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The Research Paper

Learning Objectives

• To know the different aspects of


writing a research paper

• To learn how to write a research


paper
Key Understanding
 Learning the different aspects of writing a
research paper will help equip you in writing an
effective research paper.

Key Question

 What are the important things that you need to


know in writing a research paper?
Part I: Planning Your Research
GUIDELINES IN PLANNING FOR YOUR RESEARCH

 Work with a familiar subject

 Try something new that piques your interest

 Browse through available research materials


Part II: Finding Primary Sources
EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY SOURCES
1. Observations
Tips on Conducting an Observation
• Open up your five senses to take note of everything that is
happening around you.
• You have to have a notebook with you in which you write
each and every detail you observe with regard to your
research topic.
• Make it a point to write your observations descriptively and
objectively. Don’t include your personal biases, judgments,
and presumptions as these will affect your output heavily
and might lead to unwanted criticisms.
• Since a single day of observation does not yield pertinent
and sufficient data for your research, leave your research
topic or subject and then return to it to see how it changes
after a certain amount of time.
Part II: Finding Primary Sources
EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY SOURCES
1. Observations

Ethnography
• A sociological method that explores how people live and
make sense of their lives with one another in particular
places
• The study of races and culture
• Commonly done in the Humanities, particularly in the
disciplines of Anthropology, Archaeology, and Sociology
• Is done with the researcher living with his/her research
subjects in their normal living environment for a
significantly long period of time
• Ultimate aim: to produce the most authentic data that
can strongly support your claims in your research paper
Part II: Finding Primary Sources
EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY SOURCES
2. Interviews
Tips on Preparing for and Conducting an Interview
• Know which person/s you want to interview for your research
and then contact him/her to schedule the interview.
• During the set appointment, dress properly and don’t be late
as you would be wasting the interviewee’s time.
• Be prepared with your questions beforehand and write them
down so you won’t forget them.
• Be ready with a pen and paper, and a tape recorder. The tape
recorder can capture those little details that the interviewee
would say that you might not be able to jot down.
• During the interview, do more listening than note-taking,
anyway you already have a tape recorder.
Part III: Finding Sources in the
Library
RESEARCH AND THE DEWEY DECIMAL SYSTEM (DDS)

 DDC is a library system used to organize books and


other resource materials, to keep track of who
borrows and returns them to the library, and to
determine which books are new acquisitions and
which books are in need of reprinting.

 DDC helps in narrowing down the area you need to


browse through enough for you to save time for
other matters related to your research.
Part III: Finding Sources in the
Library
ENCYCLOPEDIAS AND DISCIPLINARY GUIDES

 These materials can serve as a springboard to


specialized areas of your research topic since they
have very general information and offer the most
important details of a given subject.

 The bibliographies near the end of these materials


can easily give you other sources with specific
information.
Part III: Finding Sources in the
Library
BOOKS, WHETHER HARDBOUND OR SOFTBOUND

 Books are preferred as information sources by


people in the academe because they have been
edited and peer-reviewed multiple times before it is
published; hence, highly reputable and credible.

 It is highly recommended that your “specialized”


sources are bound published books to adhere to
the tradition of research.
Part III: Finding Sources in the
Library
PERIODICALS, NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES

 Periodicals, newspapers, and magazines are the


most up-to-date sources you can get; hence, they
have the latest information on whatever topic you
have chosen.

 These materials are the most likely sources of


information on the latest technology and the
development of research topics.
Part III: Finding Sources in the
Library
THE INTERNET
Tips on to Check If the Source You Find on the
Internet Is Credible
• View the Uniform Resource Locator or URL.

• Question the author.

• Check the given detailed information, accuracy, and


grammar.

• Check for timeliness of the provided information.


Part IV: Making a Working
Bibliography
WORKING BIBLIOGRAPHY: WHAT IT IS
 It is a list of all the sources you have come across
as you are doing your research.

 Its ultimate purpose is to make it easier for you as


the researcher to go back to previously acquired
sources when you keep on acquiring more.

WORKING BIBLIOGRAPHY: WHAT IT ISN'T


 It isn’t necessarily the final bibliography that would
appear in the final pages of your research paper.
The final bibliography could have more sources
cited or even less.
Part IV: Making a Working
Bibliography
THE APA CITATION GUIDE
 The APA, or the American Psychological
Association, is the citation guide most commonly
used in disciplines under the social sciences like
Anthropology, Archaeology, History, and Sociology.

 The title given to the bibliography page using the


APA style is “References.
Part IV: Making a Working
Bibliography
THE APA CITATION GUIDE

 Basic format for books


Murray, D. M. (2005). Write to Learn. (8th ed.). Boston,
Massachusetts: Thomson Wadsworth

 Basic format for an article in a magazine


Bremmer, I. (2015, June 1). What Does America Stand For? Time,
16-21

 Basic format for an article in a newspaper


Calica, A. (2015, June 7). Noy willing to study Cha-cha proposal.
The Philippine Star, pp. A-1, A-10
Part IV: Making a Working
Bibliography
THE APA CITATION GUIDE

 Basic format for an article from an online periodical


Weisman, J. (2015, June 12). Obama’s Trade Bills Face Tough
Battle Against House Democrats. The New York Times. Retrieved from
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/13/us/ politics/obamas-trade-bills-face-
tough-battle-against-house-democrats.html?hp&action=
click&pgtype=Homepage&module=first-column-region&region=top-
news&WT.nav=topnews&_r=0