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by: Dr. Nor Shahirah Mohd Nasir (Dr. Sera)
Section of Chemical Engineering Technology (Process)
Email: norshahirah@unikl.edu.my
After studying this unit, the student should be able to:
 Describe the function of the cooling tower
 Identify the relationship between the wet-bulb temperature
of the ambient air and the temperature of the water leaving
the tower
 Describe three types of cooling towers
 Describe various fan and drive types used on cooling towers
 Describe the function of the fill in a cooling tower
 Explain the purpose of makeup water and blowdown
Function of Cooling Tower

 Cooling tower is a heat rejection devices used to transfer

process waste heat to the atmosphere.

 Cooling towers are able to reduce the water

temperatures more than devices that use only air to
reject heat such as radiator, more cost effective and
energy efficient.
Hot water in (95°F) Fan

Air in 95°F dry

bulb, 78°F wet
Air out

Cooled water out (85°F)

Types of Cooling Tower

Natural draft

Cooling Forced draft


Induced draft
Natural Draft CT

 atmospheric CT

 use natural forces (wind) to

move air through CT

 air flows in through the

sides, and out the top

 drift eliminators on the top

Forced Draft CT

 Fans used to create a


 Air forced in the

bottom, and flows out
the top

 Typically solid sides

Induced Draft CT

 Fans located at the top of

the CT

 Lifts air out of the CT,

preventing recirculation

 Probably the most common

type used in chemical plants
and refineries
Induced Draft CT
Types of Flow Pattern

Counter flow


Cross flow CT
Counter flow

Cross flow CT
Components of CT
- Designed to slow the
flow of trickling
water through the
- Increase water Fill in
surface area contact
with air

Blow Tower
down sump

- Designed to reduce the Make

amount of solid materials in up
the water water
Film fills

Tower Sump

 Area where tower water collects

 Sump water must not freeze
 May be installed underground
 Should be accessible for cleaning
 Is usually equipped with a strainer to protect the pump
Make-up Water

 Water continuously evaporates from the system

 Fresh water must be supplied to the system as needed
 Float valve
◦ As the water level drops, the valve will open and add
supply water
 Electrodes
◦ Used to sense the water level
Make-up Water

Water level
Float ball
Make up

Float valve

Strainer To pump
End of Chapter 1