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Redrawal of National Boundaries

Redrawal of Boundaries
Q. How Redrawal of Boundaries??

2.
1. Breaking up of Large
Integration/Unification
Empires
of Regional units

Nationalism

Growth of Nation-States
Redrawal of National Boundaries
Redrawal of Boundaries Growth of Nation-States

1600s England

1850s Western Europe, France etc.

It is a dynamic process
Unification of Germany &
Today 195 Italy
Future it might be more
than 195+
1900s Eastern Europe
1920s Almost Europe

1950s Post WW-II, Asia & Africa


Redrawal of Boundaries Growth of Nation-States

Q. Factors responsible for this?

1. Intellectual &
Cultural factor

2. Political Nationalism
factors

3. Economic
Transport &
communication
Redrawal of Boundaries Growth of Nation-States

Q. Factors responsible for this?


1. Intellectual &
Cultural factor

Renaissance
Development of Local
language

It took place of Greek-


Latin.

New societies based on


languages started
developing.
Redrawal of Boundaries Growth of Nation-States

Q. Factors responsible for this?


1. Intellectual &
Cultural factor

Renaissance Broke the


cultural unity of Europe
Greek-Latin Holy Roman
Language Church
Local language people
started living together

Holy Roman
Empire
Redrawal of Boundaries Growth of Nation-States

Q. Factors responsible for this?


1. Intellectual &
Cultural factor

Renaissance Broke the


cultural unity of Europe
Greek-Latin Holy Roman
Language Church
Enlightenment Q. the
authority of the church

Holy Roman
Empire Holy roman empire got
weak New Boundaries
Redrawal of Boundaries Growth of Nation-States

Q. Factors responsible for this?


1. Intellectual &
Cultural factor

Renaissance Broke the


cultural unity of Europe
Greek-Latin Holy Roman
Language Church
Factor of Race-Ethnicity-
Caste

Holy Roman
Empire German Race, Slav Race,
Serbs, Bulgars…..
Redrawal of Boundaries Growth of Nation-States

Q. Factors responsible for this?


1. Intellectual &
Cultural factor

Renaissance Broke the


cultural unity of Europe
Greek-Latin Holy Roman
Language Church
Development of Local
Culture based on
language, caste & religion
Holy Roman
Empire Based on that Countries
formed
Redrawal of Boundaries Growth of Nation-States

Q. Factors responsible for this?


2. Political

French Revolution
Popular soverignity

European people got this


message

Boundaries drawn on will of


the people
Redrawal of Boundaries Growth of Nation-States

Q. Factors responsible for this?


3. Economic
Modern World History
Redrawal of National Boundaries
Unification of Germany & Italy
Redrawal of Boundaries

French Revolution
Napoleon’s Conquest

Vienna Order Restoring


the boundaries to monarchy Development of Nation
Unification of Germany & States
Italy

Breaking up of British
Empire Partition of India
French Revolution
1789 Starting of Revolution
Section-A
1815 Fall of Napoleon & End of Revolution

It is not an event of history,


It is a living legend
It is a process

1830 July Revolution


Section-B 1848 February Revolution

1871 Estd. Of French Republic


French Revolution Section-A

Phase-III 1792 National Convention


Radical 1793 Jacobins comes to power
Phase 1795 Directory Rule
1795-98 Rise of Napoleon

1799 Napoleon comes to power


1804 Napoleon become emperor

Phase-IV Reforms by Napoleon


Napoleonic wars
Age of
Napoleon 1815 Defeat of Napoleon @ Waterloo
Starting of Metternich System
French Revolution Napoleon
Italy before Napoleon
Genoa Local Republic
piedmont-sardinia
House of Savoy

Venice-LombardyAustria
Parma-Modena-
TuscanyAustrain Princes

Central Italy-Papal States


Pope
Naples-Sicily Bourbon
Dynasty
French Revolution Napoleon
Italy after Napoleon

1796 Napoleon Conquers


Italy

Napoleon unifies Italy


Napoleon Bonaparte Q. Emperor

Defeated the European coalition


Austria, Prussia etc. by 1806

Unified Germany from 30039

Tried to defeat England by using


Continental System(1806-10)

Tried to control Spain Ulcer


Resulting into defeat

Finally defeated by European force @ Leipzig (1813) & waterloo (1814)


