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V His grandfather

Louis XIV was the


ultimate ´absolutistµ
king.
V This king was weak
V He had so little
control, he called
for the French
congress to fix
some problems
In France, people were divided into three
estates
R 
High-ranking members of the Church
Privileged class
3

Jobility
Privileged class
`  
×veryone else ² from peasants in the countryside to
wealthy bourgeoisie merchants in the cities
Unprivileged class
V
llons enfants de la Patrie
Le jour de gloire est arrivé !
Contre nous de la tyrannie
L'étendard sanglant est levé
×ntendez-vous dans nos campagnes
Mugir ces féroces soldats?
Ils viennent jusque dans vos bras.
Égorger vos fils, vos compagnes!
V Aux armes citoyens
Formez vos bataillons
Marchons, marchons
Qu'un sang impur
Abreuve nos sillons
V ^ue veut cette horde d'esclaves
De traîtres, de rois conjurés?
Pour qui ces ignobles entraves
Ces fers dès longtemps préparés?
Français, pour nous, ah! quel outrage
^uels transports il doit exciter?
V C'est nous qu'on ose méditer
De rendre à l'antique esclavage!
V ^uoi ces cohortes étrangères!
Feraient la loi dans nos foyers!
^uoi! ces phalanges mercenaires
Terrasseraient nos fils guerriers!
Grand Dieu! par des mains enchaînées
Jos fronts sous le joug se ploieraient
De vils despotes deviendraient
Les maîtres des destinées.
V Tremblez, tyrans et vous perfides
L'opprobre de tous les partis
Tremblez! vos projets parricides
Vont enfin recevoir leurs prix!
V Tout est soldat pour vous combattre
S'ils tombent, nos jeunes héros
La France en produit de nouveaux,
Contre vous tout prêts à se battre.
V Français, en guerriers magnanimes
Portez ou retenez vos coups!
Épargnez ces tristes victimes
À regret s'armant contre nous
Mais ces despotes sanguinaires
Mais ces complices de Bouillé
Tous ces tigres qui, sans pitié
Déchirent le sein de leur mère!
V Jous entrerons dans la carrière
^uand nos aînés n'y seront plus
Jous y trouverons leur poussière
×t la trace de leurs vertus
Bien moins jaloux de leur survivre
^ue de partager leur cercueil
V Jous aurons le sublime orgueil
De les venger ou de les suivre!
V
mour sacré de la Patrie
Conduis, soutiens nos bras vengeurs
Liberté, Liberté chérie
Combats avec tes défenseurs!
Sous nos drapeaux, que la victoire

ccoure à tes mâles accents
^ue tes ennemis expirants
Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire
V!
V Two treaties of govt. - John Locke
V Social contract - Rousseau
V Spirit of law - Montesquieu
V What is the third estate-
blu Sieyes
V Marseillaise - Roget-dl isle
V Monarch ruled by
 
God put the world in motion
God put some people in positions of power
Power is given by God
Jo one can question God
Jo one can question someone put in power by
God
^uestioning the monarchy was blasphemy
because it meant questioning God
The king (Louis XVI) lavished money on
himself and residences like Versailles
^ueen Marie
ntoinette was seen as a
wasteful spender
Government found its funds depleted as a
result of wars
Including the funding of the
merican Revolution
u  

² a government spending
more money than it takes in from tax
revenues
Privileged classes would not submit to
being taxed
V The population
increased from 23
million in 1715 to 28
million in 1789.
V The harvest failed in
1787 to 1788.
V The price of bread
increased.
V
nd it led to
subsistence crisis.
V RISIJG
B
D SC
RCITY
FOOD
V H
RV×ST OF GR
IJS
PRIC×S

TH×
POOR×ST FOOD
C
J JO JUMB×R OF
RIOTS D×
TH
LOJG×R BUY
BR×
D

D×SI
S× JUMB× R
×P×DMICS OF D×
TH
V Itis the symbol of power of the France.
V The group of several hundred people
attacked at the Bastille.
V The bastill was demolished and the
prisoners were freed.
V The remains of fortess were taken by the
people to their home.
V TITH× -
tax levied by the church
,comprising one tenth of the agriculture
produce.
V Taille - tax to be paid directly to the
state.
Church lands were seized,
divided, and sold to peasants
 
 
   
required that Church officials be
elected by the people, with
salaries paid by the government
2/3 of Church officials fled the country
rather than swear allegiance to this

ll feudal dues and tithes were
eradicated

ll special privileges of the First
and Second ×states were
abolished
Voting was conducted by estate
×ach estate had one vote
First and Second ×states could operate as a   to
stop the Third ×state from having its way

¹ First ×state + ¹ Second ×state - vs. - ¹ Third


×state
Representatives from the Third ×state
demanded that voting be by population
This would give the Third ×state a great advantage
Deadlock resulted
On September 22, 1792, the 



met for the first time


×stablished the First French Republic
Faced domestic opposition and strife
Ñ 
 were moderates who represented
the rich middle class of the provinces
D 
 (led by ë, u

, and
  ) represented workers
Faced opposition
frHolland, Prussia,
Sardinia, and Spain
formed a Coalition
on abroad

ustria, ×ngland,
invading France
u  
France became a    
 
ùing became merely the head of state

ll laws were created by the ?  

