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LS2100

Static Start System

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Course Objectives

1) Describe what the LCI is used for:

2) Use a 1 line drawing to identify the major components in the LCI

3) Describe how the LCI changes the speed of the generator/motor

4) Explain why the de-ionized water is used in the LCI

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What is the purpose of the LCI?

Use the Generator as a Motor


to drive the turbine to self sustaining speed

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Major Equipment

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LCI Input
Transfomer
6600V INPUT

4160 V T.DIVAKAR
 All LCI’s have a separate transformer to supply
power. one of the safety concerns while working
on the LCI is to remove the incoming power.

 The transformer has one primary and two secondary


windings. The benefit of using two secondary
windings is to reduce the harmonics created by the
LCI. Harmonic frequencies cause damage to the
generator rotor. The two transformer secondaries
feed two SCR bridges

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LS2100 Bridge Electrical Diagram
DC LINK REACTOR

LL1A LL3A LL5A (5) LL4L LL6L LL2L (12) SRC SNUBBER CKT, EA SCR:
RE1 RE2
1T1A 3T1A 5T1A

4T2L 6T2L 2T2L


RS CS1 CS2
L1A
2080 VAC
60 HZ
FROM DELTA L2A
WINDING SCR
4T1L 6T1L 2T1L
L3A

4T1A 6T1A 2T1A


LOAD SNUBBER CKT, EA SCR:
RE
LL4A LL6A LL2A (5) M1
TO STATOR
ISOLATION
M2 SWITCH
RS CS
LL1B LL3B LL5B (5)
M3

SCR
1T1B 3T1B 5T1B

1T1L 3T1L 5T1L


L1B
2080 VAC
60 HZ
FROM WYE L2B
WINDING
1T2L 3T2L 5T2L
L3B

4T1B 6T1B 2T1B

LL4B LL6B LL2B (5) LL1L LL3L LL5L (12)


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A snubber is a simple electrical circuit
Snubbers are frequently used with an inductive
load where the sudden interruption of current
flow would lead to a sharp rise in voltage
across the device creating the interruption.
This sharp rise in voltage might lead to a
transient or permanent failure of the
controlling device.

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Source A Bridge
LCI Input Transformer
+
2080
_

6600 +
2080
_

Source B Bridge

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The input to the bridges is an AC voltage. What
is the output AC or DC? (DC)

 Notice the + and – signs. The two SCR bridge


output the same magnitude of DC voltage. The DC
voltages are added together, similar to adding 2
batteries. This is the voltage that will be applied to
the generator(motor) stator
 The picture shows two rows of 18 SCR’s. The top
row is the Source A bridge and the bottom row is
Source B bridge. there are 3 SCR’s in series where as
the inverter had 4.

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Source A Bridge
LCI Input Transformer

2080

4160

2080

Source B Bridge DC Link


Reactor
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What is the Purpose of DC link reactor?

1) The purpose of the DC link reactor is to


store a huge magnetic field. The huge
magnetic field will provide a big current
source so that there will be a continuous
current flow into the generator windings.

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Source A Bridge
LCI Input Transformer “Inverter” Load Bridge

2080

4160

2080

Source B Bridge DC Link


Reactor
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What is the voltage input to the Inverter, AC or DC?
(DC)

 The inverter was 24 SCR’s total, 6 groups of 4 SCR’s


to handle 4160 volts DC and still have an extra SCR
in each group of 4.

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Source A Bridge
LCI Input Transformer “Inverter” Load Bridge

2080

4160
89SS

2080

Source B Bridge DC Link


Reactor
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 All LCI configurations are different. Some LCI’s only start 1
unit, some can start multiple units and some plants have 2
LCI’s that can start any unit
 This configuration is the most basic. Each generator has a
switch called 89SS.
 Usually this switch is mounted in the Generator Terminal
Enclosure on top of the 9FA generator
 This switch, 89SS, connects the LCI output to the leads of
the generator
 When does this switch close and open? (Closes at turning
gear speed when the LCI starts, opens when the unit reaches
90% speed)
 What tells this switch to open or close? (MarkVI commands)

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Source A Bridge 89ND
LCI Input Transformer “Inverter” Load Bridge

2080

4160
89SS

2080

Source B Bridge DC Link


Reactor
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 This switch is in the generator neutral to ground connection.
The switch is called 89ND, ND Neutral disconnect. The
switch opens when the LCI starts and closes at speeds higher
than 90%
 During LCI operation the switch is open. The switch opens
the ground circuit to the generator stator. The LCI control
has stator ground fault protection. If the ground circuit to
the generator were not open the LCI would detect the
ground and initiate a trip.

 Q) What controls the operation of 89SS? (Mark VI)


 Q) Where is 89ND? (up on top of the machine with 89SS)

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Source A Bridge 89ND
LCI Input Transformer “Inverter” Load Bridge

2080

6600
89SS

2080

LCI
Control
Source B Bridge DC Link
Reactor
Turbine
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Turbine control, what signals does the turbine
control provide during LCI operation?

 Open and close 89SS and 89ND


 Tells to the LCI how fast to turn the generator
 Run or start signal to LCI
 Make Torque signal , The turbine control always
applies this signal until the turbine control wants the
unit to coast down(690rpm to 345rpm) after purge
speed. Once the coast down period is over the Make
Torque signal is re applied.

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At what speed does the turbine become self
sustaining

 Approx.60 % speed (1800 rpm)

 The LCI output decreases rapidly after 60% speed until the LCI is
contributing no power. This occurs at 90%(2700rpm) speed when the LCI
turns off.

