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CENTRIFUGATION

CENTRIFUGATION

 Centrifugation is a separation process which uses the action


of centrifugal force to promote accelerated settling of particles in a
solid-liquid or liquid-liquid mixture.
 Centrifugal force is an inertial force directed away from the axis of
rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a
rotating frame of reference.
 Centrifuge is device for separating particles from a solution
according to their size, shape, density, viscosity of the medium and
rotor speed.
 In a solution, particles whose density is higher than that of the
solvent sink (sediment), and particles that are lighter than it float to
the top. The greater the difference in density, the faster they move.
If there is no difference in density, the particles stay steady. To take
advantage of even tiny differences in density to separate various
particles in a solution, gravity can be replaced with the much more
powerful “centrifugal force” provided by a centrifuge.
 efficiency depends on
• solids volume fraction
• sedimentation area
• rotational speed
 efficiency can be improved if
• particle diameter is increased
• residence time
• distance for sedimentation
CENTRIFUGE

 Feed added to spinning bowl


 Sedimentation of particles occurs in
centrifugal field
 Flow is upwards at a particular rate which
determines residence time in device
 Separation happens if sedimentation velocity
is high enough for particle to reach side of
bowl within residence time
 Large particles have higher settling velocities
than small particles
 Both large and small are still particles, have
small Reynolds no.s (<1) and obey Stokes’ Law
SEVERAL TYPES OF CENTRIFUGE
Basket/Bowl
CENTRIFUGE
Basket centrifuges are often called
centrifugal filters or clarifiers. They
have a perforated wall and
cylindrical tubular rotor. In many cases
the outer wall of a basket centrifuge
consists of a fine mesh screen or a
series of screens with the finer mesh
screens supported by the heavier
coarse screen, which in turn is
supported by the bowl. The liquid
passes through the screen, and the
particles too large to pass through the
screen are deposited.
Basket Centrifuge are available in
Horizontal model, Vertical model, Top
Discharge, Bottom Discharge, etc.
Properties?
 Both machines are batch-operated because they do not
incorporate the means for continually removing sedimented solids.
 Solid-bowl/chamber-bowl machines carry a larger diameter bowl
and operate in the 5000}10000g range.
 The solid-bowl machines are often equipped with a removable liner
to facilitate solid removal and centrifuge cleaning, to reduce down
time between batches.
How it works?
 The solid wall basket centrifuge uses centrifugal force to promote
liquid/solid separation. The feed slurry is introduced into the
rotating basket and is accelerated to the basket speed.
Solids/contaminants are pulled radially away from the liquid by
centrifugal force and collects along the inner wall of the basket.
The clarified liquid builds up along in the inside and flows up and
over the basket wall. It collects along the inside of the housing
and is discharged by gravity through the outlet. Liquid clarification
continues until the basket can no longer retain any solids and
must be emptied. Automatic and semi-automatic solids discharge
is available for suitable solids consistency.
Application?

 The basket centrifuge is employed in the manufacture of cane sugar,


in the home and in laundries for the rapid drying of clothes, and in the
washing and drying of many kinds of crystals and fibrous materials,
etc.
 Final cleaning of a Suid stream ,particularly for the solid-bowl
machine, if the solid to be removed is of a refractory type, which
would impose extensive wear on the nozzles or solid ejection ports of
a disc stack machine or where high compac- tation of the solids is of
value.
 Basket Centrifuge is widely used in Industries to separate solid from
Liquid with the basket. Basket Centrifuge work on the principal of
Centrifugal force. The High speed revolution of Baskeet through the
Liquid outside and keep the Solid in the basket. It is widely used in
Pharmaceutical Industries, Chemical Industries, Dairy Industry, and
more.
This latter condition can be very desirable for biotechnological applica-
tions where isolation of expensive precipitates is a key function.
Problem example:
Horizontal
Decanter
CENTRIFUGE
Properties
 Consist of a helical screw, baffle, and outer bowl
 Moved by a motor and gearbox
 Used to separate slurry (solid - liquid); flocculent might be
needed
 (+) Continuous Operation, “zero down time”, wide range
of particles
 (-) Mechanically Complex
WORK PRINCIPLE
 The feed is inserted continuously in the center of the
screw
 The screw’s rotation has two effects:
 Moves the solid counter-currently to the liquid
 Moves the solid towards the bowl.
 The bowl usually has different radius in both end
 The solids are brought to small end
 The liquid flows towards the large end
APPLICATION AND USE
 Edible oil or fat refinery – separating examples
 Drying fine-powdered coal
 Biogas, Bioethanol or Biomass refinery
 Paper and pulp
 Water treatment plant
 Separating Organelles
EXAMPLE QUESTION
1. Calculating RCF (Relative Centrifugal Forces)
EXAMPLE QUESTION
2. Calculating Terminal Velocity and Optimum Time
EXAMPLE QUESTION
3. Calculating Capacity or Mass Flow Rate
Vertical
Disk
CENTRIFUGE
VERTICAL DISC CENTRIFUGE
OPERATION
1. Liquid or slurry enters into the top of the
centrifuge.
2. The higher density solids get pinned against the
outer bowl wall.
3. The lowest density liquids are forced through the
discs and back out through the top.
4. Higher density liquids are retained in the space
between the discs and the solids and can be
piped out.

A centrifuge of this type may also be


known as a clarifier, purifier, or
concentrator.
ANIMATION
VERTICAL DISC CENTRIFUGE
USES / INDUSTRIES
1. Dairy (Cream separators)
2. Food Processing (de-pulping of fruit juice,
clarification of apple juice, wine clarification)
3. Marine (remove water from fuel / oil)
4. Offshore Oil (remove oil from water)
5. Environmental (remove oil from water)
6. Machine Tool (remove fine metallic particles
from coolant)
7. Food and Beverage
 processing and recovery of non-liquid food
products
 processing of citrus fruit
 wine and sugar processing
 recycling of food-related products
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