Napoleon Bonaparte
Finally defeated by European force @ Leipzig (1813) & waterloo (1814)

Q. Causes behind Napoleon’s downfall?

Napoleon’s faults Highly ambitious

Offensive monarchy Underestimated Nationalism

Continuous war Russian attack1812

Couldn’t challenge naval power of Britain


Post Napoleon Development
1815 Vienna order/Concert of Europe/
Metternich System

1848 February Revolution@ France


Decline of Metternich system

1850 Metternich runs away to England


Post Napoleon Developments
French vs. Britain, Prussia, Austria, Sweden

Metternich, the Austrian Prince conveyed a


meeting of all the European Kings @ Vienna in
1815

Metternich
Metternich, the Austrian Prince conveyed a meeting of all the
European Kings @ Vienna in 1815
Vienna Congress
Vienna Congress
Gave 3 goals @ the meeting
Monarchy….

work in “Concert” to stop growing Isms from


spreading Known as Metternich System

Feared Liberalism, Nationalism, Republicanism

Metternich

Very Conservative
Vienna Congress
Gave 3 goals @ the meeting
Monarchy….

1.Balance of Power

2. Idea of Legitimacy

3. Victors should be rewarded Metternich


Out come of the Meet
Monarchy….
Anti- Liberal
Crushing of
Revolutions

Anti- National

Restoration
of Absolute
Monarchies Metternich
Anti- People
Metternich System
Now it’s my turn Balance of Power
Maintain peace.
Q. How?

1789 Revolution in France

Metternich Therefore, France should be


surrounded by stronger states
Italian territory Genoa Given
Strengthening of Prussia
to Piedmont-sardinia
Metternich System
2. Idea of Legitimacy
Now it’s my turn

Restoring Monarchy back to


power

Bourbon Dynasty Restored


France, Spain & Naples-Sicily
Metternich
House of Savoy restored in
Piedmont-sardinia
Rule of Austrian Princes in Rule of Pope restored in
Parma, Modena, Tuscany Central Italy
Metternich System
Now it’s my turn 3. Victors should be rewarded

Rhineland Prussia

Poland Russia

Metternich
Prussia also rewarded with
areas from Swedish parmenia,
saxony etc.
Restoration of Holy Roman
Empire Lombardi & Venetia Austria
Metternich System
What to do with
Germany 3. Victors should be rewarded

Germany kept intact

Austrian prince made the ruler


of Germany
Metternich

Except Piedmont-sardinia all


Napoleon integrated 300
other places were ruled by
German states into 39
Foreigners
Metternich System
Reaction to Vienna Congress

Q. Do u think, that the system created by Metternich


will be accepted by the people of Europe???

No. The people of Europe reacted. The Vienna


congress tried to supress the aspirations of common
man. Hence, the force of Nationalism was
responsible behind this.
Reaction to Vienna Congress
1. Restoration of old absolute monarchy in France
Reaction in the form of 1830 & 1848 revolution

1830 Revolution Belgium declared Independence


from Holland

2. Nationalist Formation of Nation-States


Unification of Italy & Germany
Reaction to Vienna Congress
1. Restoration of old absolute monarchy in France Reaction in the form of
1830 & 1848 revolution
1789 Starting of Revolution

1815 Fall of Napoleon & Vienna Congress

Restoration of Old Monarchies in


Europe & France

1830 July Revolution

1848 February Revolution


Reaction to Vienna Congress
2. Restoration of old absolute monarchy in France Reaction in the form of
1830 & 1848 revolution
1815 Vienna System
Q. Why 1830
Restoration of Old Monarchies in
Revolution
Europe & France

अब मेरी बारी हैं Louis XVIII Comes to Power

Old Man, Weak personality

Therefore, French people didn’t opposed


him.

