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9.

1 Derivative
of a function 9.2 Rules of
Differentiation
9.0
DIFFERENTIATION
9.3 Differentiation
of Expo, Log &
Trigo Functions
9.5 Parametric
Differentiations
9.4 Implicit
Differentiation
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 1
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 2
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson, students are
able to:
(a) Determine the derivative of a
function f(x) using the first principle.
f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f ( x)  lim
'
h0 h

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 3
Derivative of a function
Suppose that we wish to find the gradient of
a curve y = f(x) at a point P(x, y) on the curve,
knowing that PQ is a secant line, so
f(x) Gradient of line PQ
QN
Q 
f(x+ δx) PN
Secant line f(x   x)  f(x)

x x  x
P
f(x) N f(x   x)  f(x)

x x
x
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 x x (1) 4
If Q moves nearer to P , say to points Q1, Q2 , Q3 …
The gradient of PQ1, PQ2, PQ3 …will give better
approximations for the gradient of the tangent line
at a point, P.

f(x)
y = f(x)
Let x = h,
Tangent Line Thus, from (1) the
at point P Q
f(x+ h) gradient of the curve
 Q1 y = f(x) at
 Q2 P ( x , y ) is given by
(x, y)
 Q3
P f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f(x) N mPQ  msec 
h
x
x h xh 5
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Gradient of tangent line at an any point (x, y);

 mtan  lim msec


h0
f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f '( x)  lim
h 0 h

Differentiation from first


principle

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 6
If P = ( x , y ) and Q = (x + h , y + h)
Then, Gradient of a curve y at an any point P,
given by:
dy  f(x  h)  f(x) 
 lim 
dx h0  x  h  x 
we can write as: f’(x)
Derived function :
read as
dy or y’
d
‘derivative of y dx or
 y
with respect to x’ dx
or d
[ f ( x)]
dx
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
7
The process of finding the derivative of
a function is called DIFFERENTIATION.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 8
DIFFERENTIATION FROM FIRST PRINCIPLE

Example 1
Find the derivative of the following functions
with respect to x using the first principle

a) f ( x)  3 x b) f ( x)  x 2

1
c) f ( x)  x+1 d ) f ( x) 
3x  5

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 9
SOLUTION 1a
a) f ( x)  3 x
f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f '( x)  lim
h 0 h

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 10
SOLUTION 1b
b) f ( x)  x 2

f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f '( x)  lim
h 0 h

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 11
SOLUTION 1c f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f '( x)  lim
h 0 h
c) f(x) = x 1

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 12
SOLUTION 1d
1
d ) f ( x) 
3x  5  1 1 
 3  x  h   5 - 3x  5 
f '( x)  lim  
h 0  h 
 
 
 3x  5  3( x  h)  5 1 
 lim   
h 0 (3( x  h)  5)(3 x  5)
 h

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 13
Derivative of a function at x = a

If y = f(x), the derivative of f(x) at x = a is


equal to the gradient of the tangent to the
curve at x = a and is defined as :

f ( x)  f (a )
f ' (a)  lim
xa xa
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 14
OR
The derivative of f(x) at x = a can be
alternatively defined as

f ( a  h)  f ( a )
f '(a)  lim
h 0 h

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 15
The tangent to the
curve at x = a
f(x)
y = f(x)

f(a)

x
x=a

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Example 2a
Find the derivative of f(x) at the given
point :
a) f (x) = x² +3; a = 3

SOLUTION
f (x)  f (a)
f '(a)  lim
x a xa

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 17
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 18
OR alternative;
f ( a  h)  f ( a )
f '(a)  lim =
h 0 h

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 19
Example 2b
1
b) f  x  a3
x
SOLUTION
f '(3) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
20
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 21
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 22
CONCLUSION
i) Differentiation from the first principle
f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f '( x)  lim
h 0 h
ii) Derivative of a function at x = a .

f ( x)  f (a )
f ' (a)  lim
xa xa
OR
f ( a  h)  f ( a )
f '(a)  lim
h 0 h
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 23
Exercise
1) Find the derivative of the following functions with respect to x
using the first principle
1
a) f ( x)   2 x c) f ( x) 
x 1
b) f ( x)  x  1

4x 2
2) Given f  x   x , find f ' (a) for a 1
3
by using the first principle.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 24
Answers

1
1) a) -2 b)
2 x 1
1
c)
 x  1
2

5 Tutorial Exercise :
2)
3 Question: (1) & (2)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 25
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 26
LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of the lesson students are able to


(a) Determine the differentiability of a
function at x = a.
(b) Apply the rules of differentiation:
i. Basic rule
ii. Sum rule
iii. Product rule
iv. Quotient rule
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 27
(a) To Determine the Differentiability of
a Function at x  a

