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Soap and Detergent


A cleansing agent
 Definition

Sodium and Potassium salt of higher fatty acid are called soap.
Soap comprises the Sodium or Potassium salts of various fatty acids,
but chiefly of Oleic, Stearic, Palmitic, Lauric, and Myristic acids.

There are two types of Soap

 Hard Soaps (Sodium salt)

 Soft Soaps (Potassium salt)
 Properties

 Soaps are water soluble sodium salts of fatty acid

 Soaps can be represented by R-COOX where R is the hydrophobic group and
X is the alkali metal.
 The active hydrophilic group in it is anion -COO and So Soaps are classified
as anionic surfactants.
 Although Soap is a good cleaning agent, it is reduced when used in hard
 It forms insoluble Ca and Mg salt in hard water.
 Soaps are inactivated in acidic condition in which hydrolysis takes place to
give un-dissociated fatty acid.
Types of soaps

• Toilet soap
• Transparent soap
• Marine and industrial soap
• Floating soap
• Soap powder
• Shaving soap
• Medicated soap
• Carbolic acid soap
• Neem soap
• Metal soap

 Raw Materials :

 Glycerides
 Costic soda

 Reactions :

3NaOH + (C17H35COO)3C3H6 → 3C17H35COONa + C3H5(OH)3

(C17H35COO)3C3H5 + 3H2O → 3C17H35COOH + C3H5(OH)3
C17H35COOH + NaOH → C17H35COONa + H2O

Manufacturing process

There are two types of process:

1) The Batch process
2) The continuous process

 The Continuous process

• The raw fats and the catalyst, zinc oxide, are blended and introduced to
the bottom of the hydrolyzer in which steam is passed for heating the
• The fatty acids are discharged from the top of the hydrolyser, collected in
a flash tank called decanter.
• From the bottom of the hydrolyser fatty acids are passed to evaporators to
crude glycerol.
• The fatty acids are led through a heat exchanger to a high vaccum still
and distilled.

• The distillate is then neutralised with Coastic Soda to mixer neutralaizer.

• Then it is passed to a soap storage and soap finishing continues.

• After finishing, we get soap, bar flakes etc.

• Then the bar flakes are passed to hot pressure pump, which passes to
heat exchanger.

• Then it passes to flakes tank removes steam and goes freezer with air.

• When it is cooled, it goes to cutter which gives shaped soap bar.

• Finally, the soap bar is stamped and wrapped

Hot Water

Fig : Manufactures of soap by continuous process

 Cleaning action of Soap
Their are several factors -
2.Surfaces tension
3.Electrostatic forces
4.Wetting action
5.Emulsifying process

. Lower the surface tension of water. So soaps wets the surface of a fabric
due to decrease in surface tension of water. Soap is made up of molecules with
two very different ends. One end of soap molecules love water they are hydrophilic.
The other end of soap molecules hate water - they are hydrophobic. Hydrophobic
ends of soap molecule all attach to the oil. Hydrophilic ends stick out into the
water. These drops of oil are suspended in the water. It causes drops of grease and
dirt to be pulled off. These drops are washed away

A water soluble cleansing agent

What is Detergent????

A chemical compound consisting of surface active agents or

surfactants which combines with impurities and dirt to make them
more soluble
What is surfactant??

Substance which lowers the surface tension of water

SOAP are the important class of surface active agents

containing hydrophobic alkyl part and alkali metal
Classification of Surface Active Agents

• Anionic detergent
• Cationic detergent
IONIC • Amphotericdetergent

• Non ionic detergent

• Zwitterionic detergent
NON IONIC • Semi polar detergent
Anionic detergent
The detergent whose detergent property is due to anions in the
Anionic detergents dissociate into a long chain anion which
acts as a hydrophilic end and the long carbon chain as the
hydrophobic end.

Example: Alkyl benzene sulphonates and alkyl sulphates

Cationic Detergent

The detergent whose detergent property is due to cation in

the solution
A long carbon chain acts as the hydrophobic end and the
cationic nitrogen constitute the hydrophilic end

Example: Quaternary trimethyl ammonium halides.

Non Ionic detergent

The surfactants do not bear an electrical charge and are often

used together with anionic surfactants
they do not interact with calcium and magnesium ions in
hard water.
Example: Ethoxylates
Amphoteric detergent

The detergent that combine anionic and cationic features in

the same molecule
The negatively charged group can be carboxylate, -CO2-,
sulfate, -OSO3- or sulfonate, -SO3
Amphoteric surfactants are very mild and are used in
shampoos and other cosmetics. They are said to be pH
Example: Alkyl betaine
Semi polar detergent

Semi polar detergents are N-oxides

It can be obtained by the oxidation of long chaines tertiary
amines with 70-75% hydrogen per oxide.

