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MODALITIES OF IMMOBILIZATION

TRACTION
BY:

NUR ZATIL AQMAR


BAYANG ANAK STEPHEN MUSA
DEFINITION
 force applied in a specific direction .To apply the force needed
to overcome the natural force or pull of muscle groups, a
system of ropes, pulleys, and weights is used.

 Traction is the application of a pulling force to a part of a body.

 The application of a force to stretch certain parts of the body in


a specific direction.
INDICATION
 To reduce and immobilize fracture
 To regain normal length and alignment of an
injured extremity
 To lessen or eliminate muscle spasm

 To prevent deformity

 To reduce pain
CLASSIFICATION OF TRACTION

 SKIN TRACTION
 The traction force applied over a large area of skin
 Adhesive

 Non-adhesive

 Force applied is transmitted from skin to the bones via


superficial fascia, deep fascia and intermuscular septa.
 The traction force is applied only to the limb distal to the
fracture for better efficiency.
APPLICATION
 Adhesive skin traction
 Prepare the skin by shaving as well as washing & applying
tincture benzoin which protect the skin and acts as an
additional adhesive.

 Non-adhesive skin traction.


 Used in thin & atrophic skin.
 Frequent reapplication may be necessary.
 Attached traction weight must not be more than 4.5kg.
 Skin sensitive to adhesive strapping
INDICATION FOR SKIN TRACTION
 Temporary management of fracture of Neck of Femur and
Intertrochanteric fracture
 Management of fracture – Femoral shaft of older and hefty
children
 Undisplaced fracture of acetabulum
 After reduction of dislocation of Hip
 To correct minor fixed flexion deformities of hip and knee.
TYPES OF SKIN TRACTION
 Buck’s extension
 Russell’s traction

 Bryant’s traction

 Pelvic belt (girdle)

 Pelvic sling traction

 Head halter
BUCK’S EXTENSION
RUSSELL’S TRACTION
BRYANT’S TRACTION
PELVIC BELT (GIRDLE)
 Used for sciatica, muscle spasm (low back) and
minor fracture of the lower spine.
PELVIC SLING TRACTION
 treatment of pelvic fracture.
 patient is placed in a canvas sling or hammock
that is suspended by a tension spring to an
overhead frame bar.
HEAD HALTER
CHIN HALTER
 SKELETAL TRACTION
 Applied directly to the bone either by a pin or wire through
the bone. ( eg – steinmann pin, denham pin, kirschner wire).
 Used as a means of reducing or maintaining the reduction
of a fracture.
 Should be reserved for those cases in which skin traction is
contraindicated.
 Skeletal traction is often used when continuous traction is
desired to immobilize, position and align a fractured bone
properly during the healing process.
 Weight required for traction more than 5kg
 TYPES OF SKELETAL TRACTION

 Overhead arm
 Later arm
 Balanced suspension traction
 Skeletal tongs
 Halo traction
OVERHEAD ARM
 Commonly used for immobilization for traction
and dislocation of the upper arm and shoulder.
 Shoulder and elbow are maintain at 90° angle.
LATER ARM
 Commonly used in immobilization of the
fracture & dislocation of the upper arm &
shoulder.
BALANCED SUSPENSION TRACTION
 Balanced suspension traction is used to
stabilize fractures of the femur and requires
an invasive procedure in which pins, screws or
wires are surgically installed.
 Weights used in skeletal traction generally
range from 11-18kg
SKELETAL TONGS
HALO TRACTION
 A halo-vest is a brace that is used to immobilize
and protect the cervical spine and neck after
surgery or accident.
 The halo is a ring that surrounds the head and
is attached by pins to the outer portion of the
skull