Criteria for a function to be differentiable at x = a

For a function to be differentiable at


x = a,
i) the function must be continuous at
x = a.
f  x  f a f  x  f a
ii) lim  lim
xa xa xa xa
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 28
1) If a function is differentiable at a point, then
the function is definitely continuous at that
point.
2) However, a function may be continuous at a
point but not differentiable. This happen at
points where there are corners or vertical
tangents.
For example,
Vertical
Corner tangent

The slopes have different limits from the left and


from the right, hence f is not differentiable at x  a
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 29
Example 1

Prove that the function, f ( x)  x is


not differentiable at x = 0.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 30
SOLUTION 1

f ( x)  x  
For x  0,
For x  0,
f '(0) 
f '(0) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 31
f  x   f  0 f  x   f  0
Since, lim  lim ,
x0 x0 x0 x0

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 32
Example 2
3x  12, x  2
2
Show that f ( x)  
12 x ,x > 2
is differentiable at x = 2.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 33
SOLUTION 2
For x  2, For x  2,

f '(2)  lim f '(2) 


x2

34
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 35
Example 3
 x2  3 , x  1
Show that f ( x)   is continuous
x  3 , x  1
but not differentiable at x=1.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 36
.
SOLUTION 3

f (1)  4
lim f ( x)  lim(

x  3) 
2
x1 x1

lim f ( x)  lim(

x  3) 
x 1 x 1

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 37
For x  1,
f ( x)  f (1)
f '(1)  lim
x 1 x 1

For x  1,
f ( x)  f (1)
f '(1)  lim
x 1 x 1

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 38
f  x   f 1 f  x   f 1
Since, lim  lim ,
x1 x 1 x1 x 1

Hence, f is not differentiable at x=1.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 39
(b) RULES OF DIFFERENTIATION

(i) By using the basic rule

1). A Constant Function


f ( x)  k ;k  R
then, f ' ( x)  0
eg : f ( x)  5 f ' ( x)  0
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 40
n
2). A Function of the Form x

f ( x)  x ; n  Rn
Power
n 1
f ' ( x)  n x
rule

eg : f ( x)  x 3
f '( x)  3x 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 41
n
3). A Function of the Form kx

f ( x)  k x ; k , n  R
n

n 1
f '( x)  k n x

eg : f ( x)   5 x 3
f '( x)   15 x 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 42
(ii) By using the sum rule

If f ( x) and g ( x) aredifferentiable functions,


then
f ( x)  u ( x)  v( x)

f '( x)  u '( x)  v '( x)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 43
Example 1
Find f '( x ) given
(a) f ( x )  4x 3  3x 2  2x .
1
(b) f ( x )  2  5
x

Solution 1
(a)

(b )

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 44
(iii) By using the product rule

Let u = u (x) and v = v (x),


The derivative of f ( x)  u ( x) v( x) is

f '( x)  v( x)u '( x)  u ( x)v '( x)

d
or uv   (uv) '  vu '  uv '
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 45
Example 2

Given f ( x)  (3x  1)(7  2 x ), find f ’(x).


2 3

u v
Solution 2

f ( x)  (3x  1)(7  2 x )
2 3

u  3x  1,
2 2 1 v=(7  2 x )
3

u '  6x v'=3(2)x  6 x
2 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 (u  v)'  v  u '  u  v ' 46


3 2 2
f’(x)  (7  2x )(6x )  (3x  1)(6x )

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 47
By using quotient rule

u ( x)
f ( x) 
v( x)
v( x)u '( x)  u( x)v '( x)
f '( x) 
 v( x) 
2

d  u   u  v  u ' u  v '
'

   
or
dx  v   v  v 2
48
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Example 3

x 1
Given : f ( x) 
x 1
find f ’(x) .

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 49
 u  v  u ' u  v '
'
u
Solution 3
 v   2
v
v
x 1
a) f ( x)  u  x 1 v= x 1
x 1 2 1

f '( x )  u ' 1 v '=1

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 50
Example 4

Find the derivatives of :


a) f ( x)  ( x  2)( x  3)( x  4)
6x 1 2
b) f ( x ) 
2x
(1  2 x)(3x  2)
c) f ( x) 
5x  4
d ) f ( x)  x x  x 3
 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 51
Solution 4(a) (u  v) '  v  u '  u  v '
a) f ( x)  ( x  2)( x  3)( x  4)
u v
 ( x  5x  6)( x  4)
2

f ’(x)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 52
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 53
Solution 4(b)
 u  v  u ' u  v '
u '

 v   v 2
6x 1 2
b) f ( x)  v
2x

f ’(x)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 54
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 55
Solution 4(c)
(1  2 x)(3 x  2)
f ( x) 
5x  4

