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What is Geography?

Geography is a representation of the whole known

world together with the phenomena which are
contained therein.
Ptolemy, Geographia 2nd Century A.D.

Geography is the science of place. Its vision is grand,

its view panoramic. It sweeps the surface of the Earth,
charting the physical, organic and cultural terrain, their
areal differentiation, and their ecological dynamics with
humankind. Its foremost tool is the map.
Leonard Krishtalka, Carnegie Museum of Natural
History, 20th Century A.D.
What is Geography?
Geography is the study of WHAT
Five “Key Spatial Themes” of

1. Location – specific location, where?

2. Place – unique properties of a place
3. Movement – diffusion, communications
4. Region – an area’s uniform characteristics
5. Human-Earth Relationships –
human interaction with an environment
What is Physical Geography?
Geography is a bridge between the natural and social sciences.
Geography is a holistic and synthesizing science.

Physical Geography
Natural Science Human Geography
Rocks and Minerals Population
Landforms Settlements
Soils Economic Activities
Animals Transportation
Plants Recreational Activities
Water Religion
Atmosphere Political Systems
Rivers and Other Water Bodies Social Traditions
Environment Human Migration
Climate and Weather Agricultural Systems
GIS, GPS, Remote-Sensing, Cartography
Geography of Food
Food Place of Invention Current Production
coffee Ethiopia Tropics
oranges South Asia, India US, Mediterranean
pork China, South Asia Worldwide
wheat Near East US, Russia, Argentina
tea China Asia
oats Near East Temperate Climates
pepper South America S. America, Worldwide
Coffee Consumption (per capita)
#1 Norway: 10.7 kgs

#2 Finland: 10.1 kgs

#3 Denmark: 9.7 kgs

#4 Sweden: 7.8 kgs

#5 Netherlands: 7.1 kgs

#6 Switzerland: 7 kgs

#7 Germany: 5.7 kgs

#8 Austria: 5.5 kgs

#9 Belgium: 5 kgs

#10 France: 3.9 kgs

#11 Italy: 3.2 kgs

#12 United States: 3 kgs


Top Ten Coffee

First domesticated Growing
in Ethiopia, Countries
coffee has come to (Yellow)
be a major export
crop for colonial countries. In Uganda, 70-80% of export revenue is
generated by coffee. Many issues are raised by the continuation of
such colonial economics.
Fields of Physical Geography
Geomorphology - studies the various landforms on the
Earth's surface.

Pedology - is concerned with the study of soils and their

relationship to vegetation and farming.

Biogeography - is the science that investigates the spatial

relationships of plants and animals.

Climatology - studies the effects of weather on life and

examines the circulation of the atmosphere over longer
time spans.

Cartography - the art and science of making maps.

Cartography: The Art and
Science of Mapmaking (Click for more info)
Geographic Information Science (GIS)
GIS is "an organized collection of computer hardware, software,
geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture,
store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of
geographically referenced information."

Click on the map above to use the National Atlas of the United States.
La Conchita Landslide, January 2005
(click here for more info)

Aerial Photos
of GCC (click)

Fires in Southern California

Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/natural_hazards_v2.php3?img_id=11799
Geographic Information
Systems (GIS) – click for info
• Latest World Earthquakes Map
• National Atlas of the United States
Jobs in Geography
Aerial Photo Interpreter Facilities Planner Land Developer
Site Researcher Agricultural Extension Agent Forestry Technician
Land Economist Soil Conservationist Air/Water Quality Control Manager
Geographer Land-Use Analyst Surveyor
Cartographer Geographic Area Specialist Location Expert
Systems Analyst Cartography Compiler Geographic Attache'
Map Analyst Teacher Climatologist
Geographic Information Systems Map Curator/Librarian Traffic Manager
Coastal Zone Manager Geophysics Assistant Map Editor
Transportation Analyst Community Developer Hazardous Waste Planner
Market Research Analyst Transportation Manager Computer Mapper

Health Services Planner Natural Resources Spec. Travel Agent/Specialist

Computer Programmer Health Services Organization Manager Outdoor Guide
Urban/Regional Planner Demographer Hydrologist
Park Ranger Weather Forecaster Earth Scientist
Industrial Developer Peace Corp Volunteer Wildlife Manager
Ecologist Industrial Planner Property Manager
Writer/Author Editor Intelligence Agent
Public Utilities Specialist Zoning Investigator Env. Impact Analyst
International Business Rep Real Estate Agent/Broker/Appraiser Environmental Quality Specialist
International Investment Analyst Remote Sensing Analyst College/University Professor
Famous Geography Students

Prince William of Wales – Majored in

Geography at University of Saint
Andrews, Scotland
Michael Jordan – Majored in
Cultural Geography at
University of North Carolina,
Chapel Hill

Mother Teresa - Taught

Geography and History in
Calcutta for 15 Years Immanuel Kant – the famous
philosopher also taught
everything from geography to
physics and anthropology.
Fieldwork: Geographers as
Modern Explorers and Observers
Rarotonga, Cook Islands, 2002
Sequoia National Park,
Summer Field Class,
Baja, 1996
Rocky Mountain National Park,
Northern Baja Rest Stop, 1998
Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica, 2004
“Changes in Latitudes, Changes in Attitudes”
- Jimmy Buffet
Costa Rica, 2004
Big Sur, California, 2003
Milford Sound, New Zealand 2002
Franz Joseph Glacier, New Zealand, 2002
Honolua Bay, Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 2003
Sugar Cane Field, Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 2003
Physical Geography Student, Zion National Park, Utah, 2002
Hacienda Baru, Costa Rica, 2004
Nation, 2000
China, 2004
Cadiz Dunes, Mojave Desert,
GCC Baja California Field Station, 2008