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# ECE

## Engr. Marcelo V. Rivera

Electric flux density or electric displacement is a measure of
the strength of an electric field generated by a
free electric charge, corresponding to the number
of electric lines of force passing through a
given area.
𝐃 = 𝛆𝟎 𝐄
𝛹 = න 𝐃 ∙ 𝑑𝐒
𝑆
Where:
𝛹 – electric flux in C
𝐃 – electric flux density in C/m2
Due to a point charge:
𝑄 𝑟 − 𝑟′ 𝑸 𝒓 − 𝒓′
E= 3
, 𝐃= 𝟑
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 − 𝑟′ 𝟒𝝅 𝒓 − 𝒓′

## Due to the line charge:

𝜌𝐿 𝑑𝑙 𝝆𝑳 𝒅𝒍
𝐸=න 2
𝑎𝑅 , 𝐃=න 𝟐
𝒂𝑹
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑅 𝟒𝝅𝑹
Due to a surface charge:
𝜌𝑆 𝑑𝑆 𝝆𝑺 𝒅𝑺
E=න 2
𝑎𝑅 , 𝐃=න 𝟐
𝒂𝑹
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑅 𝟒𝝅𝑹
Due to the volume charge:
𝜌𝑣 𝑑𝑣 𝝆𝒗 𝒅𝒗
𝐸=න 2
𝑎𝑅 , 𝐃=න 𝟐
𝒂𝑹
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑅 𝟒𝝅𝑹
For an infinite line charge:
𝜌𝐿 𝝆𝑳
𝐸= 𝑎𝜌 , 𝐃= 𝒂𝝆
2𝜋𝜀0 𝜌 𝟐𝝅𝝆

## For an infinite sheet of charge

𝜌𝑆 𝜌𝑆
𝐸= 𝑎𝑛 , 𝐃 = 𝒂𝒏
2𝜀0 2
Determine D at (4, 0, 3) if there is a point charge -5𝜋 mC at
(4, 0, 0) and a line charge 3𝜋 mC/m along the y-axis.
D = 240𝑎𝑥 + 42𝑎𝑧 𝜇𝐶/𝑚2
We wish to find D in the region about a uniform line charge of
8nC/m lying along the z axis in free space. Let 𝜌 = 3𝑚.
D = 0.424𝑎𝜌 𝑛𝐶/𝑚2
Calculate D in rectangular coordinates at point P(2, -3, 6)
produced by:
a) a point charge QA = 55mC at Q(-2, 3, -6);
b) a uniform line charge 𝜌𝐿𝐵 = 20𝑚𝐶/𝑚 on the x-axis;
c) a uniform surface charge density 𝜌𝑆𝐶 = 120𝜇𝐶/𝑚2 on the
plane 𝑧 = −5𝑚.
a) D = 6.38𝑎𝑥 − 9.57𝑎𝑦 + 19.14𝑎𝑧 𝜇𝐶/𝑚2
b) D = −212.21𝑎𝑦 + 424.41𝑎𝑧 𝜇𝐶/𝑚2
c) D = 60𝑎𝑧 𝜇𝐶/𝑚2
Gauss’s Law states that the total electric flux 𝛹 through any
closed surface is equal to the total charge enclosed by that
surface.
𝜳 = 𝑸𝒆𝒏𝒄
𝛹 = ර 𝐃 ∙ 𝑑𝐒
𝑆
Total charged enclosed 𝑄𝑒𝑛𝑐 = ‫𝑣𝑑 𝑣𝜌 ׬‬
𝑄𝑒𝑛𝑐 = ර 𝐃 ∙ 𝑑𝐒 = න 𝜌𝑣 𝑑𝑣
𝑆 𝑣
𝑄 = ර 𝐃 ∙ 𝑑𝐒 = න 𝜌𝑣 𝑑𝑣
𝑆 𝑣
By Divergence Theorem:
ර 𝐃 ∙ 𝑑𝐒 = න 𝛻 ∙ 𝐃𝑑𝑣
𝑆 𝑣
therefore:
𝜌𝑣 = 𝛻 ∙ 𝐃
Point Charge:
𝑄
𝐃= 2
𝑎𝑟
4𝜋𝑟
Infinite Line charge:
𝜌𝐿
𝐃= 𝑎𝜌
2𝜋𝜌
Infinite sheet of charge:
𝜌𝑆
𝐃 = 𝑎𝑧
2
Given that 𝐃 = 𝑧𝜌 cos 2 𝜙 𝑎𝑧 𝐶/𝑚2 , calculate the charge
density at (1, 𝜋/4, 3) and the total charge enclosed by the
cylinder of radius 1m with −2 ≤ 𝑧 ≤ 2 𝑚.
𝜌𝑣 = 0.5 𝐶/𝑚3
4𝜋
𝑄= 𝐶
3
If 𝐃 = 2𝑦 2 + 𝑧 𝑎𝑥 + 4𝑥𝑦𝑎𝑦 + 𝑥𝑎𝑧 𝐶/𝑚2 , find
a) The volume charge density at (-1, 0 3)
b) The flux through the cube defined by 0 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 1, 0 ≤ 𝑦 ≤ 1,
0 ≤ 𝑧 ≤ 1.
c) The total charge enclosed by the cube
a) −4𝐶/𝑚3
b) 2𝐶
c) 2𝐶
Given the electric flux density, 𝐃 = 0.3𝑟 2 𝑎𝑟 𝑛𝐶/𝑚2 in free
space:
a) Find 𝐸 at point 𝑃 𝑟 = 2, 𝜃 = 25°, 𝜙 = 90° ;
b) Find the total charge within the sphere 𝑟 = 3;
c) Find the total electric flux leaving the sphere 𝑟 = 4.
a) 135.5𝑎𝑟 V/m;
b) 305𝑛𝐶
c) 965𝑛𝐶
Consider a spherical shell of total charge q outside radius r,
where R is for radius outside and r is for radius inside. Find
the electric field:
a) inside the shell,
b) outside the shell.
a) 135.5𝑎𝑟 V/m;
b) 305𝑛𝐶
1. A point charge of 30nC is located at the origin while plane
y=3 carries charge 10nC/m^2. Find D at (0, 4, 3).
2. A point charge 100 pC is located at (4,1,— 3) while the x-
axis carries charge 2 nC/m. If the plane z = 3
also carries charge 5 nC/m2, find D at (1, 1, 1).
3. Point charges are placed at the corners of a
square of size 4 m as shown in the figure. If
Q = 15𝜇C, find D at (0,0, 6).
1. 5.076ay + 0.0573az nC/m^2
2.
3.