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KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 57
Solution 4(d) u v

d ) f ( x)  x x  x 3
 2

(u  v) '  v  u '  u  v '
f '( x) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 58
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 59
Continue…Solution 4(d) or

 
7
d ) f ( x)  x x  x 3 2
 x x
5 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 60
CONCLUSION
iii) For a function to be differentiable at x = a,
then

a) the function is continuous at x = a

b) f  x  f a f  x  f a
lim  lim
xa xa xa xa
Note: A function may be continuous at a point but not
differentiable. This happens at points where there are
corners or vertical tangents.
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 61
CONCLUSION RULES OF
DIFFERENTIATION
(a) if f(x) = k, then f’(x) = 0
(b) if f(x) = xn, then f’(x) = nxn-1
(c) if f(x) = kxn, then f’(x) = knxn-1
(d) if f ( x)  u ( x)  v( x),
then, f '( x)  u '( x)  v '( x)
(e) if f ( x)  u ( x) v( x)
then, f '( x)  v( x)u '( x)  u ( x)v '( x)
u ( x)
(f) if f ( x)  ,
v( x)
v( x)u '( x)  u ( x)v '( x)
then, f '( x) 
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
 v( x) 
2 62
Exercise
2 x ,x 0
1) Given f ( x)   2
x ,x 0
Is f differentiable at x = 0?

2) Find the derivatives of f (x) for each


of the following.
2x  3
2

2x  2x  3
2
c) f ( x) 
a) f ( x)  2 3x  2
x
x 1
b) f ( x)  (3x  7)(6  5x)
2
d ) f ( x) 
1 x
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 63
Answers
1. f is not differentiable at x = 0.
2. a) 7 x 2  6 x 3
b)
45 x  36 x  35
2

6 x2  8x  9
c)
(3x  2) 2

1 Tutorial Exercise :
d)
x (1  x ) 2 Question: (3) a, b & d.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 64
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 65
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson students are
able to:
(a) Apply the rules of differentiation (cont’d)

v. The Chain Rule of Differentiation

(b) Perform second and third order


'' '''
differentiation, f ( x) and f ( x)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 66
v. By using the chain rule

If y  f (u ) and u  g ( x )

dy dy du
then  
dx du dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 67
Example 1
dy
Find for the following functions ;
dx
a) y  (3x  2) 2 5

1
b) y 
4x  9

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 68
dy dy du
SOLUTION 1(a)  
dx du dx
y  (3x  2) 2 5

let u  and y
du dy
 and 
dx du
dy
 .

dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 69
SOLUTION 1(b)
1
y 1
4x  9  ( 4 x  9 )
.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 70
By using the power rule
In general, any composite function of
the form y   f ( x )  n

is called the General Power Rule, and it is a special


case of the Chain Rule.
If u=f(x) is a differentiable function and n is any
real number, then
Step1 Step 2 Step 3

d
 f ( x)   n  f ( x)   f '( x)

n n 1

dx
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 71
Example 2

Differentiate the following with respect to x,


3
a ) y  ( x  4)

3 4
b) f ( x )  ( x  1)
d
(c ) (2 x  9 x  6)
4 4

dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 72
1 2 3

d
Solution 2  f ( x )  n
n
 f ( x )  f '( x )
n 1

dx
3
a ) y  ( x  4)
3
2
1
dy 2 d
 3 ( x  4)  x  4
dx dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 73
1 2 3
d
 f ( x ) n  n  f ( x )
n 1
f '( x ) 
dx
3 4
b) f ( x )  ( x  1)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 74
1 2 3
Solution (c)
d
 f ( x ) n  n  f ( x ) n 1
f '( x ) 
dx
d
(c) (2 x  9 x  6)
4 4

dx 3
1 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 75
Example 3 Differentiate with respect to x
x
g( x ) 
1 x
Solution
1
x  x 2
g (x )   
1 x 1 x 

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KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 77
Second And Third Order
Differentiation
dy
f '( x) , the first derivative of f
dx

f ''( x), d2y


2 the second derivative of f
dx

f '''( x), d3y


3
the third derivative of f
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 78
Example 5
Find the third derivative of
4 3 2
p( x )  2 x  9 x  5 x  7
Solution
p' ( x )  8 x  27 x  10 x
3 2

