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# 9.

1 Derivative
of a function 9.2 Rules of
Differentiation
9.0
DIFFERENTIATION
9.3 Differentiation
of Expo, Log &
Trigo Functions
9.5 Parametric
Differentiations
9.4 Implicit
Differentiation
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 1
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 2
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson, students are
able to:
(a) Determine the derivative of a
function f(x) using the first principle.
f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f ( x)  lim
'
h0 h

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 3
Derivative of a function
Suppose that we wish to find the gradient of
a curve y = f(x) at a point P(x, y) on the curve,
knowing that PQ is a secant line, so
f(x) Gradient of line PQ
QN
Q 
f(x+ δx) PN
Secant line f(x   x)  f(x)

x x  x
P
f(x) N f(x   x)  f(x)

x x
x
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 x x (1) 4
If Q moves nearer to P , say to points Q1, Q2 , Q3 …
The gradient of PQ1, PQ2, PQ3 …will give better
approximations for the gradient of the tangent line
at a point, P.

f(x)
y = f(x)
Let x = h,
Tangent Line Thus, from (1) the
at point P Q
f(x+ h) gradient of the curve
 Q1 y = f(x) at
 Q2 P ( x , y ) is given by
(x, y)
 Q3
P f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f(x) N mPQ  msec 
h
x
x h xh 5
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Gradient of tangent line at an any point (x, y);

##  mtan  lim msec

h0
f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f '( x)  lim
h 0 h

## Differentiation from first

principle

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 6
If P = ( x , y ) and Q = (x + h , y + h)
Then, Gradient of a curve y at an any point P,
given by:
dy  f(x  h)  f(x) 
 lim 
dx h0  x  h  x 
we can write as: f’(x)
Derived function :
read as
dy or y’
d
‘derivative of y dx or
 y
with respect to x’ dx
or d
[ f ( x)]
dx
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
7
The process of finding the derivative of
a function is called DIFFERENTIATION.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 8
DIFFERENTIATION FROM FIRST PRINCIPLE

Example 1
Find the derivative of the following functions
with respect to x using the first principle

a) f ( x)  3 x b) f ( x)  x 2

1
c) f ( x)  x+1 d ) f ( x) 
3x  5

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 9
SOLUTION 1a
a) f ( x)  3 x
f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f '( x)  lim
h 0 h

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 10
SOLUTION 1b
b) f ( x)  x 2

f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f '( x)  lim
h 0 h

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 11
SOLUTION 1c f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f '( x)  lim
h 0 h
c) f(x) = x 1

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 12
SOLUTION 1d
1
d ) f ( x) 
3x  5  1 1 
 3  x  h   5 - 3x  5 
f '( x)  lim  
h 0  h 
 
 
 3x  5  3( x  h)  5 1 
 lim   
h 0 (3( x  h)  5)(3 x  5)
 h

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 13
Derivative of a function at x = a

## If y = f(x), the derivative of f(x) at x = a is

equal to the gradient of the tangent to the
curve at x = a and is defined as :

f ( x)  f (a )
f ' (a)  lim
xa xa
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 14
OR
The derivative of f(x) at x = a can be
alternatively defined as

f ( a  h)  f ( a )
f '(a)  lim
h 0 h

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 15
The tangent to the
curve at x = a
f(x)
y = f(x)

f(a)

x
x=a

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 16
Example 2a
Find the derivative of f(x) at the given
point :
a) f (x) = x² +3; a = 3

SOLUTION
f (x)  f (a)
f '(a)  lim
x a xa

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 17
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 18
OR alternative;
f ( a  h)  f ( a )
f '(a)  lim =
h 0 h

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 19
Example 2b
1
b) f  x  a3
x
SOLUTION
f '(3) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
20
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 21
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 22
CONCLUSION
i) Differentiation from the first principle
f ( x  h)  f ( x )
f '( x)  lim
h 0 h
ii) Derivative of a function at x = a .

f ( x)  f (a )
f ' (a)  lim
xa xa
OR
f ( a  h)  f ( a )
f '(a)  lim
h 0 h
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 23
Exercise
1) Find the derivative of the following functions with respect to x
using the first principle
1
a) f ( x)   2 x c) f ( x) 
x 1
b) f ( x)  x  1

4x 2
2) Given f  x   x , find f ' (a) for a 1
3
by using the first principle.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 24
Answers

1
1) a) -2 b)
2 x 1
1
c)
 x  1
2

5 Tutorial Exercise :
2)
3 Question: (1) & (2)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 25
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 26
LEARNING OUTCOMES

