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Watershed Characteristics& morphology
Watershed Characteristics&
morphology

By:

Dr. Samia Abou El-Ftouh

Definitions  or  
Definitions
or
Definitions  or   A drainage basin or catchment basin is an extent of land

A drainage basin or catchment basin is an extent

of

land

where

surface

an water from rain, melting snow, or ice converges to a

area

single point at a lower elevation, usually the exit of

the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir.

a watershed is defined as the area that appears, on

the basis of topography, to contribute all the water that passes through a given cross section of a stream.

The drainage area reflects the volume of water the

can be generated from rainfall and that is available for

runoff.

Catchment

Catchment The One Other Catchment Catchment Area Watershed divides the flow of water along different slopes.
The One Other Catchment Catchment Area
The
One
Other
Catchment
Catchment Area

Watershed divides the flow of water along different slopes.

Picture Shows Two Catchments

Picture Shows Two Catchments
Watershed Delineation • Creating a boundary that contributing area for a particular outlet
Watershed Delineation
• Creating
a
boundary
that
contributing area
for a particular
outlet
Watershed Delineation • Creating a boundary that contributing area for a particular outlet represents the control

represents the control point or

Used to define boundaries of the study area, and/or to divide the study area into sub-areas.

The

area of watershed

is

defined

by watershed

delineation that can be done manually or using

computer programs (WMS Arc GIS)

Drainage

divide

is

the boundary line along a

topographic ridge, separating two adjacent drainage

basins

Examples for watershed

Examples for watershed
Examples for watershed
Examples for watershed
The characteristics of the drainage basin  Drainage area A & slope
The characteristics of the drainage
basin
Drainage area A & slope
The characteristics of the drainage basin  Drainage area A & slope  The number of
  • The number of streams Ns

  • The length of streams Ls

  • stream density

The characteristics of the drainage basin  Drainage area A & slope  The number of
  • drainage density

The characteristics of the drainage basin  Drainage area A & slope  The number of
Watershed Shapes
Watershed Shapes
Factors Affecting runoff
Factors Affecting runoff

Rainfall characteristics (type of storm and season ,

intensity , duration , frequency)

Metrological factors (temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure difference)

Watershed Factor (size, shape, topography, geology , land use)

Storage Characteristics(Depressions , Ponds, lakes , pools, Streams , Channels, dams ,Ground water storage)

Hydromorphology



factors affect the hydraulic character of drainage

system

1-Drainage Area

2-Watershed Length

3-Watershed Slope

4-Watershed Shape

5-Land Cover and use

6- Hydraulic Roughness

7- Drainage Density

8-Antecedent Moisture Conditions

Hydrograph

Hydrograph • What can we get from hydrograph • a) the peak runoff flows(Qp) • b)

What can we get from hydrograph

a) the peak runoff flows(Qp) b) To estimate runoff volume.

Qp

Volume of runoff
Volume of runoff

Time

The influence of catchment characteristics on hydrographs

The influence of catchment characteristics on hydrographs

Exercise: catchment characteristics - hydrographs

Exercise: catchment characteristics - hydrographs Steeper catchment Less rough catchment Lesser storage capacity More connections between

Steeper catchment

Less rough catchment

Lesser storage capacity

More connections between impervious areas

Exercise: catchment characteristics - hydrographs Steeper catchment Less rough catchment Lesser storage capacity More connections between

The influence of partial rain coverage

The influence of partial rain coverage
The influence of partial rain coverage

Time of Concentration

Concentration point or measuring point the single point or location at which all surface drainage from a basin comes together or concentrates as outflow from the basin in the stream channel.

Time of Concentration, T c : Time required for water to travel from the most

hydraulically remote point in the basin to the

basin outlet.

Time of Concentration

Time of Concentration
Time of Concentration
Time of Concentration
Time of Concentration • Tc can be related to catchment area, slope etc. using the Kirpich

Tc can be related to catchment area, slope etc. using the Kirpich equation:

Tc = 0.015 L 0.77 S 0.385 Tc is the time of concentration (min); L is the maximum length of flow (m); S is the watershed gradient (m/m).

Time of Concentration
Time of Concentration

Et

L
L

Eo

S = (Et - Eo)/L where Et is the elevation at top of the

watershed and Eo is the elevation at the outlet.

• Norton formula • The time of concentration calculated by HORTON formula is given by: •

Norton formula

The time of concentration calculated by HORTON formula is given by:

Tc = L/(3.6v) Where:

Tc

: Time of concentration (H),

L

: Talweg Length (km),

v

: Mean velocity (m/s)

Pezzoli formula

•

The time of concentration calculated by PEZZOLI formula is given by:

Tc = 0.055 L/ P 0.5 Where:

Tc

: Time of concentration (H),

L

: Talweg Length (km),

P

: Average slope of the principal

talweg (m/m).