Louis XVIII
Reaction to Vienna Congress
2. Restoration of old absolute monarchy in France Reaction in the form of
1830 & 1848 revolution
1824 Charlex X Succeds Louis XVIII
Q. Why 1830
Ambitious King, Wanted to control power
Revolution
July 1830 Issued an Ordinance
अब
I’ll मे री बारी
again हैं
become
the state now… Dissolves the elected house Parliament

Voter’s Franchise decreased

Press , Civil liberty Curtailed

Changes in Election System


Charles X
Reaction to Vienna Congress
2. Restoration of old absolute monarchy in France Reaction in the form of
1830 & 1848 revolution
July 1830 Issued an Ordinance
Q. Why 1830
Revolution Reaction from the Public Mass rebellion
@ Streets of Paris
I’ll again become Need to
teach you a
Kings runs away
the state now… Downfall of Bourbon
lesson
Dynasty

Orleans dynasty comes to


power
Charles X
French -आम आदमी
Reaction to Vienna Congress
2. Restoration of old absolute monarchy in France Reaction in the form of
1830 & 1848 revolution
July 1830 Revolution of 1830
Q. Why 1848 Reaction from the Public Mass rebellion
Revolution @ Streets of Paris

अब मेरी बारी हैं July 1830 Orleans Dynasty comes to Power

Tried to maintain status-quo in


France

French people want change but the king


rejected. Therefore people revolted
Louis Phillipe again
Reaction to Vienna Congress
2. Restoration of old absolute monarchy in France Reaction in the form of
1830 & 1848 revolution
1830s Socialism ideology
Q. Why 1848 King wanted status quo. People wanted
Revolution change

अब मेरी बारी हैं 1848 People demanding increase in Voters


Franchisee
King rejected. People took to
streets. King overthrown.

Napoleon III made the president of


Napoleon III
France.

Louis Phillipe
Reaction to Vienna Congress
Q. Impact of July 1830 Revolution

1. Impact on France
1. End of Bourbon Dynasty
2. Orleans dynasty comes to power
3. France became Constitutional Monarchy

4. Middle class became strong


Reaction to Vienna Congress
Q. Impact of July 1830 Revolutions

2. Impact on Europe
1. Cascading effect
दौड़ा दौड़ा के
Mass revolutions in Europe मारो सबको
Spain, Portugal, Italy, Poland, Belgium
2. Belgium became Independent from Holland

3.Rebellion in Germany & Italy


Suppressed by Metternich’s Army
Metternich
4. Triumph of Nationalism
Beginning of an End of Vienna System
Reaction to Vienna Congress
Q. Impact of July 1848 Revolution

1. Impact on France Napoleon III assumes power as


1. End of Constitutional Monarchy president & later in 1852 becomes
the emperor once again.
2. France became Republic (again)
3. Lower class got strengthened
अब मेरी बारी हैं
4. Universal Adult Franchisee
5. Socialism in France

By 1871, France finally


became Republic Napoleon III
Reaction to Vienna Congress
Q. Impact of July 1848 Revolution

1. Impact on Europe बचाओ


1. Nationalist uprising in Europe
2. Italy, Germany, Holland, Hungary
3. People revolted against Metternich
4. Metternich Ran away. End of Vienna Congress
5. Socialist Idea’s proliferated. Metternich
Reaction to Vienna Congress
2. Restoration of old absolute monarchy in France Reaction in the form of
1830 & 1848 revolution
1789 Starting of Revolution

1815 Fall of Napoleon & End of Revolution

1830 July Revolution


It is not an event
of history,
It is a living legend 1848 February Revolution Napoleon III
It is a process becomes President
1852 Napoleon III becomes emperor of France

1871 Estd. Of French Republic


Unification of Italy & Germany
Reaction to Vienna Congress
1848 February Revolution Napoelon III become President

1852 Napoleon III emperor of France

Rules over Italy from 1848-1871.


My turn to rule During German Unification, the Franco-
over France
Prussian war takes place.
France gets defeated.
End of French Monarchy.
Finally France became republic in 1871.

Napoleon III
Redrawal of Boundaries

Unification of Italy & Germany


Unification of Italy

Till 1795 Italy was a Geographical Expression


Background
1795-96 Napoleon conquers Italy & unifies it

I am the
Revolution
Unification of Italy
Italy before Napoleon
Genoa Local Republic
piedmont-sardinia
House of Savoy

Venice-LombardyAustria
Parma-Modena-
TuscanyAustrain Princes

Central Italy-Papal States


Pope
Naples-Sicily Bourbon
Dynasty
Unification of Italy

Italy before Napoleon


Smaller States Jealous of Each Other
Foreign Domination
Geographical barriers Regional
Disparity