## At the end of the lesson students are able to

(a) Determine the differentiability of a
function at x = a.
(b) Apply the rules of differentiation:
i. Basic rule
ii. Sum rule
iii. Product rule
iv. Quotient rule
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 27
(a) To Determine the Differentiability of
a Function at x  a

## For a function to be differentiable at

x = a,
i) the function must be continuous at
x = a.
f  x  f a f  x  f a
ii) lim  lim
xa xa xa xa
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 28
1) If a function is differentiable at a point, then
the function is definitely continuous at that
point.
2) However, a function may be continuous at a
point but not differentiable. This happen at
points where there are corners or vertical
tangents.
For example,
Vertical
Corner tangent

## The slopes have different limits from the left and

from the right, hence f is not differentiable at x  a
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 29
Example 1

## Prove that the function, f ( x)  x is

not differentiable at x = 0.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 30
SOLUTION 1

f ( x)  x  
For x  0,
For x  0,
f '(0) 
f '(0) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 31
f  x   f  0 f  x   f  0
Since, lim  lim ,
x0 x0 x0 x0

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 32
Example 2
3x  12, x  2
2
Show that f ( x)  
12 x ,x > 2
is differentiable at x = 2.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 33
SOLUTION 2
For x  2, For x  2,

## f '(2)  lim f '(2) 

x2

34
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 35
Example 3
 x2  3 , x  1
Show that f ( x)   is continuous
x  3 , x  1
but not differentiable at x=1.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 36
.
SOLUTION 3

f (1)  4
lim f ( x)  lim(

x  3) 
2
x1 x1

lim f ( x)  lim(

x  3) 
x 1 x 1

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 37
For x  1,
f ( x)  f (1)
f '(1)  lim
x 1 x 1

For x  1,
f ( x)  f (1)
f '(1)  lim
x 1 x 1

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 38
f  x   f 1 f  x   f 1
Since, lim  lim ,
x1 x 1 x1 x 1

## Hence, f is not differentiable at x=1.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 39
(b) RULES OF DIFFERENTIATION

## 1). A Constant Function

f ( x)  k ;k  R
then, f ' ( x)  0
eg : f ( x)  5 f ' ( x)  0
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 40
n
2). A Function of the Form x

f ( x)  x ; n  Rn
Power
n 1
f ' ( x)  n x
rule

eg : f ( x)  x 3
f '( x)  3x 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 41
n
3). A Function of the Form kx

f ( x)  k x ; k , n  R
n

n 1
f '( x)  k n x

eg : f ( x)   5 x 3
f '( x)   15 x 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 42
(ii) By using the sum rule

## If f ( x) and g ( x) aredifferentiable functions,

then
f ( x)  u ( x)  v( x)

## f '( x)  u '( x)  v '( x)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 43
Example 1
Find f '( x ) given
(a) f ( x )  4x 3  3x 2  2x .
1
(b) f ( x )  2  5
x

Solution 1
(a)

(b )

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 44
(iii) By using the product rule

## Let u = u (x) and v = v (x),

The derivative of f ( x)  u ( x) v( x) is

## f '( x)  v( x)u '( x)  u ( x)v '( x)

d
or uv   (uv) '  vu '  uv '
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 45
Example 2

## Given f ( x)  (3x  1)(7  2 x ), find f ’(x).

2 3

u v
Solution 2

f ( x)  (3x  1)(7  2 x )
2 3

u  3x  1,
2 2 1 v=(7  2 x )
3

u '  6x v'=3(2)x  6 x
2 2

## KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 (u  v)'  v  u '  u  v ' 46

3 2 2
f’(x)  (7  2x )(6x )  (3x  1)(6x )

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 47
By using quotient rule

u ( x)
f ( x) 
v( x)
v( x)u '( x)  u( x)v '( x)
f '( x) 
 v( x) 
2

d  u   u  v  u ' u  v '
'

   
or
dx  v   v  v 2
48
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Example 3

x 1
Given : f ( x) 
x 1
find f ’(x) .

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 49
 u  v  u ' u  v '
'
u
Solution 3
 v   2
v
v
x 1
a) f ( x)  u  x 1 v= x 1
x 1 2 1

## f '( x )  u ' 1 v '=1

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 50
Example 4

## Find the derivatives of :

a) f ( x)  ( x  2)( x  3)( x  4)
6x 1 2
b) f ( x ) 
2x
(1  2 x)(3x  2)
c) f ( x) 
5x  4
d ) f ( x)  x x  x 3
 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 51
Solution 4(a) (u  v) '  v  u '  u  v '
a) f ( x)  ( x  2)( x  3)( x  4)
u v
 ( x  5x  6)( x  4)
2

f ’(x)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 52
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 53
Solution 4(b)
 u  v  u ' u  v '
u '

 v   v 2
6x 1 2
b) f ( x)  v
2x

f ’(x)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 54
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 55
Solution 4(c)
(1  2 x)(3 x  2)
f ( x) 
5x  4

