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– Interjection are words that are used to express
spontaneous feeling such as pleasure, pain, surprise, and
– These words are usually followed by an exclamation
mark (!) such as Wonderful!, Ouch!, That hurts!, What!
really?, Ugh! Thank goodness you’re safe! And Wow!
Such a lovely dress!
Interjection Meaning Use

Aah Exclamation of fear Aah! The monster’s got me!

Ahh Realization or acceptance Ahh, now I see what you mean!

Aww Something sweet or cute Aww! Just look at that kitten.

Bingo! That’s exactly what we were

Bingo Acknowledge something as right
looking for!

Eh Question something So that was all she said, eh?

Eww Something disgusting Eww! That movie was so gory.

Hmph! I could do that for half the

Hmph To indicate displeasure
amount he charged.
interjection Meaning Use
Oh! it’s been around a week since I
Oh I see/ I think
saw her!
Oops! Sorry I didn’t see those
Oops Making a mistake
skates there.

Ouch Exclamation of pain Ouch, that hurt! Stop pinching me!

Shh An indication for silence Shh! The show is about to start.

Uh oh Showing dismay Uh oh! The teacher’s caught him.

Whew! I can’t believe we actually

Whew Amazement and/or relief
finished it all.

Wow Expressing surprise or admiration Wow! That’s really great news!

I can’t believe you’re actually

Yay/Yaay Congratulatory exclamation
coming here! Yaay!
– Determiners are words that precede the nouns
they determine.
– Three categories of determiners:
Central determiners
Post- determiners

Usually occur before the central determiners, when combined with them.
There are 4 classes of pre-determiners.
Class 1 pre-determiners that are used with plural count nouns or mass nouns
a) All
It is used with plural count nouns or mass nouns
Example: can you carry all these cans of drinks?
b) Both  it is used with plural count nouns only.
examples: Both of the girls are in the same class.
c) Half  it is used with singular or plural count nouns or mass
examples: half the apples you bought have been used to make apple pies.

Class 2  pre-determiners that are used with singular/plural count nouns/mass nouns, denoting
amount, degree, etc
a) Double
example: during the interview, he asked for double his present salary.
b) Once
example: they visit their sick neighbour once a day.
c) Twice
example: Mary works twice as hard as Tom.
d) Three
He jogs around the lake three times every morning.
Class 3 pre-determiners that are followed by central determiners and can be used with or with
out of.

a) One third
Eg: he finished his homework in one third (of) the time it took me.

b) Three quarters
Eg: I have completed three quarters of the sweater that I am knitting for my daughter.

Class 4 pre-determiners that occur before the indefinite article with singular count nouns and
without an article with plural count nouns/ mass nouns.

a) What
what a clever boy you are!
b) Such
The model had such elegance and beauty that she won the beauty contest.
Central Determiners

1.Determiners with singular/plural count nouns and mass count nouns.

a) Definite article the  it is used with nouns that name people/things that are known to the reader. It is
also used before a superlative.
eg: I have been arguing with the gardener.
b) Indefinite article a, an  It is used with singular common nouns when something or someone in
mentioned for the first time. When the thing or person in mentioned the second time, we use the definite
article the since we know which thing or person.
Eg: A man was injured in an accident near the station.

* Use an when the nouns begin with a, e, I, o, u and when words begin with the silent h such as phare an
hour or an honest man. Use a when the nouns begin with a consonant.
c) Possesive and the genitive.

my He took my book by mistake
our We had our dinner early
Your Don’t forget your umbrella
His His dog followed him out through the gate
her Her friend gave me a lift home
its The dog wagged its tail vigorously when its owner came before
their They lost their deposit when they failed to meet the deadline.
‘s I liked the child’s dancing.
d) Wh-determiners

whose Whose things are these?

Which(ever) I’ll go along with what you decide, whichever file you want to see.
What(ever) Whatever you do, you should always give your best.
Who(ever) Whoever arrives first should make the reservation for the whole

e) i. some (stressed)
eg: that was some speech that you made!
ii. Any (stressed)
eg: was any damage done?
f) No
eg: there is no one in the room.
2. Determiners with plural count nouns or mass nouns only.

a) Zero article
eg: they need our help
b) Some ( unstressed)
eg: I need some help with these boxes.
c) Any (unstressed)
eg: Is there any food left over.
d) Enough
eg: There isn’t enough rice to go round.

3. Determiners with singular count nouns or mass nouns only.

a) this
eg: this news is very interesting.
b) that
eg: I found that gossip very petty.
4.Determiners with singular count nouns only.
a) Every
eg: he came to school every day
b) Each
eg: each gift was beautifully wrapped.
c) Either
eg: you can have either this bag or that.
d) Neither
eg: neither option was good enough for us.

5. Determiners with plural count nouns only.

a) These
eg: These books are new.
b) Those
eg: are all those boxes to be stacked as well?

6. Determiners with mass nouns only.

a) Much
eg: there’s too much salt in the soup.

– Post determiners include the following:

1) Cardinal numbers ( one, two and three)
2) Ordinal numbers ( first, second, and third)
3) General ordinals ( next, last and other)
4) Quantifiers ( few, less, little and many)
1. Cardinal numbers ( one, two and three)

1. It functions as pronouns or as determiners
a) One can only do so much as one’s resources are limited. (pronoun)
b) I have one daughter and two sons. ( determiners)

2. Nought is the name for the numeral ‘O’ and his usually replace by negative determiner no or the
pronoun noun.
a) there were no survivors in the horrific accident. ( determiner)
b) None of the passengers survived the horrific accident. ( pronoun)
2. Ordinal numbers( first, second, and third)

1. It occurs only with count nouns
a)she was the first woman to cross the finishing line in the race.

2. Its usually precedes any cardinal numbers in the noun phrase.

the first three winners in the art competition come from Kota Kinabalu
3. General ordinal( next, last and other)

It can either precede or follow the ordinal numerals. It occurs with plural
examples :
There were three other passengers in the bus when I boarded it.

4. Quantifiers ( few, less, little and many)

1. there are fewer women than men.
2. there is little evidence that he was involved in the kidnapping.
3. I’d like to spend more time with my friend.
4. Lots of plant were purchased and planted along the roadsides.
5. The recipe required only a small amount of oil for cooking.