No harmony among leaders


City-States Diverse Culture
French Revolution I am the
Italy after Napoleon Revolution
Napoleon Conquers Italy
Abolished feudal Institutions

Promoted free trade among


Italian states

Italian’s got feeling of


Nationalism  glorious past

Hence, Italian favoured for


Political Unification
Unification of Italy Process

1796 Geographical Expression


Napoleon’s
conquest Napoleon’s Conquest
1815 Vienna Congress
Reaction Rise of Individuals & Organisations
Development of Economy &
Communications

1830-1848 Revolutions & its impact, Fall of


Vienna Congress
1854 Event Crimean War
Unification of Italy Process

1858-59 War against Austria


Phase-I Integration of Lombardy

1860 Integration of Parma, Modena &


Tuscany
Phase-II
Integration of Naples & Sicily

1866 Integration of Venetia


Phase-III
1870 Integration of Rome
Unification of Italy

Q. Factors 1. Role of Napoleon(1796-1815)


responsible 2. Vienna Congress (1815)
3. 1830 & 1848 Revolutions
piedmont- 4. Fall of European Congress (1850)
sardinia 5. Role of Individuals Mazzini,
Count Cavour, Garibaldi
6. Crimean Wars(1854)
Use of
7. German Unification (1870)
Diplomacy
8. Economic Development Trade
& Commerce
Unification of Italy

Till 1795 Italy was a Geographical Expression


Background
1795-96 Napoleon conquers Italy & unifies it
Unification of Italy
1815 Vienna Congress

Bourbon Dynasty Restored


France, Spain & Naples-Sicily

House of Savoy restored in


Piedmont-sardinia

Rule of Pope restored in


Central Italy
Lombardi & Venetia Austria
Unification of Italy

1830 & Revolutions & its Impact


1848
Unification of Italy

1810 Role of Individuals & Organisations

Establishment of Carbonari
Secret society of Charcoal burners

Aim: to free Italy from foreigners &


establishment of legal freedom.
Unification of Italy

1810 Economic Development

1750s Economically backward

1800s Onwards Railway lines


Trade increased as interdependence
Also Brought political awakening
Unification of Italy

1810 Individuals Writers & Philosophers


Silvio Pellico Wrote @ Austrian
prison

Gioberti ‘Moral & civil


superiority of Italy’
Unification of Italy

1830 Unification, still a long process

Till, 1830, Italian Unification stays on Paper. Not


much effort was paid. Even in 1830 revolution,
Metternich send Austrian army to curb the
Italian feelings
Unification of Italy

1830-50 Role of Individuals & Organisations

MazziniHeart Count CavourBrain Gari BaldiSword


Unification of Italy

1830-50 Role of Individuals & Organisations

Mazzini Estd. Young Italy


Participated in 1830 revolution
Sent to exile in France
MazziniHeart
Within 2 years 60000 members of
Young Italy
Unification of Italy

1830-50 Role of Individuals & Organisations

Garibaldi Took part in Young Italy


February 1848 revolution fought
against Austria
Fled away to RomeAmerica
Gari
BaldiSword
1854 Came back to Italy &
participated in Unification process
Unification of Italy

1830-50 Role of Individuals & Organisations

Count Cavour Gets help from King


Victor Emmanuel-II of
piedmont-sardinia

In 1852, became Prime minister of Count


piedmont-sardinia State CavourBrain

Newspaper Risorgimento
Unification of Italy

1852 Q. Count Cavour as PM of piedmont-sardinia

Identified obstacles for Italy’s


unification

Used Diplomacy as well as Economic


tools for Italy’s Unification Count
CavourBrain
1. Cavour’s Economic policy
2. Use of Smart Diplomacy
Unification of Italy

Count Cavour as PM of piedmont-sardinia कुछ ददन तो


1852 दबताओ हमारे
Onwards राज्य में
1. Cavour’s Economic policy
Made piedmont-sardinia model state
Liberty of Press, Civil rights
Establishments of Banks, Co-
operatives society
Economic growth of his State
Count
Abolishes the privileges of the CavourBrain
Church
Unification of Italy

Count Cavour as PM of piedmont-sardinia कुछ ददन तो


1852 दबताओ हमारे
Onwards राज्य में
1. Cavour’s Economic policy
Made piedmont-sardinia model state
Strengthed the Army90000 Soldiers
Fortified old places