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KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 57
Solution 4(d) u v

d ) f ( x)  x x  x 3
 2

(u  v) '  v  u '  u  v '
f '( x) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 58
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 59
Continue…Solution 4(d) or

 
7
d ) f ( x)  x x  x 3 2
 x x
5 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 60
CONCLUSION
iii) For a function to be differentiable at x = a,
then

## a) the function is continuous at x = a

b) f  x  f a f  x  f a
lim  lim
xa xa xa xa
Note: A function may be continuous at a point but not
differentiable. This happens at points where there are
corners or vertical tangents.
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 61
CONCLUSION RULES OF
DIFFERENTIATION
(a) if f(x) = k, then f’(x) = 0
(b) if f(x) = xn, then f’(x) = nxn-1
(c) if f(x) = kxn, then f’(x) = knxn-1
(d) if f ( x)  u ( x)  v( x),
then, f '( x)  u '( x)  v '( x)
(e) if f ( x)  u ( x) v( x)
then, f '( x)  v( x)u '( x)  u ( x)v '( x)
u ( x)
(f) if f ( x)  ,
v( x)
v( x)u '( x)  u ( x)v '( x)
then, f '( x) 
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
 v( x) 
2 62
Exercise
2 x ,x 0
1) Given f ( x)   2
x ,x 0
Is f differentiable at x = 0?

## 2) Find the derivatives of f (x) for each

of the following.
2x  3
2

2x  2x  3
2
c) f ( x) 
a) f ( x)  2 3x  2
x
x 1
b) f ( x)  (3x  7)(6  5x)
2
d ) f ( x) 
1 x
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 63
Answers
1. f is not differentiable at x = 0.
2. a) 7 x 2  6 x 3
b)
45 x  36 x  35
2

6 x2  8x  9
c)
(3x  2) 2

1 Tutorial Exercise :
d)
x (1  x ) 2 Question: (3) a, b & d.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 64
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 65
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson students are
able to:
(a) Apply the rules of differentiation (cont’d)

## (b) Perform second and third order

'' '''
differentiation, f ( x) and f ( x)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 66
v. By using the chain rule

If y  f (u ) and u  g ( x )

dy dy du
then  
dx du dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 67
Example 1
dy
Find for the following functions ;
dx
a) y  (3x  2) 2 5

1
b) y 
4x  9

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 68
dy dy du
SOLUTION 1(a)  
dx du dx
y  (3x  2) 2 5

let u  and y
du dy
 and 
dx du
dy
 .

dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 69
SOLUTION 1(b)
1
y 1
4x  9  ( 4 x  9 )
.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 70
By using the power rule
In general, any composite function of
the form y   f ( x )  n

## is called the General Power Rule, and it is a special

case of the Chain Rule.
If u=f(x) is a differentiable function and n is any
real number, then
Step1 Step 2 Step 3

d
 f ( x)   n  f ( x)   f '( x)

n n 1

dx
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 71
Example 2

## Differentiate the following with respect to x,

3
a ) y  ( x  4)

3 4
b) f ( x )  ( x  1)
d
(c ) (2 x  9 x  6)
4 4

dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 72
1 2 3

d
Solution 2  f ( x )  n
n
 f ( x )  f '( x )
n 1

dx
3
a ) y  ( x  4)
3
2
1
dy 2 d
 3 ( x  4)  x  4
dx dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 73
1 2 3
d
 f ( x ) n  n  f ( x )
n 1
f '( x ) 
dx
3 4
b) f ( x )  ( x  1)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 74
1 2 3
Solution (c)
d
 f ( x ) n  n  f ( x ) n 1
f '( x ) 
dx
d
(c) (2 x  9 x  6)
4 4

dx 3
1 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 75
Example 3 Differentiate with respect to x
x
g( x ) 
1 x
Solution
1
x  x 2
g (x )   
1 x 1 x 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 76
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 77
Second And Third Order
Differentiation
dy
f '( x) , the first derivative of f
dx

## f ''( x), d2y

2 the second derivative of f
dx

## f '''( x), d3y

3
the third derivative of f
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 78
Example 5
Find the third derivative of
4 3 2
p( x )  2 x  9 x  5 x  7
Solution
p' ( x )  8 x  27 x  10 x
3 2

2
p' ' ( x )  24 x  54 x  10

## p' ' ' ( x )  48 x  54

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 79
Example 6

## If y  3 x 2  x show that y d2y dy

  6 y  1  6x .
dx 2 dx
Solution
y  3x2  x

80
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KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 81
Example 7

