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Earth Deformation Modeling

Dr. Ir. Subagyo Pramumijoyo

Students
BACK Arnaud
KURNIA HADY Aulia
Summary 2

1. Introduction
2. Tectonic Plates
3. Seismic Instrument
4. Internal Structure of Earth
5. Mecanism of tectonic plates
1. Plate junction
2. Active margin
Introduction 3

Plate tectonics is of very great significance as it represents the first theory that provides a
unified explanation of the Earth’s major surface features. As such it has enabled an
unprecedented linking of many different aspects of geology, which had previously been
considered independent and unrelated.
Earth’s tectonic system concerns the movement of the lithosphere, the relatively brittle
outermost solid Earth, which consists of a mosaic of independent plates.
Much of our knowledge of the internal constitution of the Earth has come from the study of
the seismic waves generated by earthquakes.
A deeper understanding of geology has ensued from the interpretation of many branches of
geology within the basic framework provided by plate tectonics.

Introduction Tectonic Plates Seismic instruments Internal structure Plate’s mecanism


Plate Tectonics 4

(Plate Tectonic Book)

Map showing the present plate configurations and plate motions on Earth;
plate names shown on insert.

Introduction Tectonic Plates Seismic instruments Internal structure Plate’s mecanism


Seismic Instrument 5

(Steven Earle, 2015)

(Kennett et al., 1995)

Introduction Tectonic Plates Seismic instruments Internal structure Plate’s mecanism


Internal Structure of The Earth 6

(Frisch, 2011)

Above, a cross-section of the Earth,


showing the sub-surface layers that are
Principle of seismic tomography. Temperature being mapped. (Public domain)
anomalies in the Earth’s mantle cause increasing and
decreasing travel times of seismic waves. From a large Three-dimensional illustration showing
number of travel time measurements, warm and cool the results of seismic tomography in the
bodies can be segregated. Earth’s mantle.

Introduction Tectonic Plates Seismic instruments Internal structure Plate’s mecanism


Plate Junction

Different possibilities of plate junction


• Double
• Triple

Legend
1. Oceanic Ridge
2. Non active oceanic ridge
3. Transform fault
4. Subduction zone
5. Non-active subduction zone (Libourty, 1982)

Introduction Tectonic Plates Seismic instruments Internal structure Plate’s mecanism


Divergion margin 8

Volcany and Sismicaly Active (shallow)

Continental ridge:
• Rift Valleys
• Closed basin lakes

Oceanic ridge:
• Hidden by the sea
• Different type

(Larh et al., 2015)

Introduction Tectonic Plates Seismic instruments Internal structure Plate’s mecanism


Divergion margin 9

Function of the divergion velocity


• Fast (10 cm/yr)
o Real ridge
• Slow (1cm/yr)
o Depression

(Choukroune et al., 1988)

Introduction Tectonic Plates Seismic instruments Internal structure Plate’s mecanism


Convergion margin

Introduction Tectonic Plates Seismic instruments Internal structure Plate’s mecanism


Transform margin 11

• Strike slip faulting


• Intense seismicity
o shallow earthquakes
o brittle part of the crust
• No volcanism
• Most common in the Oceanic crust

(Frisch et al., 2011)

Introduction Tectonic Plates Seismic instruments Internal structure Plate’s mecanism


12
References
Choukroune P, Francheteau J, Auvray B, Auzende Jean-Marie, Brun Jp, Sichler Bertrand, Arthaud F, Lepine Jc
(1988). Tectonics of an incipient oceanic rift (The Western extension of the Aden rift within the Gulf of
Tadjoura, Republic of Djibouti).

Earle S (2015) Physical Geology, BC Open Textbook Project, BC Campus

Kearey Ph, Vine FJ (1990) Global Tectonics. Blackwell, Oxford

Kennett et al., 1995 (after Helffrich & Wood, 2001, with permission from Nature 412, 501–7. Copyright ©
2001 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.)

Frisch W, Meschede M, Blakey R (2011) Plate Tectonics Continental Drift and Mountain Building, Springer,
New York-Heidelberg-Berlin.

Larh, John C. "Sea-Floor Spreading and Subduction Model." Sea-Floor Spreading and Subduction Model.
USGS, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2015