Hence in next few years, Cavour


made his state role model in Italy. Count
It also urged other states people to CavourBrain

join Cavour.
Unification of Italy

1852 Count Cavour as PM of piedmont-sardinia


कूट नीदत
Onwards
2. Use of Smart Diplomacy
a. Eastern Question
b. Diplomatic relation with France

Count
CavourBrain
Unification of Italy कूट नीदत

1852 Count Cavour as PM of piedmont-sardinia


Onwards
2. Use of Smart Diplomacy a. Eastern Question

Count
CavourBrain
Unification of Italy कूट नीदत

2. Use of Smart Diplomacy a. Eastern Question


1854-56
Crimea Strategic location
Russia wanted to control Crimea

In 1854, Britain & France together Count


fought against Russia for the control CavourBrain
over Crimean Peninsula.

Count Cavour send his army to help Britain


& France. Hence Russia was defeated
Unification of Italy हमको Austria
मार रहा है
2. Use of Smart Diplomacy a. Eastern Question
1854-56
Count Cavour won the confidence
from the British & France

1856 Paris Conference to solve the Eastern


question Count
Cavour invited to take part in this conference CavourBrain

Cavour highlights the suppression of Italy done


by the Austrian rulers
Made Britain & France aware about the
condition of Italy
Unification of Italy Let’s fight
against Austria
2. Use of Smart Diplomacy a. France
1858
Signs Plombier’s pact with Napoleon III
What will I
get boss?
France will help Italy to fight against
Austria
Count
Matrimonial Alliance signed CavourBrain

France in turn to be given Nice & Savoy

Napoleon III
Now, France also under Italian influence.
Unification of Italy
अब आएगा मज़ा

1858-70 Stage set for Direct Confrontation

With Britain & France under Italian


Influence, Cavour knew, Austria
won’t get any help.
Count
The process of Unification Starts CavourBrain
1. Lombardy (1859)
2. Parma-Modena-Tuscany (1860)
Naples-Sicily (1860)
3. Venice (1866)
Rome(1870)
Unification of Italy
Lombardy……

1859 Integration of Lombardy

Venice-Lombardy under Austrian occupation


Cavour ये तू
ठीक नहीीं कर Cavour instigates people to rebel against the
रहा है
Austrian rulers
Austrian Reaction Declares war on Count
Piedmont- sardinia CavourBrain

Cavour Calls on ally France(plombiers pact) & with


this liberated Lombardy from Austrian Control
Couldn’t liberate Venice as in-between France left the
war
Unification of Italy Parma-Modena-
Tuscany

1860 Integration of Parma-Modena-Tuscany

1859 Piedmont Vs. Austria War


मारो सब को
Spill over effect People in these states
started rebelling against Austrian rulers
Austria & Prussia tries to supress these Count
rebellion CavourBrain

Cavour Uses Diplomacy. Highlights this to Britain

British PM Palmerstone Italy must be left alone. No


external power should intervene
Unification of Italy Let people
decide

1860 Integration of Parma-Modena-Tuscany

Britain,
Austria was looking for International support
France help to curb this rebellion
us
Britain No interference
Count
France Matrimonial alliance, Nice & Savoy. CavourBrain
Hence no interference

Cavour Let people decide whom they want to be part of

Plebiscite takes place in this states People decided to


merge with Piedmont-sardinia
Unification of Italy
बॉस फस गए

1860 Integration of Naples-Sicily

Ruled by Bourbon Dynasty


Napoleon III & Cavour had conducted
Plombiers pact.
Count
Post Integration of Parma-Modena-Tuscany CavourBrain

people of Naples-Sicily also came to Street


Cavour couldn’t interfere in Naples-Sicily as Napoleon will
take it offensive
Unification of Italy Garibaldi…u do
बॉस फस गए
something

1860 Integration of Naples-Sicily

I’ll liberate Cavour Made Garibaldi the face of


Naples-Sicily
resistance

Garibaldi Organised group of Soldiers ‘Red Count


Shirts’ CavourBrain

May 1860 Naples-Sicily conquered & liberated


Gari
BaldiSword
Unification of Italy
I’ll integrate
Venice & Rome
1861 Count cavour passes away