If y 
x
1 x 2
show that 1  x  y '' 3xy '  0
2

Solution

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KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 83
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
84
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 85
CONCLUSION
i) Chain rule :
If y  f (u ) and u  g ( x )
dy dy du
then  
dx du dx

d
 f ( x)   n  f ( x)   f '( x)
 n 1
ii) Power rule, n

dx

## iii) Second and Third Order Differentiation

dy
f '( x) , the first derivative of f
dx
f ''( x), d2y
the second derivative of f
dx 2
f '''( x ), d3y
dx 3 the third derivative of f 86
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Exercise
1) Find the derivatives of f '( x ) for each
of the following.
 1 x 
3
( x  5) 3
a ) f ( x)  b) f ( x )   
x 1  1 x 
dy
2) Given y  1  x . Prove that y
2
 x.
dx
3) If y  5  x , Show that
x 2
dy d y
6  4 x 2  0.
dx dx
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 87
Answers

1) (a) ( x  5) (5 x  11)
2

3
2( x  1) 2

Tutorial Exercise :
(b)
6(1  x ) 2

Question: (4) .
(1  x) 4

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89
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson students
are able to:
(a) Determine the derivatives of the
functions:
x f ( x) x f ( x)
i) a ,a ,e ,e
ii) ln x,ln f ( x)

90
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Derivative of ya x
and ya f ( x)

Theorem d x
 a   a ln a
x

dx
d
 a f ( x )   a f ( x ) f ' ( x ).(ln a )
dx

## , Tips: COPY X DIFF X lna

C D L
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 1 2 3 91
Example 1
Differentiate the following with respect to x

x
a) y  5
3 x 5
b) y  4
x2  2 x
c) y  3

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 92
d f ( x)
Solution  a   a  f ( x)(ln a)
f ( x) '

dx
x
a) y  5 C D L

dy x d
dx
5  x  ln 5
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 93
d f ( x)
3 x 5  a   a  f ( x)(ln a)
f ( x) '

b) y  4 dx
C D L

dy

dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 94
d f ( x)
x2  2 x  a   a  f ( x)(ln a)
f ( x) '

c) y  3 dx

dy 
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 95
Derivatives of Exponential Functions

d x d kx
e   e x
e   ke kx

dx dx
d  f  x 
e  f ( x )e
' f ( x)
OR
dx  
e f ( x) '
f ( x)
.

COPY X DIFF
C xD 96
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
dy dy du
= 
dx du dx
Let ye u
, where u  f  x
dy du
e  f  x
u

du dx
dy
dx
u
 
 e  f   x  
 f  x e f  x

Thus,
d
dx

e f  x
  f ' x e f  x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 97
Tips: COPY X DIFF

## Example 2 Find f ' ( x) . C X D

a) f ( x)  4e x
f '( x)  4e 1
x

x
=4e C D

b) f ( x )  e 3x
f '( x ) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 98
Example 2 Find f ' ( x) .

c) f ( x)  e x2 f '( x ) 
C D

d) f ( x)  e x f '( x ) 
1

e x2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 99
Example 3
Differentiate with respect to x:
3 x2  4 x
a) y  e

b) y  xe 4x

3x  2
c) f ( x)  x
e

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 100
dy dy du
Solution 3(a) = 
dx du dx
3 x2  4 x
ye i. Chain rule
Let y  , u
dy du
 
du dx
dy

dx

101
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Solution 3(a)
3 x2  4 x
d
dx

e 
f  x
 e f ' x
f  x

ye
ii. Formula
dy
 CxD
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 102
Solution
uv  '  vu  uv
' '

b) y  xe 4x v

dy
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 103
 u  vu   uv
'
Solution 3 (c)
  
v
2
3x  2 u v
f ( x)  x
e v

f '( x) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 104
f '( x) 

f '( x) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 105
Derivative of Logarithmic Functions

## f ( x)  ln x is differentiable for all x0

with
d
ln x   1
dx x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 106
dy dy du
= 
dx du dx
Let y  ln u where u  f x 
dy 1
 f  x 
du

du u dx

1 
    f  x 
dy
dx u
f  x

f  x
. 107
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Tips: INVERSE X DIFF
Therefore,
I D

d
ln f x  
1
f  x
 f   x  OR
dx
f  x 
=
f  x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 108
f  x 
d
ln f x   f  x   f   x  or f  x 
1
Example 4
dx
Differentiate the following with respect to x
a) f (x)  ln 3x b) f ( x)  ln x  1

 x  2
2

c) g ( x )  ln , x2
x 1
2

ln x
d) y  x ln 2 x e) y  x
e
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 109
SOLUTION d
ln f x  
1
f  x
 f  x
dx
a) f ( x)  ln 3x
ALTERNATIVE METHOD
Tips: I X D

f ( x )  ln 3  ln x
1
f ' (x)   3 1 1
3x f '( x )  0  (1) 
x x
1

x
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 110
Solution
b) f ( x)  ln x  1
=