Feudalism was abolished

  
Voting was limited to taxpayers
Offices were reserved for property owners
This new government became known
as the ?  
V The majority of men it
the late 18th century
couldn·t read or write
.So images and
symbols are
frequently used to
communicate
important ideas.
The Convention abolished the monarchy

s long as the royal family lived, the monarchy could be
restored
Put the royal couple on trial for treason
Convictions were a foregone conclusion
?  was guillotined on January 21, 1793
ë 

was guillotined on October 16, 1793
Daughter ë `  was allowed to go to Vienna in
1795
She could not become queen because of Salic law, which did
not allow females to succeed to the throne
Son ?   , a.k.a. Louis XVII (lived 1785-1795)
was beaten and mistreated until he died in prison
Despite military successes, the Convention
continued to face problems domestically
u

and his D 
political party came to
dominate French politics
    3
Headed by u

(and later   )
Those accused of treason were tried by the
Committee·s  
` 


pproximately 15,000 people died on
the   

Ñ  
 became known as the
´J
 µ
Including innovative thinkers like
o Ñ   and ë 
D

 

V ë   
   became
leader of the Committee of Public Safety
He continued the executions
Convention came to blame Robespierre for the
Reign of Terror
V `  


July 27, 1794 ² ended the Reign of Terror


Convention sent Robespierre and other
members of the Committee of Public Safety to
the guillotine
i Robespierre was guillotined on July 28, 1794
V Members of the Ñ 
 political party
tried to end the 
 `  initiated
by the D 
political party
This opposition to the     
3 caused many Girondists to be tried and
executed for treason
V ×ventually, even
Ñ  u


wanted to end the executions


This resulted in Danton being tried and
executed for treason
V During the French
Revolution the slavery
trade was done.
V The slaves were of
frica
and they were bought by
the ×uropeans.
V In 1794 all the slaves were
freed.
V The slavery ended in the
1848.
V 1769 ² Born on Corsica
V Military school in France on Scholarship
V Saved Jational Convention, by firing shot
at a mob come to get them
V Directory sent him into Italy- Success!
V ×gypt- while there he practices
administration, but loses to Jelson
V Returns to France as the Hero of ×gypt
(the news he lost is slower to arrive.)
V 1799 ² dissolved Directory, seized power
with friends Sieyes and Ducos and they
three become consuls to run the
government
V Later, even more popular, he declares
himself the one leader of France
V He takes on the Powers of a Dictator
V lebiscite (public vote) approved new
constitution ² Napoleon stronger
V He repair the economy ² fixed tax
collection, established a national bank,
fired the corrupt
V Lycees ² started government run public
schools, rewards based on merit
V Concordat ² repairs the relationship
with Church, He will claim influence but
no control
V Establishes the Napoleonic Code ² A
system of laws that were uniform but
eliminated individual rights, and
restored slavery in Caribbean
V 1804 ² crowned himself
×mperor
V Wanted territory in Jew
World, couldn·t overcome
slave armies in Haiti and
sold the Louisiana
Purchase to the US

V Wanted to expand in
×urope, other nations
attacked & were defeated,
signed peace treaties
V
usterlitz is his finest battle. He crushes
the Russians and
ustrians both
V Battle of Trafalgar ² ×ngland·s Jelson
destroyed the French fleet, Japoleon
wouldn·t be able to invade Britain
V Most of continental ×urope in his control
by 1812

) Continental System ² blockade
against Great Britain, destroy
economy, make continental
×urope more self-sufficient, Britain
did it better«
B) Peninsular War ² French marched
into Spain, took over govt., Spanish
guerrilla forces attacked, French
army severely weakened
C) Japoleon establishes his relatives
as kings in the countries he
conquers. These people are not
competent rulers. The citizens of
these countries revolt.
V Major powers attacked:
×ngland and Prussia
V 1814 ² Japoleon
surrendered at Leipzig,
exiled to island of ×lba
V Jew king unpopular,
Japoleon escaped ×lba,
returns to France a Hero
for 100 days and built a
new army in 1815