2
p' ' ( x )  24 x  54 x  10

p' ' ' ( x )  48 x  54

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 79
Example 6

If y  3 x 2  x show that y d2y dy


  6 y  1  6x .
dx 2 dx
Solution
y  3x2  x

80
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 81
Example 7

If y 
x
1 x 2
show that 1  x  y '' 3xy '  0
2

Solution

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KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 83
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
84
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 85
CONCLUSION
i) Chain rule :
If y  f (u ) and u  g ( x )
dy dy du
then  
dx du dx

d
 f ( x)   n  f ( x)   f '( x)
 n 1
ii) Power rule, n

dx

iii) Second and Third Order Differentiation


dy
f '( x) , the first derivative of f
dx
f ''( x), d2y
the second derivative of f
dx 2
f '''( x ), d3y
dx 3 the third derivative of f 86
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Exercise
1) Find the derivatives of f '( x ) for each
of the following.
 1 x 
3
( x  5) 3
a ) f ( x)  b) f ( x )   
x 1  1 x 
dy
2) Given y  1  x . Prove that y
2
 x.
dx
3) If y  5  x , Show that
x 2
dy d y
6  4 x 2  0.
dx dx
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 87
Answers

1) (a) ( x  5) (5 x  11)
2

3
2( x  1) 2

Tutorial Exercise :
(b)
6(1  x ) 2

Question: (4) .
(1  x) 4

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 88
89
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson students
are able to:
(a) Determine the derivatives of the
functions:
x f ( x) x f ( x)
i) a ,a ,e ,e
ii) ln x,ln f ( x)

90
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Derivative of ya x
and ya f ( x)

Theorem d x
 a   a ln a
x

dx
d
 a f ( x )   a f ( x ) f ' ( x ).(ln a )
dx

, Tips: COPY X DIFF X lna


C D L
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 1 2 3 91
Example 1
Differentiate the following with respect to x

x
a) y  5
3 x 5
b) y  4
x2  2 x
c) y  3

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 92
d f ( x)
Solution  a   a  f ( x)(ln a)
f ( x) '

dx
x
a) y  5 C D L

dy x d
dx
5  x  ln 5
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 93
d f ( x)
3 x 5  a   a  f ( x)(ln a)
f ( x) '

b) y  4 dx
C D L

dy

dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 94
d f ( x)
x2  2 x  a   a  f ( x)(ln a)
f ( x) '

c) y  3 dx

dy 
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 95
Derivatives of Exponential Functions

d x d kx
e   e x
e   ke kx

dx dx
d  f  x 
e  f ( x )e
' f ( x)
OR
dx  
e f ( x) '
f ( x)
.

COPY X DIFF
C xD 96
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
dy dy du
= 
dx du dx
Let ye u
, where u  f  x
dy du
e  f  x
u

du dx
dy
dx
u
 
 e  f   x  
 f  x e f  x

Thus,
d
dx

e f  x
  f ' x e f  x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 97
Tips: COPY X DIFF

Example 2 Find f ' ( x) . C X D

a) f ( x)  4e x
f '( x)  4e 1
x

x
=4e C D

b) f ( x )  e 3x
f '( x ) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 98
Example 2 Find f ' ( x) .

c) f ( x)  e x2 f '( x ) 
C D

d) f ( x)  e x f '( x ) 
1

e x2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 99
Example 3
Differentiate with respect to x:
3 x2  4 x
a) y  e

b) y  xe 4x

3x  2
c) f ( x)  x
e

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 100
dy dy du
Solution 3(a) = 
dx du dx
3 x2  4 x
ye i. Chain rule
Let y  , u
dy du
 
du dx
dy

dx

101
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Solution 3(a)
3 x2  4 x
d
dx

e 
f  x
 e f ' x
f  x

ye
ii. Formula
dy
 CxD
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 102
Solution
uv  '  vu  uv
' '

b) y  xe 4x v

dy
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 103
 u  vu   uv
'
Solution 3 (c)
  
v
2
3x  2 u v
f ( x)  x
e v

f '( x) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 104
f '( x) 

f '( x) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 105
Derivative of Logarithmic Functions

f ( x)  ln x is differentiable for all x0


with
d
ln x   1
dx x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 106
dy dy du
= 
dx du dx
Let y  ln u where u  f x 
dy 1
 f  x 
du

du u dx

1 
    f  x 
dy
dx u
f  x

f  x
. 107
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Tips: INVERSE X DIFF
Therefore,
I D

d
ln f x  
1
f  x
 f   x  OR
dx
f  x 
=
f  x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 108
f  x 
d
ln f x   f  x   f   x  or f  x 
1
Example 4
dx
Differentiate the following with respect to x
a) f (x)  ln 3x b) f ( x)  ln x  1

 x  2
2

c) g ( x )  ln , x2
x 1
2

ln x
d) y  x ln 2 x e) y  x
e
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 109
SOLUTION d
ln f x  
1
f  x
 f  x
dx
a) f ( x)  ln 3x
ALTERNATIVE METHOD
Tips: I X D

f ( x )  ln 3  ln x
1
f ' (x)   3 1 1
3x f '( x )  0  (1) 
x x
1

x
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 110
Solution
b) f ( x)  ln x  1
=