Tips: I X D

f  x 1 1  d
   ( x  1)
2  x  1  dx

111
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Solution
 x  2
2

c) g ( x )  ln , x2
x2  1

Tips: I D

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 112
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 113
Solution uv  '  vu  uv
' '

d ) y  x ln 2 x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 114
 u=  vu   uv
'
Solution
  
v
2
ln x v
e) y  x
e

dy
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 115
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 116
CONCLUSION
(I) Derivatives of
Exponential Functions
(II) Derivative of
ya x
and ya f ( x) d
e   e
x x

dx
d x d
 a   a x ln a  e   ke
kx kx
dx
dx
d f ( x)
 
 a   a f ( x ) f ' ( x )(ln a ) d f  x
dx
Tips: COPY X DIFF X lna
e  e f ( x)
f ( x) '

C D L dx
Tips: COPY X DIFF
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 C D 117
(III) Derivative of Logarithmic Functions

d 1 1
 ln x   (1) 
dx x x
1 f  x 
d
ln f x  
f x 
f  x  
f x 
dx

## Tips: INVERSE X DIFF

I D

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 118
Exercise

## Differentiate with respect to x.

x  1 2x 
a) 5e d ) ln  
 2x 1 
1

b) e 15 x
(3x  1)
2 e) y  4 x

6 x8
f) y7
x
e
c) ln x
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 119
Answers

5e x
a) b) 6 x15 x  15x2e15 x  5e15 x
2 x
4
1 d)
c) (1  2 x)(2 x  1)
2 x ln x
1 
1
 e  6 x 8
 67
1 x
x
f)  x e 2
ln 7
4 ln 4
x
e) 2 
x2
Tutorial Exercise :
Question: (5) , (6)
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 120
121
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson students are
able to:
(a) Determine the derivatives of the
functions:
(iii) sin x, cos x, tan x
sec x, cosec x, cot x
(iv) sin u, cos u, tan u
sec u, cosec u, cot u
n n n
(v) sin n x, cos xn, tan xn
sec x, cosec x, cot x 122
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions

6 Basic functions:
d
1)  sin x   cos x
dx
d
2)  cos x    sin x
dx
d
3)  tan x   sec x
2

dx
123
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
d
4)  sec x   sec x tan x
dx
d
5)  cosec x    cosec x cot x
dx
d
6)  cot x    cosec x
2

dx
Note: The above differentiation formulae are
only true for angles which are
measured in radians.

124
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Additional Learning Tip:
The Magic Hexagon
d
-  C ..   ()ve
dx

sec2 - csc2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 125
Example 1

## Differentiate with respect to x

a ) 2sin x  3cos x
5
b) 4 tan x   5
x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 126
Solution 1:
d
a)  2 sin x  3cos x   2 cos x  3   sin x 
dx
 2 cos x  3sin x

b)
d
dx
 4 tan x  5 x  5  
1

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 127
Example 2

## Differentiate with respect to x

a) 2sec x
b) 3cosec x
c) 2cosec x  3cot x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 128
Solution 2 :

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 129
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 130
Composite functions:

If u  f ( x ) , then
d du
1)
dx
 sin u   cos u dx

d du
2)
dx
 cos u    sin u dx

d du
3)
dx
 tan u   sec u dx
2

131
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
d du
4)
dx
 sec u   sec u tan u dx

d du
5)
dx
 cosec u )   cosec u cot u
dx

d du
6)
dx
 cot u    cosec u
2

dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 132
Example 3

## Find the first derivative of :

a) cos ( 5x + 4 ) b) sin ( ln x )
1
c) tan(   3x) d) sec( 2 x  3)
6
1 2
e) cosec( x ) f ) sin ( 2 x )  cos( 3x )
3 4

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 133
du
Solution 3: dx

u u
d d
a)  cos  5x  4     sin 5 x  4  5 x  4 
dx dx
 5 sin5 x  4 
d
b)  sin  ln x   
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 134
d  1 
c)  tan(   3x) 
dx  6 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 135
d
d)  sec(2x  3) 
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 136
d 1 2
e)
dx
 cosec x )
2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 137
d
f)  sin( 2x )  cos (3x ) 
3 4

dx  

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 138
Example 4

2 dy
Given y  sin x . cos 3x, find .
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 139
Solution 4: uv  '  vu  uv
' '

