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• Robert Potvin, CISSP & CBCP

• 15 years of IT Security Experience

• Senior Consultant of Above Security

• Operations in Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto and Bahamas working

with 160 customers in 11 countries

Confidential Document 1
ISO-17799 Overview
• BS7799 was created in 1999 as a two part document (standard +
certification scheme) by the British Standards Institution (BSI)

• The standard portion was adopted and converted into an ISO standard in

• The certification scheme portions is still a BSI only standard and it’s latest
revision is dated 2002

• Many worldwide governments policies, standards, guidelines and best

practices are based, inspired or in compliance with ISO17799:2000 &
BS7799-2:2002 and some of them don’t even know it 

• There is a general misconception that it is not a complete standard

because it lacks implementation guidelines

• Since it was built by a standard organization (BSI), the implementation

guidelines where intentionally left out of the document and regroup into
other specific standards and “security techniques” (i.e.: ISO13335,

Confidential Document 2
ISO-17799:2000 Overview
• 127 controls distributed within 10 categories
- Information security policy
- Organizational security
- Asset classification and control
- Personnel security
- Physical & environmental security
- Communication & operations management
- Access control
- System development & maintenance
- Business continuity management
- Compliance

• Uses a Plan/Do/Check/Act implementation and operation model that starts

with a risk assessment to established the required security controls
needed to adequately manage information security risks within the
business processes

• Used in conjunction with BS7799, it also establish documentation,

revision, communication, training, auditing and continuous improvement
Confidential Document 3
ISO-17799 Overview
• Complementary standards and guidelines where inspired by ISO17799,
design to or supports the implementation of ISO17799:
- AS/NSZ-4360:2004, Risk Management Guidelines
- HB-231:2004, Information Security Risk Management Guidelines
- ISO-19011:1996, Guidelines for Management System Auditing
- PAS56:2003, Guide to Business Continuity Management
- ISO/TR-18044:2004, Information Security Incident Management
- ISO-GMITS:1996/2001 (Guidelines for the Management of IT Security):
• ISO/TR-13335/1:1996, Concepts and Model for IT Security
• ISO/TR-13335/2:1997, Planning IT Security
• ISO/TR-13335/3:1998, Management of IT Security
• ISO/TR-13335/4:2000, Selection of safeguards
• ISO/TR-13335/5:2001, Management guidance on network security

• CoBIT control objectives are fully mapped to support ISO17799

• ITIL is especially efficient for ‘Communication & Operations Management’

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What’s new in ISO-17799:2005 ?
• Risk management where addressed only in part 2 document, the part 1 now
includes a new chapter on ‘Risk Assessment and Treatment’ requirements

• ‘Asset classification and control’ evolve into a more holistic ‘Asset

management’ approach

• ‘Personnel Security’ evolve into ‘Human resources security’ which now

emphasis on what’s needed before, during and on termination of employment

• ‘Communication and operations management’ now includes service delivery

management of 3rd parties (i.e.: outsourcer performance and security
obligation monitoring)

• Introduction of ‘Technical Vulnerability Management’

• Incident management controls that where spread all around the previous
version of the standard are now consolidated within a new chapter titled
‘Information Security Incident Management’

• In short: 2 new control families, a new total of 135 controls, over 80 changes
within the existing controls (deletion/addition/modification)
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Defining Information System

Information System

(Web, SAP, PeopleSoft…)

Application Servers
(IIS, SQL, WebSphere, Oracle…)
Users Customers
Operating Systems
(Win2K, XP, Unix, OS/400…)

(TCP/IP, FW, Router, Switch)

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Defining Information Security

• Assets oriented Information Security:

- Protecting Confidentiality
- Insuring Integrity
- Preserving Availability
- Addressing Compliancy
- Augmenting Reliability

• Business oriented information security:

- Managing risk
- Insuring business continuity
- Protecting corporate image
- Protecting shareholders’ value

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Defining Information Security

• From Technology Protection to People and Process:

• False sense of protection…..

- Firewalls
- VPNs
- Applications
- Wireless

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Copyright 2004 - Above Security
Problems with Firewalls

- A Firewall filters available services from your
company incoming from and outgoing to the

- Will not prevent hackers from interacting with your
- Often badly configured incoming and outgoing.
- Logging is often poorly configured.
- Who checks the Logs ?