Tips: I X D

f  x 1 1  d
   ( x  1)
2  x  1  dx

111
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Solution
 x  2
2

c) g ( x )  ln , x2
x2  1

Tips: I D

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 112
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 113
Solution uv  '  vu  uv
' '

d ) y  x ln 2 x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 114
 u=  vu   uv
'
Solution
  
v
2
ln x v
e) y  x
e

dy
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 115
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 116
CONCLUSION
(I) Derivatives of
Exponential Functions
(II) Derivative of
ya x
and ya f ( x) d
e   e
x x

dx
d x d
 a   a x ln a  e   ke
kx kx
dx
dx
d f ( x)
 
 a   a f ( x ) f ' ( x )(ln a ) d f  x
dx
Tips: COPY X DIFF X lna
e  e f ( x)
f ( x) '

C D L dx
Tips: COPY X DIFF
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 C D 117
(III) Derivative of Logarithmic Functions

d 1 1
 ln x   (1) 
dx x x
1 f  x 
d
ln f x  
f x 
f  x  
f x 
dx

Tips: INVERSE X DIFF


I D

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 118
Exercise

Differentiate with respect to x.


x  1 2x 
a) 5e d ) ln  
 2x 1 
1

b) e 15 x
(3x  1)
2 e) y  4 x

6 x8
f) y7
x
e
c) ln x
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 119
Answers

5e x
a) b) 6 x15 x  15x2e15 x  5e15 x
2 x
4
1 d)
c) (1  2 x)(2 x  1)
2 x ln x
1 
1
 e  6 x 8
 67
1 x
x
f)  x e 2
ln 7
4 ln 4
x
e) 2 
x2
Tutorial Exercise :
Question: (5) , (6)
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 120
121
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson students are
able to:
(a) Determine the derivatives of the
functions:
(iii) sin x, cos x, tan x
sec x, cosec x, cot x
(iv) sin u, cos u, tan u
sec u, cosec u, cot u
n n n
(v) sin n x, cos xn, tan xn
sec x, cosec x, cot x 122
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions

6 Basic functions:
d
1)  sin x   cos x
dx
d
2)  cos x    sin x
dx
d
3)  tan x   sec x
2

dx
123
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
d
4)  sec x   sec x tan x
dx
d
5)  cosec x    cosec x cot x
dx
d
6)  cot x    cosec x
2

dx
Note: The above differentiation formulae are
only true for angles which are
measured in radians.

124
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Additional Learning Tip:
The Magic Hexagon
d
-  C ..   ()ve
dx

sec2 - csc2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 125
Example 1

Differentiate with respect to x


a ) 2sin x  3cos x
5
b) 4 tan x   5
x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 126
Solution 1:
d
a)  2 sin x  3cos x   2 cos x  3   sin x 
dx
 2 cos x  3sin x

b)
d
dx
 4 tan x  5 x  5  
1

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 127
Example 2

Differentiate with respect to x


a) 2sec x
b) 3cosec x
c) 2cosec x  3cot x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 128
Solution 2 :

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 129
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 130
Composite functions:

If u  f ( x ) , then
d du
1)
dx
 sin u   cos u dx

d du
2)
dx
 cos u    sin u dx

d du
3)
dx
 tan u   sec u dx
2

131
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
d du
4)
dx
 sec u   sec u tan u dx

d du
5)
dx
 cosec u )   cosec u cot u
dx

d du
6)
dx
 cot u    cosec u
2

dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 132
Example 3

Find the first derivative of :


a) cos ( 5x + 4 ) b) sin ( ln x )
1
c) tan(   3x) d) sec( 2 x  3)
6
1 2
e) cosec( x ) f ) sin ( 2 x )  cos( 3x )
3 4

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 133
du
Solution 3: dx

u u
d d
a)  cos  5x  4     sin 5 x  4  5 x  4 
dx dx
 5 sin5 x  4 
d
b)  sin  ln x   
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 134
d  1 
c)  tan(   3x) 
dx  6 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 135
d
d)  sec(2x  3) 
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 136
d 1 2
e)
dx
 cosec x )
2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 137
d
f)  sin( 2x )  cos (3x ) 
3 4

dx  

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 138
Example 4

2 dy
Given y  sin x . cos 3x, find .
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 139
Solution 4: uv  '  vu  uv
' '