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Theory of Operation

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Theory of Operation
1) The LCI outputs power to the machine stator to create a
rotating magnetic field in the stator

2) The exciter magnetizes the machine rotor

3) The rotating stator magnet pulls the rotor

4) The speed of the stator magnet is adjustable and


determines the speed of the rotating parts

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Electromagnet

1) Switch closed, current


creates a magnet
flow __________________

2) Current flow in a stator winding will


create a magnet
________________in the stator iron

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LCI inverter with switches

C B

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 The output of the LCI uses SCR’s to switch DC current flow
to the Generator Stator windings.
 An analogy of a SCR is a switch. The switch is either open
or closed, same as the SCR being ON, switch closed or OFF,
switch open. The switches close in the sequence shown. At
anytime there are 2 switches closed.

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Switches 3 & 4 closed

C B

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1) In this view switches 4 and 3 are closed. DC
current flow is into phase A winding and out
of phase C winding. The current creates a
magnet in the machine stator iron. The poles
of the magnet are shown with the N and S
indicating North and South pole
2) Magnet created in the Stator. As the switches
closing sequence continues the magnet will
begin to rotate

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Switches 4 & 5 closed
Magnet rotated 60 degrees

C B

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 Switch closing sequence continues the magnet
in the stator Iron moves thus the faster you
close the switches the faster the magnet
moves. This is the magnet that will pull the
rotor to turn the turbine.

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Switches 5 & 6 Closed

C B

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Switches 6 & 1 Closed

C B

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Switches 2 & 3 Closed

C B

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Is the Exciter on
when the LCI Static Starter is on?

YES

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Exciter ON creates a Rotor
magnet

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LCI On – Exciter On
Red Stator coils indicate current flow
in 2 of 3 Stator Windings
creating a Stator magnet

Stator magnet pulls the rotor magnet

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LCI On – Exciter On

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LCI On – Exciter On

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LCI On – Exciter On

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 The 2 bottom stator coils in red represent the DC current
flowing in the coils.

 Note there are 2 magnets in the picture, One represents the


Stator magnet and one represents the rotor magnet.

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LCI Inverter

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Water Conductivity Monitor
& Local Interface

Source A Bridge 89ND


LCI Input Transformer “Inverter” Load Bridge

2080

4160
89SS

2080

LCI
Control
Source B Bridge DC Link
Reactor
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Cooling Water System

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PUMP PANEL

De-ionized cooling water used for thyristor cooling and for cooling RESISTORS
_________ that are part of the
AC incoming line filters to source A and B and the output filter ofT.DIVAKAR
the inverter
 1) The SCR picture shows 6 SCR’s. Between each SCR is a
hollow aluminum block De ionized or non conducting cooling
water flows in the block to absorb SCR generated heat. Water
flows in the top hose and out the bottom hoseCurrent flows
through the SCR and through the aluminum block etc. The
aluminum blocks are energized.
 2) The wires sticking out of the SCR’s are the control wires to
turn the SCR’s on

 3) The off-whitecolored thing around the SCR is a plastic


piece to be used to pull the SCR out if it needs to be replaced

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• Closed Loop system with
outdoor heat exchanger
PUMP PANEL

• De ionized water provides extremely


low electrical conductivity

• Cooling water conductivity is


continuously monitored

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RESERVOIR

REDUNDANT
PUMPS
DE-IONIZER

Temperature Regulator
80 degrees F

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1) Reservoir – Is vented at top, has level
switches for alarms and trips
2) Pumps – One pump on at one time. Operator
can select lead pump.
3) Regulating valve ports water to the outdoor
heat exchanger above 80F

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 On the door is a red screened conductivity
meter that displays the cooling water
conductivity in resistively in ohms.
Resistively less than 200Kohms is a trip, less
than 1Mohm is an alarm

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 The 480 VAC is used for the pump motors
 The 125VDC is control voltage
 480 for pumps
 The maximum AC voltage from the LCI transformers is
2080 + 2080 = 4160 vac

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What is the LCI used for?
A.) Provides excitation to the generator
B.) Control turbine firing.
C.) Drive the turbine to self sustaining speed.
D.) Provide additional generator power
E.) Reduce NOX emmisions

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What are the benefits of the LCI vs. electric motor ?
A.) One LCI can start multiple units.
B.) Shorter drive train.
C.) Less moving parts therefore less maintenance.
D.) All of the above

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The LCI changes the generator/motor speed by?

A.) Regulating the generator field


B.) Changing the voltage magnitude applied to the stator
C.) Changing the current magnitude applied to the stator
D.) Switching the rate and sequence of DC power applied to the
stator windings
E.) Applying a pulse width modulated waveform to the stator
windings

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What is the purpose of the LCI cooling water.

A.)Cool generator Stator


B.) Cool rotating components in the LCI
C.) Cool generator rotor
D.) Cool LCI control circuits
E.) Cool SCR’s

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Why is the cooling water de-ionized?.

A.) Cooling water is in contact with the conduction circuit


B.) Cooling water is in close contact with the conduction circuit
C.) All plant water is de-ionized
D.) Prevent water from freezing
E.) Accumulate ions for testing

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Which statement is most correct?

A.) The maximum AC voltage in the control cabinet is 480VAC


B.) The maximum DC voltage in the control cabinet is 125VDC
C.) The maximum AC voltage in the Pump Panel is 480VAC
D.) The maximum voltage behind the front and rear doors of the
Source and load bridges is 5600VDC.
E.) All of the above
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Where is this component located?
a. In the control core
b. In the thyristor cabinet
c. In the cooling water panel
d. Outside the Static Starter cabinet
e. On top of the generator
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The Static Starter is only used :

a) For emergency use only

b) After the turbine reaches 90% speed

c) When the Gas Turbine cannot start

d) For water wash only

e) For every Gas Turbine startup

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