Integration of Venice & Rome


to be done under leadership
of King Victor Emmanuel-II of
Piedmont-Sardinia
Victor
Emmanuel-III
Unification of Italy

1866 Integration of Venice


Austria used to control Venice
Venice को
नहीीं छोड़ें गे Victor Emmanuel concludes treaty with
Bismarck (Prussia) Let’s sign a
Okay…koi baat nahi treaty

Victor
Emmanuel-II
Unification of Italy I’ll integrate
Venice

1866 Integration of Venice


Okay…pakka Victor Emmanuel concludes treaty with
na
Bismarck (Prussia)

Victor
Italy will attack Austria when Prussia Vs. Emmanuel-II
Austria war takes place

In turn Venice to be given to be piedmont-sardinia


Unification of Italy
I’ll integrate
1866 Integration of Venice Venice

July 1866 Battle of Sodowa


Prussia Vs. Austria

Prussia was defeated by Austria


Venice merged with Italy
Victor
Emmanuel-II
Unification of Italy I’ll integrate
Rome

1870 Integration of Rome


Rome is Rome Papal States Under Pope
under my Given protection by Napoleon3(France)
protection
Waiting for right opportunity
Victor
Emmanuel-II
1870 France Vs. Prussia War Battle of Sedan
The Italian army enters Rome as no French soldiers were
there to protect it.
Napoleon III
Rome was made capital of Italy.
Pope was made sovereign ruler of Vatican City.
Redrawal of Boundaries

Unification of Germany
Unification of Germany I am the
Revolution

1800 Napoleon’s conquest of Germany

Germany Used to be of 300 States


Napoleon unifies these states

Gradually, 39 states became as Rhine Federation

300 States

DietRep.
39 States
of people
I am the
Unification of Germany Revolution

1800 Napoleon’s conquest of Germany

Takes the message of Liberty, Equality &


Fraternity for the Germans
Adopted policy of Free Trade
Free movement of Goods
German Nationalism developed because of
Napoleon
Unification of Germany
Monarchy…

1815 Downfall of Napoleon & Vienna Congress

Germany Used to be of 300 States


Napoleon converts into 39 states
Rhine Federation
Metternich

The Vienna Congress


couldn’t reverse the
integration of Rhine
federation
Unification of Germany
Monarchy..

1815 Downfall of Napoleon & Vienna Congress

The Vienna Congress couldn’t reverse


the integration of Rhine federation

Metternich

Hence, Austria would


be the ruler of the 39
states of Germany

Austria
Unification of Germany

1815 Rise of Organisations


onwards
Burschenschaft Student Organisation
Unification of Germany

1815 Role of Philosophers & Historians


onwards
They highlighted common cause for
unification of Germans

Created cultural unity among Germans

Spirit of Nationalism
Unification of Germany

1815 Development of Economy


onwards
Rhine Confederation already existed

1819 Establishment of Customs Union

19 German States Under the leadership


of Prussia, became Economically united
Unification of Germany

1834 Development of Economy

Customs Union Zollverein

Except Austria, all other states of


Germany joined Zollverein

Prussia got the maximum benefit being


the leader & developed a strong
economy. Hence strong army as well.
Unification of Germany

1834 Zollverein
Common Customs Industrial
Market Union growth

Development-
Communication

Economic
Progress

Urged for
Political
Integration
Unification of Germany

1834 Zollverein

Economic German Competition from


Progress Capitalist Class Britain & France

Urged for
Wanted
Political
German empire
Integration

Economic progress urged the German


states to get United.
Unification of Germany

1834 Zollverein

Coal & Iron Policy Economic progress


urged the German
states to get United.

Urged for
Economic
Political
Integration
Integration
Unification of Germany

1848 July Revolution @ France

Metternich runs away to England after the बचोओ

revolution.