2
y  sin x . cos 3x v

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 140
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 141
Differentiation of
n n n
sin x, cos x and tan x
Power Rules: 1 2
3

d d
1)
dx
n
 
sin x  n sin n 1
x
dx
 sin x 

d d
2)
dx
n

cos x  n cos x
n 1

dx
 cos x 
d d
3)
dx
n

tan x  n tan  n 1
x
dx
 tan x 
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 142
Differentiation of
n n n
sec x, cosec x and cot x
d d
4)
dx

sec n x  n sec n 1
x
dx
 sec x 

d d
5)
dx
 n

cos ec x  n cos ec x  cos ec x 
n 1

dx
d d
6)
dx
n

cot x  n cot  n 1
x
dx
 cot x 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 143
Step 3
Example 5 Step1 Step 2

d
 f ( x)   n  f ( x)  
 f '( x ) 
n n 1

dx
Differentiate each of the following functions
with respect to x.
4
a) y  tan x
3
b) y  sin x
4
c) y  2 cos x
2
d) y  cosec x
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 144
Solution 5:
4 4
a) y  tan x  tan x 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 145
3 3
b) y  sin x   sin x 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 146
4
c) y  2 cos x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 147
2
d) y  cos ec x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 148
Example 6
3
For y  cos x,
dy 
find the value of , if x 
dx 6

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 149
Solution 6

dy
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 150
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 151
CONCLUSION
d
1)  sin x   cos x
dx
d
2)  cos x    sin x
dx
d
3)  tan x   sec 2
x
dx
d
4)  cosec x )   cosec x cot x
dx
d
5)  sec x   sec x tan x
dx
d
6)  cot x    cosec 2 x 152
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 dx
If u  f ( x ) , then
d du
7)
dx
 sin u   cos u
dx
d du
8)
dx
 cos u    sin u dx
d du
9)
dx
 tan u   sec u dx
2

d du
10)
dx
 sec u   sec u tan u dx
d du
11)
dx
 cosec u )   cosec u cot u
dx
d du
12)
dx
 cot u    cosec u
2

dx
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 153
Power Rules:
d d
13)
dx
n
 n 1
sin x  n sin x
dx
 
sin x 

d d
14)
dx
 n

cos x  n cos x n 1

dx
 cos x 

d d
15)
dx
 n

tan x  n tan n 1
x
dx
 tan x 

d d
16)
dx
 n
cosec x  n cosec x  n 1

dx
 cosec x 

d d
17)
dx
 n
sec x  n sec x
n 1

dx
 sec x 

d d
18)
dx
 n
cot x  n cot n 1
x
dx
 cot x 
154
154
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Exercise
Differentiate with respect to x.
a) y  2sec x
b) y  2sin x tan x
c) y  cos 2 x  tan 2 x

d ) y  sin x cos x 3

e) y  tan x  sec x2 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 155
Answers

a) 2sec x tan x
b) 2sin x(sec2 x  1)
c) -2sin 2 x  2sec 2 x
2

d ) (cos x)(1  4sin x)


2 2

2
e) 4sec x tan x Tutorial Exercise :
Question: (7)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
156
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
157
LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of the lesson students


are able to:
(b) Solve problems involving the
combinations of differentiation
rules.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 158
Overall review: Differentiation
3 General Rules
1 2 3

Power Rule Product Rule Quotient Rule

Applied in: Combinations of

Polynomial Exponential Logarithmic Trigonometric


functions functions functions functions
Examples: Examples: Examples: Examples:
x 2 ln  3x  1
3
3x 2 x2  x
 2

3x, x  1 , 1  2 x , e , 3 , ,
 1  2x 
ln(cot x )
2
,

 3x 4
 2x  x
3
5 sin x  xl n x
.
ln 
 x  1 .


esin x .
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 159
Solve Problems of Differentiation
Example 1
Find the first derivatives of the functions given below
:  1 2x 
a) f x   e 3x2
x 1
2
  c) f  x   ln 



x 1 

2x
f x   d) f x  ln ln  ln 2x  
e
b)
1 e x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 160
Solution 1a:

f x   e 3x2
x 2

1
f '( x) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 161
Solution 1b:
2x
f x  
e
1 e x

f '( x) 
    
1  e x e2 x  2   e2 x e x

1  e 
2
x

e  2 1  e   e 
2x  x x
e 2x
 2  e x

  

1  e  1  e 
2 2
x x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 162
Solution 1c:
 1 2x 
f x   ln  

 x  1 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 163
d  1
 d  1

f '( x)  ln 1  2 x    ln  x  1 
2 2

dx   dx  

164
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Solution 1d:
f x  ln ln  ln 2x  