2
y  sin x . cos 3x v

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 140
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 141
Differentiation of
n n n
sin x, cos x and tan x
Power Rules: 1 2
3

d d
1)
dx
n
 
sin x  n sin n 1
x
dx
 sin x 

d d
2)
dx
n

cos x  n cos x
n 1

dx
 cos x 
d d
3)
dx
n

tan x  n tan  n 1
x
dx
 tan x 
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 142
Differentiation of
n n n
sec x, cosec x and cot x
d d
4)
dx

sec n x  n sec n 1
x
dx
 sec x 

d d
5)
dx
 n

cos ec x  n cos ec x  cos ec x 
n 1

dx
d d
6)
dx
n

cot x  n cot  n 1
x
dx
 cot x 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 143
Step 3
Example 5 Step1 Step 2

d
 f ( x)   n  f ( x)  
 f '( x ) 
n n 1

dx
Differentiate each of the following functions
with respect to x.
4
a) y  tan x
3
b) y  sin x
4
c) y  2 cos x
2
d) y  cosec x
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 144
Solution 5:
4 4
a) y  tan x  tan x 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 145
3 3
b) y  sin x   sin x 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 146
4
c) y  2 cos x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 147
2
d) y  cos ec x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 148
Example 6
3
For y  cos x,
dy 
find the value of , if x 
dx 6

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 149
Solution 6

dy
dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 150
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 151
CONCLUSION
d
1)  sin x   cos x
dx
d
2)  cos x    sin x
dx
d
3)  tan x   sec 2
x
dx
d
4)  cosec x )   cosec x cot x
dx
d
5)  sec x   sec x tan x
dx
d
6)  cot x    cosec 2 x 152
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 dx
If u  f ( x ) , then
d du
7)
dx
 sin u   cos u
dx
d du
8)
dx
 cos u    sin u dx
d du
9)
dx
 tan u   sec u dx
2

d du
10)
dx
 sec u   sec u tan u dx
d du
11)
dx
 cosec u )   cosec u cot u
dx
d du
12)
dx
 cot u    cosec u
2

dx
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 153
Power Rules:
d d
13)
dx
n
 n 1
sin x  n sin x
dx
 
sin x 

d d
14)
dx
 n

cos x  n cos x n 1

dx
 cos x 

d d
15)
dx
 n

tan x  n tan n 1
x
dx
 tan x 

d d
16)
dx
 n
cosec x  n cosec x  n 1

dx
 cosec x 

d d
17)
dx
 n
sec x  n sec x
n 1

dx
 sec x 

d d
18)
dx
 n
cot x  n cot n 1
x
dx
 cot x 
154
154
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Exercise
Differentiate with respect to x.
a) y  2sec x
b) y  2sin x tan x
c) y  cos 2 x  tan 2 x

d ) y  sin x cos x 3

e) y  tan x  sec x2 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 155
Answers

a) 2sec x tan x
b) 2sin x(sec2 x  1)
c) -2sin 2 x  2sec 2 x
2

## d ) (cos x)(1  4sin x)

2 2

2
e) 4sec x tan x Tutorial Exercise :
Question: (7)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
156
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
157
LEARNING OUTCOMES

## At the end of the lesson students

are able to:
(b) Solve problems involving the
combinations of differentiation
rules.

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 158
Overall review: Differentiation
3 General Rules
1 2 3

## Polynomial Exponential Logarithmic Trigonometric

functions functions functions functions
Examples: Examples: Examples: Examples:
x 2 ln  3x  1
3
3x 2 x2  x
 2

3x, x  1 , 1  2 x , e , 3 , ,
 1  2x 
ln(cot x )
2
,

 3x 4
 2x  x
3
5 sin x  xl n x
.
ln 
 x  1 .

esin x .
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 159
Solve Problems of Differentiation
Example 1
Find the first derivatives of the functions given below
:  1 2x 
a) f x   e 3x2
x 1
2
  c) f  x   ln 

x 1 

2x
f x   d) f x  ln ln  ln 2x  
e
b)
1 e x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 160
Solution 1a:

f x   e 3x2
x 2

1
f '( x) 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 161
Solution 1b:
2x
f x  
e
1 e x

f '( x) 
    
1  e x e2 x  2   e2 x e x

1  e 
2
x

e  2 1  e   e 
2x  x x
e 2x
 2  e x

  

1  e  1  e 
2 2
x x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 162
Solution 1c:
 1 2x 
f x   ln  

 x  1 

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 163
d  1
 d  1

f '( x)  ln 1  2 x    ln  x  1 
2 2

dx   dx  

164
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Solution 1d:
f x  ln ln  ln 2x  

