 Hz
Harmonics > 3% > 3%
Max. efficiency 92.4% 94.6%
Power Factor Unity > 0.95 %
Schedule
Brendan Tom Luke
Week 1 Build Boost Build Inverter Build Boost
Week 2 Voltage Sensing DSP Programming Current Sensing
Week 3 MPPT Code DSP Programming MPPT Code
Week 4 Interfacing DSP Programming Interfacing
Week 5 Interfacing Interfacing Interfacing
Week 6 Circuit + Software Interfacing Circuit + Software
Week 7 Testing Testing Testing
Week 8 DC-AC Integration DC-AC Integration DC-AC Integration
Week 9 DC-AC Integration DC-AC Integration DC-AC Integration
Week 10 Build Fullbridge+Boost LC Filter Build Fullbridge+Boost
Week 11 Circuit + Software Testing Circuit + Software
Week 12 DC-AC Integration DC-AC Integration DC-AC Integration
Week 13 DC-AC Integration DC-AC Integration DC-AC Integration
Week14 Presentation Prep Presentation Prep Presentation Prep
Week 15 Presentation Prep Presentation Prep Presentation Prep
Component List
1
Part Type Part # Website Digikey or Newark # DESC QTY Unit Price Price
MOSFET IXTH110N25T www.digikey.com IXTH110N25T-ND Vds = 250V Id = 110A Pdiss = 694W 10 6.165 $61.65
Capacitor B43456 www.digikey.com 495-4232-ND 1500uF 450V 8 38.09 $304.72
Current Sensor ACS712ELCTR-30A-T www.digikey.com 620-1191-1-ND 30A 63 to 69 mV/A 3 4.52 $13.56
Ultrafast Diode HFA50PA60C N/A If(av) = 25A Vf = 1.3C Vr = 600V 3 12.23 $36.69
IGBT IRG4PC30UD N/A Vce = 600v Ic = 23A Pdiss = 100W 10 2.5 $25.00
Solar Panel BP 350 J N/A 50W 12V 3 279 $837.00
Inductor 7448262510 www.newark.com 08P2917 1mH 25A 4 22.91 $91.64
Inductor 7448263505 www.newark.com 08P2918 500uH 35A 2 22.91 $45.82
Heat sink WA-T247-101E www.digikey.com WA-T247-101E-ND Clip-on TO-247 6 1.8 $10.80
Gate Driver IR2110 www.digikey.com IR2110PBF-ND MOSFET IGBT Driver 2.5A 500V 25 2.8036 $70.09
Op Amp OP484FPZ www.digikey.com OP484FPZ-ND Sensing Op Amp 10 11.14 $111.40
PWM Buffer 74LVC4245A www.digikey.com 568-5002-1-ND IC Translator 10 0.912 $9.12
PWM Buffer 74HCT541 www.digikey.com 568-4592-1-ND IC Buffer 10 0.502 $5.02
$1,622.51
References
 “PV Module Simulink Models.” ECEN2060. University of Colorado Boulder.
 Rozenblat, Lazar. "A Grid Tie Inverter for Solar Systems." Grid Tie Inverter Schematic and
Principles of Operation. 6 Oct. 2011. <http://solar.smps.us/grid-tie-inverter-
schematic.html>.
 Tafticht, T., K. Agbossou, M. Doumbia, and A. Cheriti. "An Improved Maximum Power
Point Tracking Method for Photovoltaic Systems." Renewable Energy 33.7 (2008): 1508-
516.
 Tian, Yi. ANALYSIS, SIMULATION AND DSP BASED IMPLEMENTATION OF
ASYMMETRIC THREE-LEVEL SINGLE-PHASE INVERTER IN SOLAR POWER SYSTEM.
Thesis. Florida State University, 2007.
 Zhou, Lining. EVALUATION AND DSP BASED IMPLEMENTATION OF PWM
APPROACHES FOR SINGLE-PHASE DC-AC CONVERTERS. Thesis. Florida State
University, 2005.
Questions?