165
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Example 2
Find the derivatives of

a) f  x   3 x2  x
c) h  x   2 e 2 x  x 1

b) g  x   5 x  ln x
d) p  x   2  ex2 2x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 166
Solution 2a:

f x  3 x2  x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 167
Solution 2b:

g x  5 x  ln x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 168
Solution 2c:

hx  2 e 2 x  x 1

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 169
Solution 2d: Using the Product Rule,

px   2  e x2 2x

V U’ U

170
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Example 3
Find the derivatives of ;

a) y  ln(cot x )
b) y  e cosec 2x

sin x 2
c) y  e
 1  tan x 
d) y  ln  
 1  tan x 
171
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Solution 3a:

y  ln(cot x)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 172
Solution 3b:

y e cosec 2x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 173
Solution 3c:
sin x 2
ye

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 174
Solution 3d:
 1  tan x 
y  ln   
 1  tan x 

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Overall review: Differentiation
3 General Rules
1 2 3

Power Rule Product Rule Quotient Rule

Applied in: Combinations of

Polynomial Exponential Logarithmic Trigonometric


functions functions functions functions
Examples: Examples: Examples: Examples:
x 2 ln  3x  1
3
3x 2 x2  x
 2

3x, x  1 , 1  2 x , e , 3 , ,
 1  2x 
ln(cot x )
2
,

 3x 4
 2x  x
3
5 sin x  xl n x
.
ln 
 x  1 .


esin x .
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Exercise
1. Differentiate each of the following:
(a) g  x   ln 1  2 x 
3 Hint : g  x   ln 1  2 x 
3

(b) f  x   2 x 3 ln x

2 x
2. Given y   3  4 x  e , show that
2
d y dy
2
 4  4 y  0
dx dx
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Answers

6 ln 1  2 x 
2
1 (a)
1 2x

(b) 1  3ln x  x 2
2 x3 ln x
ln 2

Tutorial Exercise :
Question: (7) , (8)

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson students
are able to:

a) Find the first and the second


derivatives implicitly.

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IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS

Examples

2x  y  y  4
2 2
l n ( x  y)  2 y  1
2

where y is not given explicitly as a function of x,

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DIFFERENTIATION OF IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS

dy
To find , we need to differentiate each
dx
term with respect to x.

In general : chain rule

d d  dy 
g(y)   g(y)   
dx dy  dx 
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Example 1
Differentiate with respect to x:

(a)
d
dx
 y (b)
d
dx
3 y2 
(c)
d y
dx
e   (d)
d
dx
 ln y 
(e)
d 2y
dx

e  3y2  6x  (f )
d
dx
 xy 
d x
(g)  
dx  y 
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SOLUTION

(a)
d
 y (b)
d
dx
3y2 
dx
d dy
  y
dy dx

dy dy
1 
dx dx

d dy
 y 
dx dx
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(c )
d y
dx
e  

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( e)
d 2y
dx

e  3y2  6x 

Reminder : Make sure that the derivative of


any term involving y includes
the factor of dy .
dx
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u v Use the Product Rule
d
f)  xy 
dx
d d uv  '  vu ' uv '
 y[  x ]  x[  y ]
dx dx
Note: the derivative of x
with respect to x is 1, but
the derivative of y with
respect to x is dy
dx

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u
Use the Quotient Rule
d x
g)  
 u  vu ' uv '
'
dx  y  v
  
 
2
v v

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Example 2

dy
Find in terms of x and y if
dx
(a) 3x 2  2 y 2  6  4 y
(b) x 2 y 2  x 2  y 2

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Solution 2a: Procedures:
( a) 3 x  2 y  6  4 y
2 2 Differentiate both
sides with respect
dy dy
6x  4 y  4 to x.
dx dx
dy dy
4  4y  6 x
dx dx
Then, express dy
dy
4(1  y )  6 x dx
in terms of x and y
dx
dy 6 x  3x  3x

dx 4(1  y ) 2(1  y ) 2( y  1)
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Solution 2b: u v

(b) x 2
y x y
2 2 2

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Example 3

dy
Find :
dx
(a) e x  2 y  3x
y 2 3

(b) y  l n( x  y )
2 2 2

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Solution 3a: uv  '  vu ' uv '
( a) e y x 2  2 y  3x 3

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Solution 3b: 1
d
ln f x  
f x 
f  x 