165
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Example 2
Find the derivatives of

a) f  x   3 x2  x
c) h  x   2 e 2 x  x 1

b) g  x   5 x  ln x
d) p  x   2  ex2 2x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 166
Solution 2a:

f x  3 x2  x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 167
Solution 2b:

g x  5 x  ln x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 168
Solution 2c:

hx  2 e 2 x  x 1

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 169
Solution 2d: Using the Product Rule,

px   2  e x2 2x

V U’ U

170
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Example 3
Find the derivatives of ;

a) y  ln(cot x )
b) y  e cosec 2x

sin x 2
c) y  e
 1  tan x 
d) y  ln  
 1  tan x 
171
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18
Solution 3a:

y  ln(cot x)

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 172
Solution 3b:

y e cosec 2x

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 173
Solution 3c:
sin x 2
ye

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 174
Solution 3d:
 1  tan x 
y  ln   
 1  tan x 

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Overall review: Differentiation
3 General Rules
1 2 3

## Polynomial Exponential Logarithmic Trigonometric

functions functions functions functions
Examples: Examples: Examples: Examples:
x 2 ln  3x  1
3
3x 2 x2  x
 2

3x, x  1 , 1  2 x , e , 3 , ,
 1  2x 
ln(cot x )
2
,

 3x 4
 2x  x
3
5 sin x  xl n x
.
ln 
 x  1 .

esin x .
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Exercise
1. Differentiate each of the following:
(a) g  x   ln 1  2 x 
3 Hint : g  x   ln 1  2 x 
3

(b) f  x   2 x 3 ln x

2 x
2. Given y   3  4 x  e , show that
2
d y dy
2
 4  4 y  0
dx dx
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Answers

6 ln 1  2 x 
2
1 (a)
1 2x

(b) 1  3ln x  x 2
2 x3 ln x
ln 2

Tutorial Exercise :
Question: (7) , (8)

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson students
are able to:

## a) Find the first and the second

derivatives implicitly.

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IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS

Examples

2x  y  y  4
2 2
l n ( x  y)  2 y  1
2

## where y is not given explicitly as a function of x,

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DIFFERENTIATION OF IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS

dy
To find , we need to differentiate each
dx
term with respect to x.

## In general : chain rule

d d  dy 
g(y)   g(y)   
dx dy  dx 
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Example 1
Differentiate with respect to x:

(a)
d
dx
 y (b)
d
dx
3 y2 
(c)
d y
dx
e   (d)
d
dx
 ln y 
(e)
d 2y
dx

e  3y2  6x  (f )
d
dx
 xy 
d x
(g)  
dx  y 
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SOLUTION

(a)
d
 y (b)
d
dx
3y2 
dx
d dy
  y
dy dx

dy dy
1 
dx dx

d dy
 y 
dx dx
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(c )
d y
dx
e  

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( e)
d 2y
dx

e  3y2  6x 

## Reminder : Make sure that the derivative of

any term involving y includes
the factor of dy .
dx
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u v Use the Product Rule
d
f)  xy 
dx
d d uv  '  vu ' uv '
 y[  x ]  x[  y ]
dx dx
Note: the derivative of x
with respect to x is 1, but
the derivative of y with
respect to x is dy
dx

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u
Use the Quotient Rule
d x
g)  
 u  vu ' uv '
'
dx  y  v
  
 
2
v v

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Example 2

dy
Find in terms of x and y if
dx
(a) 3x 2  2 y 2  6  4 y
(b) x 2 y 2  x 2  y 2

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Solution 2a: Procedures:
( a) 3 x  2 y  6  4 y
2 2 Differentiate both
sides with respect
dy dy
6x  4 y  4 to x.
dx dx
dy dy
4  4y  6 x
dx dx
Then, express dy
dy
4(1  y )  6 x dx
in terms of x and y
dx
dy 6 x  3x  3x

dx 4(1  y ) 2(1  y ) 2( y  1)
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Solution 2b: u v

(b) x 2
y x y
2 2 2

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Example 3

dy
Find :
dx
(a) e x  2 y  3x
y 2 3

(b) y  l n( x  y )
2 2 2

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Solution 3a: uv  '  vu ' uv '
( a) e y x 2  2 y  3x 3

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Solution 3b: 1
d
ln f x  
f x 
f  x 

