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# Statistics 3: Normal Distribution

## Pearson: Chapter 15.3 p541 – 555

Homework: Exercise 15.3 p553
Q1, 2, 6, 10, 12, 13 (15 – 17)
Haese & Harris: Chapter 24 p629 – 648
Homework: Ex 24B p637 Q3 - 6
Ex 24D.1 p645 Q7,9; Ex 24D.2 p646 Q1, 7
Normal Distribution
• A normal distribution is a “bell-shaped” symmetrical
histogram.

## • A normal distribution describes many naturally occurring

variables such as height of people, weights of animals, and
leaf surface area in plants.
• Normal distributions are symmetrical about the mean; and
the mean = mode = median.

## • There are many different normal distributions – each

defined by its own mean and standard deviation.

## The mean is the centre of the distribution and

the standard deviation describes the spread.

## • ~ 68% of all values are within ∓ 1 standard deviation from the

mean.
• Almost all values are within ∓ 3 standard deviations of the
mean
Normal Distribution Curves

## • _____ = variance which is (standard deviation)2

• m and s are called the parameters of the distribution as they are the only values
needed to describe it fully.

## • The green curve is X1~ N(5, 22), the red curve is

X2~ N(10, 22) and the blue curve is X1~ N(15, 22)

## • The green curve is X1~ N(5, 12), the red curve is

X2~ N(5, 22) and the blue curve is X1~ N(5, 32)

## • The area under the curve is always = 1.

• So normal distributions can be used to find the probability of a value of the random
variable X, by finding the area under the curve.
Standard Normal Distribution
• m = 0 and s = 1
• The random variable (x-axis) = Z
• z-values are how many standard deviations
away from the mean any value is.

## • The shaded area represents the proportion of values for which

z < 1.2
= the probability that a randomly chosen value of z will
have a value of 1.2 or less. This is written as P(Z < 1.2)
1.2 z

Using the GDC: (see “Distributions & GDC” on Moodle for more help with Ti84 and TiNspire)
Finding Probability (area):
Press 2ND VARS (dist) and then 2:Normal cdf; Note:
Enter values: We never use Normal pdf
lower: -1E99 (-1 x1099) “E” = 2ND , (EE)
upper: 1.2 The GDC can calculate area BOTH to the left and right (+ ∞ = 9E99)
𝜇: 0
𝜎:1 and then click Paste & ENTER (twice) Always sketch a distribution as part of your answer
Standard Normal Distribution
Examples: 1. For the standard normal variable Z, find:
a) p(Z < 1) b) p(Z < 0.03)

## 2. For the standard normal variable Z, find:

a) p(Z > 1. 7) b) p(Z < - 0.88) c) p(Z > -1.53)

## 3. For the standard normal variable Z, find:

a) p(1.7 < Z < 2.5) b) p(-1.12 < Z < 0.67) c) p(-2.45 < Z < -0.08)
Inverse Normal Distribution
• If you are given the probability and need to find the cut-off value (z-value) you need to use
inverse normal. (Going in the opposite direction).

• Use the inverse normal feature on your calculator (found in the same menu as Normal Cdf)

## *Key points to remember*

 Area must always be given as area “to the left of” the given boundary (as a decimal, not a %)
 If Area is given to the right of a boundary, this value must be subtracted from 1

 the Area left of the boundary is NOT the Z-Value – you use the Area and the “inverse normal”
feature of the calculator to find the corresponding Z-value for that amount of accumulated area.

1. Find the values of a in each of these statements that refer to the standard normal variable, z:
a) p(Z < a) = 0.5478 b) p(Z > a) = 0.6 c) p(Z < a) = 0.05
Non-Standard Normal Distribution
• Most real-life distributions have a mean ≠ 0 and a standard variation ≠ 1.
• The x-axis of these distributions have an x score (instead of a z score).
• Probability calculations are performed in the GDC in the same way, by entering the values for 𝜇 and 𝜎.

## 4. X is a normal random variable with mean = 80 and variance = 16.

Find: a) p(X ≤ 78) b) p(76 ≤ X ≤ 84) c) p(X ≥ 86)

5. The weight, W, of bags of rice follows a normal distribution with mean 1000g and standard deviation 4g.
a) Find the probability that a bag of rice chosen at random weighs between 990g and 1004g.

## 95% of the bags of rice weigh less than k grams.

b) Find the value of k.

For a bag of rice chosen at random, P(1000 – a < W < 1000 + a) = 0.9
c) Find the value of a.
Non-Standard Normal Distribution
2. A university professor determines that 80% of this year’s History candidates should pass the final examination.
The examination results are expected to be normally distributed with mean 62 and standard deviation 13.

## Find the lowest score necessary to pass the examination.

3. The students of Class 2017 sat a physics test. From the results, the average score was 46 with a standard
deviation of 25. The teacher decided to award an A to the top 7% of the students in the class. Assuming the
scores were normally distributed, find the lowest score that a student must obtain in order to achieve an A.
Using Z-scores to find 𝜇 or 𝜎
• If either the standard deviation or the mean is not given, you can’t use the GDC directly to solve
a question.
• Use the area (probability) given to find the z-score (or “standardized value”) on a standard
normal curve.
• Then convert the z-score into a x-score and solve for the missing value using the formula given:

• If neither standard deviation or mean is given, you make 2 linear equations & solve in the GDC.
Using Z-scores to find 𝜇 or 𝜎
4. The lifetime of a particular make of mobile phone is normally distributed with a mean of 8 years and a standard
deviation of σ years. The chances that the phone will not last 5 years is 0.05. What is the value of the standard
deviation?

5. The weight of a population of men is found to be normally distributed with mean 69.5 kg. 13% of the men
weigh at least 72.1 kg, find the standard deviation of their weight.
Using Z-scores to find 𝜇 or 𝜎
4. Find the mean and the standard deviation of a normally distributed random variable X, if P(x ≥ 50) = 0.2
and P(x ≤ 20) = 0.3
IB question
The weights of fish in a lake are normally distributed with a mean of 760 g and standard deviation 𝜎. It is known that
78.87% of the fish have weights between 705 g and 815 g.
a) (i) Write down the probability that a fish weighs more than 760 g.
(ii) Find the probability that a fish weighs less than 815 g.

## b) (i) Write down the standardized value for 815 g.

(ii) Hence, or otherwise, find 𝜎.

A fishing contest takes place in the lake. Small fish, called tiddlers, are thrown back into the lake. The maximum
weight of a tiddler is 1.5 standard deviations below the mean.

## d) A fish is caught at random. Find the probability that it is a tiddler.

e) 25% of the fish in the lake are salmon. 10% of the salmon are tiddlers. Given that a fish caught at
random is a tiddler, find the probability that is a salmon.