Example: Dimethyl alkyl amine oxides


Surfactants are chemically similar to soaps, the primary difference being
that detergents are synthetically manufactured whereas soaps are prepared
from natural products specifically the saponification of fats and oils. As
such, surfactants represent the primary cleaning agent in detergents.

The presence of hard water cations predominantly magnesium and
calcium--greatly reduces the cleaning effectiveness of surfactants. The
hard water ions possess positive charges and bind to the negatively
charged surfactant molecules, effectively rendering them inactive.
Detergent manufacturers consequently incorporate builders into detergent
formulations. The builders serve as water softeners that bind the hard-
water ions such that they do not interfere with the surfactants. Many
laundry detergents once contained sodium tripolyphosphate, or STPP, as a

Detergents that contain “chlorine-free” or “color-safe” bleach probably
contain sodium percarbonate or sodium perborate. In warm water, these
compounds decompose to release hydrogen peroxide, a mild bleaching
Many of the stains on clothes and dishes exhibit very low solubility in
water. Enzymes, which are proteins that break down various chemical
compounds, greatly facilitate the cleaning process by converting insoluble
compounds such as fats, oils and starches into water-soluble species.
Fillers are the materials that add bulk to the detergent product. In the case
of powdered detergent, the most common filler is sodium sulfate, whereas
liquid detergents typically contain water and/or alcohol.
DETERGENT manufacturing Process

OXO • A mixture of olefin, co and hydrogen under 100-250 atm pressure

through a reactor containing cobalt catalyst

Process • Resulting saturated aldehyde is hydrogenated to give an alcohol

ALFOL • Aluminium metal powder, hydrogen and ethylene are allowed to react
under high pressure to produce aluminium triethyl
• Aluminium alkyls obtained by polymerizing with ethylene are oxidized

process to form aluminium alkoxides which are further hydrolyzed with

H2SO4 to form primary chains of alchohols.

• Olefin reacts with hydrogen bromide in presence of ultraviolet light to

WELSH form alkyl bromide.
• Alkyl bromide is converted into an ester with an organic acid in
presence of metal halide catalyst.
process • Ester is hydrolyzed with superheated steam to yield the corresponding
Detergent Powder Manufacture

Step 1 - Slurry making

• The solid and liquid raw ingredients are dropped into a
large tank known as a slurry mixer.
• As the ingredients are added the mixture heats up as a
result of two exothermic reactions
• The hydration of sodium tripolyphosphate and the reaction
between caustic soda and linear alkyl benzenesulphonic
• The mixture is then further heated to 850 degree Celsius
and stirred until it forms a homogeneous slurry
Detergent Powder Manufacture

Step 2 - Spray drying

• The slurry is deaerated in a vacuum chamber and then
separated by an atomiser into finely divided droplets
• These are sprayed into a column of air at 425 degree
• Where they dry instantaneously, The resultant powder is
known as 'base powder', and its exact treatment from this
point on depends on the product being made
Detergent Powder Manufacture

 Step 3 - Post dosing

• Other ingredients are now added
• The air blown through the mixture in a fluidiser to mix
them into a homogeneous powder
• Typical ingredients are listed in Table 3.

Hydrogen Ethylene

Activation Hydrogenation Ethylation Polemerization

Solvent Recycle
Aliuminium Triethyl
Aluminium Alkyls

Solvent And Sodium

By-products Hydroxide Alfol Alcohols

Air Oxidation Purification Hydrolysis Neutralization Fractionation

Alum Solution

Fig: Alfol process

So Soap and Detergent are same???

Soaps are made from natural ingredients, such as plant oils

(coconut, vegetable, palm, pine) or acids derived from animal
fat. Detergents, on the other hand, are synthetic, man-made

Detergent are free rinsing where soap needs a clear water

wash after application or it will leave a film. Hard water is
the enemy of soap. In hard water conditions soaps form scum

soaps need warm water to work at all. Detergents, on the

other hand, can be built to perform well in any water
temperature. This versatility enables detergents to be used in
everything from shampoo to laundry liquid to hand
cleansers and stain removers.
Uses of Detergent

All-Purpose Cleaner:
Either form of detergent can be used to clean tiles, floors, counters, tubs and
Oil Spills:
Powdered detergent can absorb oil that's spilled on a garage floor or on the street.
Mix laundry detergent and water together to make a cheap and homemade bubble
solution for bubble guns
Stain remover:
Stain on any cloths or in carpets can easily be removed by the powdered
Detergent are also handful for weed and moss killer, Drain clog remover, natural
bug repellant, kitchen and bathroom cleaner etc.

Biodegradability is the ease with which a surfactant is

decomposed by microbial action.
Some surfactants, like tetrapropylene derived alkylbenzene
sulfonate degrade slowly.
Straight chain material gives readily degradable detergent
which could easily replace the branch chain alkyl
benzenes(mainly used).