Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 44

COMPONENTS

EE521
Basic Motor Control Components
COMPONENTS

Objectives:

To familiarize students with the basic components of motor


control systems, their uses and applications.
COMPONENTS

A. Switches
1. Toggle Switch
Uses a mechanical lever mechanism to implement a
position snap action for switching of electrical contacts.

NOTE: Usually NOT preferred in motor control as it can be accidentally toggled


COMPONENTS

A. Switches
2. Push Button Switch (PB)
Commonly used in motor control for start stop operations, as
well as to control and override process functions.

Component symbols

Normally open PB These symbols represents the


state of the switch contacts at
their initial position, or when the
Normally closed PB switch is not activated.
COMPONENTS

A. Switches

Push button station – one or more push buttons in a


common enclosure.
Electrical enclosures are designed to protect their contents
from troublesome operating environmental conditions, such
as dust, dirt, oil, water, temperature variations etc.
COMPONENTS

A. Switches
NEMA Enclosure Types
COMPONENTS

A. Switches Contact
Operator Block
Parts of a Push Button Switch

Operator – part that is pressed, pulled


or rotated to activate the push button's
contacts.

Contact block – part that houses the


contacts that is activated when
pressed.
Operators are available for momentary or maintained operation.

Momentary type PB are spring loaded and return to their normal ON


or OFF state when the operator is released.
Maintained type PB operators are designed with detent holding
clips that require the user to push the operator a second time to
return the contacts to their initial state.
COMPONENTS

A. Switches
3. Selector Switch
Switching action is done by turning the operator knob.

Common type of selector switch (as shown above) is the three


position selector switch for the three operating modes of control of a
pump motor.
HAND - or manual control
OFF - opens all contacts
AUTO - liquid level controls the pump
COMPONENTS

A. Switches
4. Drum Switch
It consists of a set of moving contacts and set of stationary
contacts that open and close as the shaft is rotated
COMPONENTS

A. Switches
5. Mechanically Operated Switches
a) Limit Switch

b) Float Switch
COMPONENTS

A. Switches
6. Sensors
Types
a. Optical proximity sensor
- Inductive
- Capacitive
b. Temperature sensor
c. Pressure sensor
d. Flow sensor
e. Photo-electric sensor
COMPONENTS

B. Relays
Is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of
another electrical circuit.
In the original form, the switch is operated by an electromagnet
to open or close one or many sets of contacts.
It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835.
COMPONENTS

B. Relays
A relay is able to control an output circuit of higher power than
the input circuit, that is why it can be considered as an electrical
amplifier.
Component symbols

Relay Contact:

Normally open (NO)


Normally closed (NC)

Relay Coil:

Coil
COMPONENTS

B. Relays
Circuit Diagrams
COMPONENTS

B. Relays

Contacts

Coil
COMPONENTS

B. Relays
Types of Relays
1. Latching relay
Magnetic Latching relays require one pulse of coil power to move their
contacts in one direction, and another, redirected pulse to move them
back.

Repeated pulses from the same input have no effect. Magnetic


Latching relays are useful in applications where interrupted power
should not be able to transition the contacts.

Magnetic Latching relays can have either single or dual coils.

http://www.mouser.com/ds/2/357/105A_755-7090.pdf
COMPONENTS

B. Relays
Types of Relays
1. Latching relay
On a single coil device, the relay will operate in one direction when
power is applied with one polarity, and will reset when the polarity is
reversed.

On a dual coil device, when polarized voltage is applied to the reset


coil, the contacts will transition.

http://www.mouser.com/ds/2/357/105A_755-7090.pdf
COMPONENTS

B. Relays
Types of Relays
2. Timer Relays
Providing time-delayed switching to start a motor, control a load, or
affect a process.

Divided into two General Classification


a. On-delay or Timed on – Delay on energized
b. Off-delay or Timed off – Delay on de-energized

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relay
http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/
COMPONENTS

B. Relays
Types of Relays
2. Timer Relays
Types of relay contacts
a. Normally Open Timed-Closed (NOTC) or Normally open, on-delay

b. Normally Closed Timed-Open (NCTO) or Normally closed, on-delay


COMPONENTS

B. Relays
Types of Relays
2. Timer Relays
Types of relay contacts
c. Normally Open timed-open (NOTO) or Normally open, off-delay

d. Normally Closed timed-closed (NCTC) or Normally closed, off-delay


COMPONENTS

B. Relays
Applications of Relays

Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution


lines by opening and closing circuit breakers (protection
relays)

Isolate the controlling circuit from the main (power) circuit


when the two are at different potentials (for example when
controlling a mains-powered device from a low-voltage
switch.)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relay
http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/
COMPONENTS

C. Motor Starter
1. Manual Starter
- On-off, hand operated, snap action switch
- Fractional Hp
- No OL protection
- Low / No voltage protection

http://web2.automationdirect.com/adc/Overview/Catalog/Motor_Controls/Fuji_Manual_Motor_Starters
COMPONENTS

C. Motor Starter

No Voltage Release
This term means that the motor will stop when there is a supply
failure, and the motor will restart automatically when the supply
is restored.

No / Low Voltage Protection


This terms means that the motor will stop when there is a supply
failure, and the motor will NOT restart automatically when the
supply is restored.
COMPONENTS

C. Motor Starter
Manual Motor Switches are available in two or three-pole
configurations rated at 30A. An optional NEMA 1 aluminum
enclosure is supplied with a padlock guard for locking in the OFF or
STOP position.