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Problems with VPN

- Virtual Private Network.
- Remote access system.
- Replacing traditional dial-up modem pools on the
- Inexpensive to attack.
- Often available for Whoever, Whenever, Wherever.
- Few companies use strong authentication.
- Once inside, there is no limited field of action to

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Problems with IDS

- Intrusion Detection System
- False positives, false negatives.
- Limited load capacity
- Correlation of event is painful.
- Companies often only use the network IDS.
- 24x7 monitoring is required.
- Incident handling and response procedure often
- IDS are only alarm systems – useless without
monitoring and a central police force.

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Problems with Applications

- Privileges:
• Web server volume and client-server
applications with plenty of privileges.

- Developers Inexperience:
• Often no security training.
• Insufficient controls and logs to protect

- Validation:
• Insufficient validation in data entry and data
– Important information leakages.

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Problems with Wireless

- Only 25% of companies use the WEP.
- Give an unwatched access to the internal network.

•Bad Architecture (Direct access to internal network)

- Jamaica – New Kingston.
• More than 80 access points were discovered.
• 80% did not use the WEP.
- Montreal (in 2 hours)
• More than 200 access points discovered.
• 85% did not use the WEP.

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How to diagnose? Penetration Testing

•Formal and structured attack simulation against your


•An attack that will try to use any privileges and

information available to both legitimate and non
legitimate users to gain access to confidential

•An approach that will try to exploit every weaknesses

of your systems both internal, external, application
and physical

•A formalized operation that will outline what are your

exposure to attacks and how complex conducting
those attack might be
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Copyright 2004 - Above Security
Penetration testing steps

Five step to successful penetration

1. Gaining knowledge about the victim, it’s
network, services and applications
2. Scanning the overall infrastructure for
potential vulnerabilities that might be present
at the various layers
3. Exploit the security breaches to gain access
to your systems that might enable us to go
further in your network
4. Implement backdoor to preserve the access
5. Erase the traces

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Example of successful hack

• Being able to gain access to confidential customer


• Being able to access medical information of

patient on an hospital network

• Being able to create a bank account and conduct

fraudulent financial transaction

• Being able to hack the wireless network and gain

full access to the internal network

• Being able to hack the backup server and access

confidential information that where not under
access control like on the rest of the network
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Example of successful hack

• Being able to take control of the corporation

central database server

• Being able to control the SCADA infrastructure for

lighting, gaz and water treatment facilities

• Being able to steal intellectual property and

application source code

• Being able to control the security camera systems

• And the list can goes on forever…

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What are we left with ?

•Information Security Challenges:

- Providing universal access to data and systems
- Establishing the right value to assets
- Identifying system weaknesses
- Efficiently monitoring the assets
- Building a corporate culture
- Reaching the right balance between risk,
exposure, usability, protection and investments

But how ?

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Security Governance

•Governance is: doing things the way they should be

done to protect the business, the employee and
shareholders value

•Risks and threats are real and could have significant

impact on your business

•Information security is the responsibility of the

board; members should sign off the policy

•Information assets possess value; proper protection

should therefore be in place

•Information security is not free; like any investment,

it should be properly managed

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Security Governance

•Information security governance should deliver:

- Strategic alignment: orientations are driven by business
requirements, not technology, and should impact
productivity as little as possible

- Direction: a standard set of practices coupled with proper

effort distribution, keeping focus on areas with the greatest
impact and business benefits

- Risk management: a list of risks we agree to live with, a

proper understanding of risk exposure and a sufficient
awareness of management priorities

- Measurement: a defines set of metrics to independently

obtain assurance on measurable processes and investment

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Information security recipe

1. Implement information security policies

2. Risk Assessment

3. Develop a business continuity strategy

4. Configure proper network and system auditing

5. Deploy log centralization and analysis

6. Insure intrusion detection at all layers

7. Segment your network and reinforce access control

8. Manage your vulnerabilities

9. Conduct system security monitoring,

10. Get independent compliance audit and penetration testing

11. Security Awareness and Training

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Ingredient #1

•Information Security Policies:

- It is a management statement that information
security is important

- It provide direction by establishing a set of clearly-

articulated business rules to help people make
decision when using or managing information assets

- It is uniquely tailored to your organization

requirements and business processes

- It is a standard of due care that needs to be

implemented no matter what industry your
organization belongs

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Information Security Policies

It should minimally contain the following:

1. Organizational security
2. Asset classification and control
3. Users, operators and management roles and
4. System usage guidelines
5. Physical and environmental security
6. Communication and operations management
7. Access control
8. Systems development and maintenance
9. Business continuity
10. Compliance and measurement

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Ingredient #2

•Risk Management:

- Information security is not about technology, it’s

about managing risk
- A vulnerability is a breach within a system
(reliance on electricity, security hole, lack of
control, physical exposure…)
- A threat is the actual event that can exploit a
vulnerability (virus, electrical storm, hurricane…)
- A risk is the result of the combination of
vulnerability and threat (outage = power failure
cause by storm)

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Risk Management

Asset Value Asset Value

Risk =
Volume of cube

Threat Threat

Vulnerability Vulnerability

Actual Risk Residual Risk

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Ingredient #3

•Business Continuity:
- BC is the ability to maintain a constant
availability of processes and information
- DR is the immediate and temporary restoration of
computing and network operation within a
defined timeframe after a disaster occurs
- Advanced planning and preparations are
necessary to identify impact and potential losses
and to establish a step by step approach to
business resumption
- A plan is not a static document, it is a living
strategy and an evolving process

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Cost of Downtimes

Know your downtime

Productivity costs per hour, Revenue
day, two days ... • Direct loss
• Number of
employees affected • Compensatory
x hours out x payments
burdened hourly rate • Future revenue losses
• Billing losses
Damaged Reputation • Investment
Financial losses
• Customers • Revenue recognition
• Suppliers • Cash flow
• Financial markets • Lost discounts (A/P)
• Banks Other Expenses • Payment guarantees
• Business partners • Temporary employees • Credit rating
• ... • Equipment rental • Stock price
• Overtime costs
• Extra shipping costs • …
• Travel expenses
• Legal obligations
... Source: Gartner Group 2003
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Ingredient #4

•Network Security Monitoring:

- Technical equivalent to security governance

- Corporation tends to neglect an holistic approach
when protecting corporate assets
- Corporation normally focus solely on perimeter
- Defense in depth the best risk mitigation approach
- In brief, it is the combination of hardware,
software, people and processes to monitor and
respond to security incident

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Components to monitor

Server logs
Vulnerability Firewall &
Management VPN Logs

Network Router &

IDS Switches Log
Components to
be monitored
Host based Application
IDS logs

Application Policy
Based IDS Compliance

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Steps for proper monitoring

Centralization and
Alert Normalization
Information Collection standardization of the

Event Correlation Event Prioritization Information

Process Process Presentation Process

Incident Handling


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The MMI Infrastructure

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Platforms to support

• Operating Systems: NT, 2000, 2003/XP, AIX, Solaris, HP, Linux,

BSD, OS/400

• Networking: Cisco, Nortel, 3COM

• Firewall/VPN: MS ISA, Checkpoint, Cisco, Netscreen,

Watchguard, Symantec

• IDS: Snort, Cisco, ISS, Enterasys, Tripwire, NFR, NAI, Symantec

• PKI/Strong authentication: RSA, Entrust, Microsoft

• Application servers: MS SQL, IIS, MS Exchange, Lotus Notes,

Websphere, Oracle

• Application: Greatplains, Peoplesoft, SAP, Custom Web Based

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• Attack monitoring at all layers (network, server, application)

• Vulnerability management/change management for complex


• Early warning system for potentially disastrous virus,

vulnerability, worms…

• Pure event correlation (cause to effect analysis)

• Centralization, data reduction and analysis of your server logs

• 24x7 monitoring by highly trained personnel

• Remote real time intervention

• Flexible real time escalation for sensible events

• Forensic
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Ingredient #5

•Compliance Audit and Testing:

-Last Step (confirm posture)

- First Step (Business Case)

- Solid Methodology (not a sales pitch document !)

- What to look for :

• External infrastructure
• External application interfaces
• Internal Intrusion
• Internal vulnerabilities
• Wireless
• Social engineering
• War Dialing
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Ingredient #6

•Security Awareness and training:

linked to business drivers
Regulations, obligations and risks

- IT
Very technical
Incident analysis
Build a training plan

- End-Users
Real world examples
Link to their daily activities

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Copyright 2004 - Above Security
Thanks for attending !


Please visit us at our booth !

Web: www.abovesecurity.com
E-mail: info@abovesecurity.com
HQ Phone: (450) 430-8166

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