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• Energy consumption by the people in every part of the world is
incessantly escalating.
• India being the second highest populated country in the world
is in greater than ever need for the petrochemical product.
• Regarding energy demand, India ranks sixth in the world.
Petrochemical products are primary energy sources for the
humans but are not renewable. Sensible use of these products
is a mirage.
• The stock of a petrochemical product is limited and un-
sustainability for energy is increasing in the world.
• Petrochemical products are highly responsible for local and
global environmental pollution.
• Therefore, it is necessary to search alternative renewable and
sustainable source of energy to reduce the problems related to
the environment pollution and issues of the increasing price of
petroleum product.
• The aim of experiment focuses on the production methods of
KOME, parameters that affect the yield, engine performance
by pure KOME and its various blends with diesel, economic
aspects, environmental considerations and
• Biodiesel is produced from renewable resources like vegetable
oils and animal fats.
• It can use as a fuel in diesel engine by blending with diesel or
in pure form.
• Biodiesel blended diesel fuel emits less harmful gasses
compare to diesel fuel.
• India is developing country where more than 70% of
petroleum products are import.
• Emission tests have been conducted simultaneously with the
performance research of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct
injection, naturally aspirated 59 kW diesel engine D-243
fuelled with various ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends.
• The experimental set up consists of a diesel engine, an engine
test bed, fuel and air consumption metering equipments, two
gas analysers and a smoke meter.
• As it was determined previously , emissions of nitric
monoxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2 (ppm) increase
gradually with the load and their values depend largely on the
speed of the engine and the type of biofuel used.
• In contrast to that case where diesel fuel (0.4% oxygen) as a
basic component was used for the biofuel blends, in this
research the percent of RO conserved oxygen is much higher
(10.8%) and due to its blending in various proportions with
ethanol (34.8% oxygen) and oxygen-free petrol, the oxygen
mass contents in tested blends have been varied from 9.72%
(PRO10) to 13.20% (ERO10).
The experimental setups for IR
• IR and Raman measurements were close to that presented
earlier .
• We used small concentration of isoflurane (1017e1018
molecules/cm3 ) dissolved in liquefied noble gas for
registration of the majority of fundamental bands.
• Theoretical calculations were run using the GAUSSIAN 09
Rev. C.01. Methodology of local minima searching and
frequency calculations were analogous to that described earlier
• All the minima found were fully optimized using ab initio
second order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) frozen core
MP2/6-311þþG(df,pd) optimized structures of two the most stable
rotamers of isoflurane.

• The effect of reaction temperature on the FAME yield. FAME

yield was higher at 60 °C compared to 25 °C.
• High reaction temperature enhances not only the intrinsic
reaction rate but also the mass transfer.
• High reaction temperature improved the solubility of methanol
and triglyceride which enhanced the mass-transfer10.
• Cheng et al.11 and Gunvachai et al.12 found that the
solubility between triglyceride and methanol gradually
increases with increasing the concentration of FAME.
• Continuous synthesis of biodiesel from palm oil was carried
out in a capillary millichannel reactor. The highest FAME
yield that has been achieved in this study was 91%.
• It was found that the FAME yield is greatly influenced by the
reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, and KOH

• At reaction temperature of 60 °C, the solubility of the
methanol and triglycerideimproved,resulted in high FAME
• In addition, increasing the methanol to oil molar ratio also
increased the FAME yield. The effect of KOH concentration
on the FAME yield also showed similar trend.
• 1. Lin L, Dong Y, Chaitep S, Vittayapadung S. Biodiesel
production from crude rice bran oil and properties as fuel. Appl
Energ 2009;
• 2. Abdullah AZ, Salamatinia B, Mootabadi H, Bhatia, S.
Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia
as the world’s leadingproducer of palm oil. Energ Policy 2009;
• 3. Tanawannapong Y, Kaewchada A, Jaree A. Biodiesel
production from waste cooking oil in a microtube reactor. J
Ind Eng Chem
• 4. Lin L, Cunshan Z, Vittayapadung S, Xiangqian S,
Mingdong, D. Opportunities and challenges for biodiesel fuel.
Appl Energ 2011;
Thank you