Application Description
Manual Motor Switches provide manual control of single- and
three-phase motors where overload protection is not required or
provided separately.
Applications include: Machine Tools Features
• Fans • Compact size
• Blowers • Easy installation
• Pumps • Simple operation
• Wood Working Equipment • NEMA 1 enclosure
http://www.eaton.com/EatonCom/Markets/Electrical/Products/MotorControl/ManualMotorControl/Man
ualControl/index.htm?ssSourceNodeId=4397&ssSourceSiteId=EatonCom
COMPONENTS

C. Motor Starter
2. Automatic / Manual Starter
Control device

Types of Control Device


With selector
Float switch
Settings
Hand Timers
Off
Automatic Other control devices
(Pressure, optical
etc)
COMPONENTS

D. Magnetic Starter

A contactor is an electro-
magnetic switching device (a
relay) used for remotely
switching a power or control
circuit.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contactor
COMPONENTS

D. Magnetic Starter
Components Diagram
COMPONENTS

D. Magnetic Starter
COMPONENTS

Coil Contacts
D. Magnetic Starter
Parts and Components

Main Contacts

Coil

Image from www.allaboutcircuits.com

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contactor
COMPONENTS

D. Magnetic Starter

A contactor is activated by a control input which is a lower


voltage / current than that which the contactor is switching.

Contactors come in many forms with varying capacities


and features.

Contactors are not intended to interrupt a short circuit


current.

Contactors are used to control electric motors, lighting,


heating, capacitor banks, and other electrical loads.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contactor
COMPONENTS

E. Over Current Protective Device


1. Fuse (short for fusible link)

Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when


too much current flows, which breaks the circuit in which it is
connected, thus protecting the circuit's other components from
damage due to excessive current.

2. Circuit Breaker

Is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect


an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short
circuit.
Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced,
a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically)
to resume normal operation.
COMPONENTS

E. Over Current Protective Device


3. Thermal Overload Relay
Thermal overload relay is a bimetallic
device made up of two strips of different
metals.
The dissimilar metals in these thermal
overload relays are permanently joined.
Heating the bimetallic strip causes it to
bend because the dissimilar metals
expand and contract at different rates.
The thermal bimetallic overload relay strips applies tension to a
spring on a contact. If heat begins to rise, the strip bends and the
spring pulls the contacts apart, breaking the circuit.
http://www.skyuindia.com/relay.html
COMPONENTS

E. Over Current Protective Device


3. Thermal Overload Relay
Important performance characteristics to consider when
searching for thermal bimetallic overload relays include full
current load range, trip class, and temperature trip range.
The adjustable current value allows the thermal overload relays
to be set to the full-load current shown on the motor rating plate.
This is the current range of the thermal component that can be
adjusted to the desired trip point.

http://www.skyuindia.com/relay.html
COMPONENTS

E. Over Current Protective Device


3. Thermal Overload Relay
The trip class is the maximum time in seconds at which the
thermal overload relays will trip when the carrying current is at
600% of its current rating.
Other important specifications to consider when searching for
thermal overload relays include motor load phase, motor
voltage, control circuit voltage, contact or output ratings, pole
specifications and environmental operating parameters.
The motor load phase can be single-phase protection or three
phase protection.

http://www.skyuindia.com/relay.html
COMPONENTS

F. Control Transformers
Step down control transformers are installed when the control
circuit components are not rated for line voltage.

The primary side of the


control transformer will
be line voltage.
while the secondary
voltage will be the for
the required voltage of
the control components.
COMPONENTS

G. Zero Speed Switch

Also known as plugging switch or anti-


plugging switch.
The zero speed switch is coupled to a
moving shaft on the machinery whose motor
is to be plugged.

As the zero speed switch rotates,


centrifugal force or magnetic clutch
causes the contacts to open or close.
COMPONENTS

H. Zero Speed Switch


Mounting Symbol

a b c
Plugging Plugging Anti -
one two Plugging
direction direction
COMPONENTS

I. Others
1. Pilot lights
Pilot lights provide visual indication of the status of the operated
machines.
They are also used for many motor control processes permitting
personnel at remote locations to observe the current state of the
operation.

Some pilot lamps are


install in PB switches.
COMPONENTS

G. Others
2. Mechanical interlocks
Interlocks can serve two purposes:
One is to simultaneous operation of certain equipment, such
as disconnects, switches, contacts and breakers.

Toggles of 3,
1-ph circuit
breakers
interlocked.
Circuit diagram of
disconnect switches
interlocked.
COMPONENTS

G. Others
2. Mechanical interlocks
Another is to prevent it. Mechanical “walking beam” type
interlocks are generally used by
attaching a moving bar to adjacent
switches or circuit breakers in a
panel board or switchboard
enclosure.
The bar shifts when one switch or
circuit breaker is closed to
mechanically prevent the second
switch or circuit breaker from being
able to close.
Photo and discussion courtesy of:
http://www.iaei.org/magazine/2009/07/transfer-equipment-used-in-optional-standby-systems-for-
commercial-applications-part-ii-transfer-equipment-options/
COMPONENTS

G. Others
2. Mechanical interlocks
COMPONENTS

Basic Symbols

Single pole switch Normally open contact

Three-pole switch Normally closed contact


(with interlock)

Fuse Pilot lamp

Three-pole Circuit Breaker


Normally open PB
(with interlock)

Thermal Overload Relay Normally closed PB

Coil
COMPONENTS

References
Electric Motors and Control Systems
Frank D. Petruzella

http://www.iaei.org/magazine/2009/07/transfer-equipment-used-in-optional-standby-
systems-for-commercial-applications-part-ii-transfer-equipment-options/

http://all-about-automation.blogspot.com/

http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/worksheets/time-delay-electromechanical-relays/
END