I will rule
Austria now..
But still Austria’s control over Germany
doesn’t ends

Metternich
Prussian king Fredrick William was tried to
make the ruler of Germany but he
rejected.
Unification of Germany
Prussia will unite
1850s Emergence of Bismarck Germany

Bismarck The German Unification will


take place under Prussian leadership

This unification will take place only


through one way Military way

Blood & Iron Policy of Bismarck


Unification of Germany
Prussia will unite
1862 Germany
BismarckAppointed as Chancellor by
William Fredrick-I

Blood & Iron Policy

Displays Violence & Strength

Issues to be solved through use of force


Only war
no faith in speeches and diplomacy

Prussia is not a country with an army, but an


army with a country!
Unification of Germany Austria should leave

1862 Bismarck Blood & Iron Policy

Unification should achieve with Prussia as


its leader

Believed that Austria & Prussia can’t be together in


Unified Germany

1. Austria should leave German state


2. France can’t be strong we need its
territories
Unification of Germany I’ll unify Germany

1862 Bismarck Blood & Iron Policy

But problem For German Unification

1. Denmark had control over northern


German areas

2. Austria still had domination over


German states

3. France controlled areas of Southern


Germany
Unification of Germany कुछ करना पड़े गा

1862 Bismarck Blood & Iron Policy

France-Austria were
having good relations

Use of Diplomacy by Bismarck France-Austria can’t be


defeated in one single
war directly
Unification of Germany केक कटे गा सब में
बटे गा

1864 War against Denmark

1866 War against Austria Blood & Iron


Policy

1870 War against France


Unification of Germany No…You can’t
annex……

1864 War against Denmark

1815 Vienna order Denmark used to


control over Northern German states of
Schleswig & Holstein

Location Important for Germany


Majority German population in these
areas

1864 Denmark tried to annex these


territories
Unification of Germany
1864 War against Denmark

Bismarck’s reaction to annexation effort


by Denmark
Meet’s Austrian ruler Franz Joseph &
convinces him to attack Denmark Boss…Denmark
We need to is annexing our
stop this….. territory
Unification of Germany
1864 War against Denmark

1 Feb. Prussian forces crossed the border into Schleswig


Denmark Vs. Austria & Prussia
Schleswig Prussia
Holstein Austria
We’ll keep Schleswig
Holstein…okay & Austria can keep
Holstein
Unification of Germany
1864 War against Denmark

1 Feb.

Smart Diplomacy by Bismarck Gave Holstein to


Austria
Unification of Germany
Austria को
1866 Integration of Holstein Now, I need
अकेला करना
Holstein
पड़े गा
But, 1864 Holstein given to Austria
Bismarck I need to get Holstein to
Holstein is Unify Germany
ours
Issue What to do with Austria??

Not in position to confront Austria directly


1. Isolate Austria Cut-out its allies
Unification of Germany
Austria को
1866 Integration of Holstein Russian’s
Now, I needare
अकेला करना
right…..
Holstein
पड़े गा
Not in position to confront Austria directly

1.Isolate Austria Cut-out its allies

1863 Bismarck supported Russian


suppression of Polish revolt. And hence
gained its confidence
Unification of Germany
Austria ko
1866 Integration of Holstein Now, I need
akela karna
Holstein
padega
Not in position to confront Austria directly
1.Isolate Austria Cut-out its allies
Prussian-French Agreement What will I get
boss?
Bismarck Promised Napoleon III
some French territories in return of
French Neutrality during
Austro-Prussian war

Napoleon III
Unification of Germany
Austria को
1866 Integration of Holstein क्ाींे दला
अक त करो....
करना
पड़े गा
1.Isolate Austria Cut-out its allies

2. Starts Instigating people of Holstein

Aroused popular rebellion by the Bismarck….तू


तो गयो....
people against the Austria

Austria Bismarck you aren’t


doing right thing……
Bismarck provoked Austria to war
Unification of Germany
Austria अब
1866 Integration of Holstein Bismarck….तू
Now, I need
बहुत हो गया
Holstein
तो गयो.... तेरा
July Battle of Sadowa/Königgrätz

Austria Vs. Prussia

Prussia wins this war

Creation of 21 States German Confederation


Unification of Germany
1866 Treaty of Prague Diplomacy by Bismarck बादज़गर
Did treatyमें
बाज़ीगर
with Austria
Aug
Unification of Germany
1866 Treaty of Prague Diplomacy by Bismarck

Aug Austria will


not intervene
Okay boss.
in future

By this, Bismarck assured Austrian Neutrality.