(b) y  l n( x  y )
2 2 2 dx

I xD

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Example 4
dy
Find in terms of x and y if x 2 sin y  2 x  y.
dx
Solution:

dx

d 2
d
dx
d
x sin y   2 x    y  .
dx

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Example 5

If y  xe , show that
3x

2
d y dy
2
 6  9 y  0
dx dx

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dy d2 y dy d2 y
METHOD 1: ( Find and 2 , then use y, ,
dx 2
dx dx dx
as substitution when it is appropriate )
Solution:
y  xe 3x

dy
dx
 e (1)  x 3e
3x 3x
 
dy
 e  3 x  1 …................. (1)
3x

dx
2
d y
2
  3 x  1 3e 3x
 e 3x
 3  …….(2)
dx
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 199
From (1) and (2):
dy 2
 e  3 x  1 ;
3x d y
 3e  3x  2 
3x
dx dx 2

OR
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METHOD 2: (Differentiate both sides, and then
Solution: simplify)

y  xe 3x

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Example 6

If y  2 xy  2 x , show that
2 2

2
d y dy  dy 
2
(y  x) 2  2     2  0
dx dx  dx 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 204
Solution:
Differentiate each term with respect to x :
y  2 xy  2 x
2 2 Use Product Rule
d
 2 xy 
dx

Differentiate every term again with respect to x :

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Example 7

The height of a tree increases at a rate of 1 m


per year and the radius increases at 0.2 m per
year. What is the increasing rate of the volume
of timber when its height is 10 m and the radius
is 1 m.
(Assume the tree is a circular cylinder).

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CONCLUSION

d d  dy 
1.  g ( y)    g ( y)   
dx dy  dx 
d dy
2.  y 
dx dx

3.
d y
dx
e e  
y dy

dx
d  1  dy
4.  ln y    
dx  y  dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 212
Exercise

dy
1. Find in term of x and y if
dx
a) 3 y  2 y  xy  x
2 3

x y
b) ln xy  e
2. Given that xy  sin 3x,
2
d y dy
show that x 2  2  9 xy  0
dx dx
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 213
Answers

3x  y 2
1 (a).
x  6y  2

(b).
 2 xe  1 y
x y

1  2 ye  x x y
Tutorial Exercise :
Question: (9) – (17), 23.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson students are
able to:

(a) Use parametric differentiation


to find first and second
derivatives.

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Parametric Equation :

is an equation where x and y are both given as


functions of a third variable , t , (called a
parameter ) .

Example:

x = t2 , y =t-1

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Parametric Differentiation
If x = f(t) and y = g(t) then by using
dy
the chain Rule we can determine as :
dx
dy dy dt dt 1
  where  OR
dx dt dx dx dx
dt
 dy 

dy  dt 

dx  dx 
 
 dt 
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Second Order Derivative

d  dy 
d y dt  dx 
2

2

dx dx
dt

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Example 1

dy d2y
Find and 2
in terms of the parameter t if :
dx dx

x  2t , y  4t  1
3 2

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dy dy dx
 
Solution : dx dt dt
dx dy
x  2t , y  4t  1
3 2
Find
dt
and
dt
.
dx
 ,
dy

dt dt

Use the chain rule :


 dy 
dy  dt 
 
dx  dx 
 dt 
 

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Example 2

If x  ln 4t and y  e
3 3t

2
dy d y
Find and 2
in terms of t.
dx dx

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Example 3

2 1
If x  and y  .
(1  t ) 2 1 t
2
dy 1 d y
Show that  (1  t ) and find 2 .
dx 4 dx

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Example 4

If x  te and y  e
2t 2t
, find
dy
(i)
dx
2
d y
(ii) 2 when t  0
dx

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Example 5

dy
Find in terms of the parameter t if :
dx
1
3
x  , y  (1  t )
2 2

dy
Hence, find the value of if t  1
dx

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Example 6

A curve has parametric equations


x  et and y  sin t.
dy
Find in terms of t.
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 235
Solution :
dy dy dt
 
dx dt dx
y  sin t , xe
t

dy dx dt 1
 cos t , e   t
t

dt dt dx e

dy 1
 cos t  t
dx e
cos t
= t
e
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 236
CONCLUSION

dy dy dt dt 1
1.   where 
dx dt dx dx dx
dt
d  dy 
d 2 y dt  dx 
2. 2

dx dx
dt

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 237
Exercise
dy
1. Find in terms of the parameter t if
dx
3
(a) x  , y  1  t (b) x   cos3t , y  2sin 3t.
2 2

t
dy d2y
2. Find and 2 in terms of t given that
dx dx
1
(a) x  , y  3t  2
2
(b) x  3ln t , y  3e
2 t2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 238
Answers

2
dy d y
t 3 2. (a) =  6t ,
3
=18t 4
1. (a) dx dx 2
3 1 t2
dy 2 t 2 d y t e (t 2  1)
2 2 t2

(b) 4cos3t (b) =t e , 2


=
dx dx 3

Tutorial Exercise :
Question: (18) - (22)

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