(b) y  l n( x  y )
2 2 2 dx

I xD

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Example 4
dy
Find in terms of x and y if x 2 sin y  2 x  y.
dx
Solution:

dx

d 2
d
dx
d
x sin y   2 x    y  .
dx

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Example 5

If y  xe , show that
3x

2
d y dy
2
 6  9 y  0
dx dx

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dy d2 y dy d2 y
METHOD 1: ( Find and 2 , then use y, ,
dx 2
dx dx dx
as substitution when it is appropriate )
Solution:
y  xe 3x

dy
dx
 e (1)  x 3e
3x 3x
 
dy
 e  3 x  1 …................. (1)
3x

dx
2
d y
2
  3 x  1 3e 3x
 e 3x
 3  …….(2)
dx
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From (1) and (2):
dy 2
 e  3 x  1 ;
3x d y
 3e  3x  2 
3x
dx dx 2

OR
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METHOD 2: (Differentiate both sides, and then
Solution: simplify)

y  xe 3x

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Example 6

If y  2 xy  2 x , show that
2 2

2
d y dy  dy 
2
(y  x) 2  2     2  0
dx dx  dx 

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Solution:
Differentiate each term with respect to x :
y  2 xy  2 x
2 2 Use Product Rule
d
 2 xy 
dx

## Differentiate every term again with respect to x :

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Example 7

## The height of a tree increases at a rate of 1 m

per year and the radius increases at 0.2 m per
year. What is the increasing rate of the volume
of timber when its height is 10 m and the radius
is 1 m.
(Assume the tree is a circular cylinder).

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CONCLUSION

d d  dy 
1.  g ( y)    g ( y)   
dx dy  dx 
d dy
2.  y 
dx dx

3.
d y
dx
e e  
y dy

dx
d  1  dy
4.  ln y    
dx  y  dx

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 212
Exercise

dy
1. Find in term of x and y if
dx
a) 3 y  2 y  xy  x
2 3

x y
b) ln xy  e
2. Given that xy  sin 3x,
2
d y dy
show that x 2  2  9 xy  0
dx dx
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 213
Answers

3x  y 2
1 (a).
x  6y  2

(b).
 2 xe  1 y
x y

1  2 ye  x x y
Tutorial Exercise :
Question: (9) – (17), 23.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson students are
able to:

## (a) Use parametric differentiation

to find first and second
derivatives.

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Parametric Equation :

## is an equation where x and y are both given as

functions of a third variable , t , (called a
parameter ) .

Example:

x = t2 , y =t-1

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Parametric Differentiation
If x = f(t) and y = g(t) then by using
dy
the chain Rule we can determine as :
dx
dy dy dt dt 1
  where  OR
dx dt dx dx dx
dt
 dy 

dy  dt 

dx  dx 
 
 dt 
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Second Order Derivative

d  dy 
d y dt  dx 
2

2

dx dx
dt

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Example 1

dy d2y
Find and 2
in terms of the parameter t if :
dx dx

x  2t , y  4t  1
3 2

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 220
dy dy dx
 
Solution : dx dt dt
dx dy
x  2t , y  4t  1
3 2
Find
dt
and
dt
.
dx
 ,
dy

dt dt

## Use the chain rule :

 dy 
dy  dt 
 
dx  dx 
 dt 
 

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Example 2

If x  ln 4t and y  e
3 3t

2
dy d y
Find and 2
in terms of t.
dx dx

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Example 3

2 1
If x  and y  .
(1  t ) 2 1 t
2
dy 1 d y
Show that  (1  t ) and find 2 .
dx 4 dx

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Example 4

If x  te and y  e
2t 2t
, find
dy
(i)
dx
2
d y
(ii) 2 when t  0
dx

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Example 5

dy
Find in terms of the parameter t if :
dx
1
3
x  , y  (1  t )
2 2

dy
Hence, find the value of if t  1
dx

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Example 6

## A curve has parametric equations

x  et and y  sin t.
dy
Find in terms of t.
dx

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Solution :
dy dy dt
 
dx dt dx
y  sin t , xe
t

dy dx dt 1
 cos t , e   t
t

dt dt dx e

dy 1
 cos t  t
dx e
cos t
= t
e
KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 236
CONCLUSION

dy dy dt dt 1
1.   where 
dx dt dx dx dx
dt
d  dy 
d 2 y dt  dx 
2. 2

dx dx
dt

KMS/QS015_MATH/2017_18 237
Exercise
dy
1. Find in terms of the parameter t if
dx
3
(a) x  , y  1  t (b) x   cos3t , y  2sin 3t.
2 2

t
dy d2y
2. Find and 2 in terms of t given that
dx dx
1
(a) x  , y  3t  2
2
(b) x  3ln t , y  3e
2 t2

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Answers

2
dy d y
t 3 2. (a) =  6t ,
3
=18t 4
1. (a) dx dx 2
3 1 t2
dy 2 t 2 d y t e (t 2  1)
2 2 t2

## (b) 4cos3t (b) =t e , 2

=
dx dx 3

Tutorial Exercise :
Question: (18) - (22)

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