Unification of Germany
Can’t unite
them directly
1870 Integration of Alsace & Loraine Diplomacy by Bismarck

Aug
Southern location
Close to France
Catholic population

Bismarck couldn’t impose


integration directly &
fight against France

In France, after the Austrian-Prussian war the situation was


tense. The French people pressured the king Napoleon to do
something
Unification of Germany
Can’t unite
them directly
1870 Integration of Alsace & Loraine Diplomacy by Bismarck

Aug In France, after the Austrian-Prussian war the


situation was tense. The French people pressured the
king Napoleon to do something

Okay…Folks..
Need to teach
Prussia a lesson

French -आम आदमी Napoleon III


Unification of Germany
1870 Integration of Alsace & Loraine
Aug French people pressured the king to act.
Napoleon writes a letter to Bismarck
Territory of Rhine river should be neutral
Rhine river
territories should No bro., can’t Need to teach
be kept neutral be possible Prussia a lesson

French -आम आदमी


Napoleon III
Unification of Germany
1870 Integration of Alsace & Loraine Diplomacy by Bismarck

Aug French people pressured the king to act.


Napoleon tries to divert mind of people
Thought of Purchasing Luxemburg from Holland
I’ll divert
minds…through No bro, you Need to teach
Luxemburg can’t buy Prussia a lesson
that…

French -आम आदमी


Napoleon III
Unification of Germany
1870 Integration of Alsace & Loraine Diplomacy by Bismarck

Aug Thought of Purchasing Luxemburg from Holland

France & Austria


conflict increased due
to this
Unification of Germany
1870 Integration of Alsace & Loraine Spain Bourbon Dynasty
Aug Coup in Spain Queen Isabella forced to abdicate
Application open for Position of Monarch in Spain
King Leopold of Prussia offered the post
Okay….I
No…Spain is our withdraw
area... Bourbon
France pressurises
dynasty Prussia to withdraw
from Spain

King Leopold
withdraws from the
Spanish throne
Napoleon III Leopold of Prussia
Unification of Germany
1870 Integration of Alsace & Loraine Spain Bourbon Dynasty
Aug France pressurises Prussia to withdraw from Spain

King Leopold withdraws from the Spanish throne

French foreign minister Duc de Gramont insisted on a


Prussian guarantee that the candidacy would not be
renewed
Unification of Germany
French foreign minister Duc de Gramont insisted on a
1870 Prussian guarantee that the candidacy would not be
Aug renewed
I need to Inform
Give in अरे बोला ना...नहीीं
Bismarck about
writing…We करें गे Claim
can’t trust you this….
King William refused
to give this guarantee
to the French
ambassador at Ems

Duc de Gramont King William


Unification of Germany
1870 King William refused to give this guarantee to the French
ambassador at Ems
Aug
I need to Inform
Bismarck about I need to do
this…. something
Unification of Germany
1870 Bismarck Uses the Ems telegram
अब आएगा
Aug Bismarck was waiting for his opportunity to strike मज़ा
and when the king left it up to him to let the press
know about the meeting, he took advantage of the
situation

Bismarck manipulated the situation by making the


Prussian king look as if he was more hostile
towards the French then he really was

Bismarck made it look that the French were


humiliated by the Prussian King
Unification of Germany
1870 Bismarck Uses the Ems telegram

Aug This provoked chaos in both France and Prussia and


eventually led to the Franco-Prussian War

Need to teach It’s too much अब आएगा


Prussia a lesson Bismarck मज़ा

French -आम आदमी


Napoleon III
Unification of Germany
1870 France attacked Prussia

Aug Again Bismarck uses his smart skills to defeat France

ऑस्ट्रिया के
It’s too much
Need to teach लोगोीं....France
Prussia a lesson bismarck
has attacked us

French -आम आदमी


Napoleon III
Unification of Germany
1870 France attacked Prussia

Aug Again Bismarck uses his smart skills to defeat France


ऑस्ट्रिया के
लोगोीं....Fran Publishes old letter of Napoleon about
ce has Rhine land neutrality in Newspapers
attacked us

German states & people became united


to fight the French

Created an emotional wave in Germany.


Unification of Germany
1870 Battle of Sedan

Aug ऑस्ट्रिया के
It’s too much लोगोीं....France
Bismarck has attacked us

Napoleon III

French lost against the Bismarck’s army


Unification of Germany
1871 Treaty of Frankfurt

Aug
Unification of Germany
1871 Proclamation of German Unification @ the mirror hall,
Versailles Palace
Aug
Thank You.