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Submitted by : DEEPAK KUMAR

3rd YEAR
Types Of Technologies

 1G
 2G
 3G
1G Technology
 Refers to the first-generation of wired
and wireless telephone technology.

 Analog signals are used and

introduced in the early 1980’s.

 Average rate between 4800 to 9600


 Based on FDMA.
2G Technology
 Was launched in FINLAND in the year 1991.

 2G networks use digital signals.

 Enabled services such as text messages

,picture messages and MMS.

 Is based on GSM ( global system for mobile

3G Technology
 The 3G technology adds multimedia facilities to 2G
phones by allowing video, audio and graphics
applications. Over 3G phones, you can watch
streaming video

 The idea behind 3G is to have a single network


 3G promises increased bandwidth, up to 384 kbps

when the device holder is walking,128 kbps in a car
and 2mbps in fixed applications.
Defined by high-speed data rates.

In 4G the download speed is up to 100mbps for moving

users and 1 Gbps for stationary users.

Will allow users to download a full-length feature film

within five minutes.

4G is adoption of packet switching in voice and video

Technologies Used in 4G
 Smart antennas for multiple-input and multiple-output

 IPv6.

 VoIP.


 Software Defined Radio (SDR) System.

IPv6 Technology
 In the context of 4G, IPv6 support is essential in order to
support a large number of wireless-enabled devices.

 By increasing the number of IP addresses, IPv6 removes

the need for Network Address Translation(NAT).

 IPv6 also enables a number of applications with better

multicast, security, and route optimization capabilities.
 The IP address is based on IPv6.

 IPv4 : X.X.X.X. (32 bits)


 IPv6 : 4 x IPv6 (128 bits)

example : , , ,

Home Care-of Mobile IP Local network

address address address address
VoIP Technology
“ Voice Over Internet Protocol”
 Allows only packets (IP) to be transferred eliminating complexity of 2
protocols over the same circuit.

 All voice data will be wrapped up in a packet

-Lower latency data transmission ( faster transmission)

 Samples voice between 8,000 & 64,000 times per second and creates
stream of bits which is then compressed and put into a packet.
 Example :

10011101101 IP (10011101101)
OFDM Technology
“Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing”
 Allows for transfer of more data than other forms of multiplexing (time, frequency, code).

 Simplifies the design of the transmitter & receiver.

 Allows for use of almost the entire frequency band

-No gaps to prevent interference needed.

 Currently used in Wi-Fi(8o2.11a/g).

 The frequency are spaced so that the signals do not interfere with each other (no cross

 Parallel Data Transmission

- Allows for the sending of multiple signals simultaneously from the same antenna
(or wire) to one device.
Software-Defined Radio (SDR) Technology

 SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA).

 It refers to wireless communication in which the transmitter

modulation defined or generated by a computer as well as the
receiver uses a computer to recover the signal intelligence

 To select the desired modulation type ,the proper programs run

by these computers that controls the transmitter and the
Features of 4G

Support for
multimedia, Better
High speed,
voice, scheduling An all IP,
Fully IP based high Better
streaming and call- packet
mobile capacity and spectral
video, admission- switched
system. low cost per efficiency.
internet and control network.
other techniques.
Applications Of 4G
 Better usage of multimedia applications.

 4G system gives mobile users a virtual presence i.e. video conferencing.

 Tele-geoprocessing : Queries dependent on location information of several users, in

addition to temporal aspects have many aspects have many applications like GIS, GPS.

 Virtual navigation : A remote database contains the graphical representation of streets,

buildings and physical characteristics of a large metropolis. Blocks of this database are
transmitted in rapid sequence to a vehicle.

 4G in normal life :
1) Traffic control,
2) Mobile phones,
3) Sensor on public vehicle.
Advantages of 4G
Affordable communication services.

High speed, high capacity and low cost per bit.

Support for interactive multimedia, voice, streaming video, internet and

other broadband services.

Global access, service portability and mobile services and variety of

quality of services provided.

Better spectral efficiency.

Seamless network of multiple protocol and air interfaces.

 Battery usage is more.

 Hard to implement.

 Need complicated hardware.

 The equipment required to implement a next generation network is still very


 Consumer is forced to buy a new device to support the 4G.

 New frequencies means new components in cell towers.

Future prospect of 4G
 4G is coming quicker.

 Fast internet access to both stationery and moving mobile users.

 4G can be efficiently combined with cellular technologies to make

consistent use of smart phones and also create video blogs(vlogs).

 4G is capable of providing new horizon of opportunity for both existing and

startup telephone companies.

 This gives the manufactures the opportunity to produce more affordable user
friendly 4G compatible devices.