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Power Control

2004-06-19

0 2018/4/16 Huawei Profile


Content
• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Questions and other.

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Power Control

• What’s Power Control

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The Basic Idea
• This is the Basic Idea of Power Control
Too
Weak!

Louder Plz!

Still
Weak!!

Louder Plz!!

 Good!

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• The basic idea of power control is;
– To guarantee the service quality of the
receiver.
– By adjusting the transmission power,

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Power Control concepts

• 2 type: close loop and open loop;


• Close loop power control
– Adjust the Tx power according to the Rx’s
feedback.
– Bi-directional connection needed.
• Open loop power control
– To set the Channel initial power.
– No “loop”, only one direction.

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Power Control
Open Loop Close Loop
Inner-Loop Outer-Loop
Uplink/Downlink UL/DL UL/DL

Note: Sometimes the “power control” means close


Loop power control .

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Content
• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Other aspects
–…

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Power Control – Link Quality

• How to Measure the link quality?

- BER or BLER

- BER: Bit Error Ratio, e.g. 10e-3, 10e-6


- BLER: Block Error Ratio, e.g. 1%, 5%

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BLER

SIR
• SIR : Signal to Interference Ratio.
Signal _ Power
SIR 
Intererence _ Power

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BLER

X%

SIR
Y

• 1, BLER≤X%  SIR≥Y
• 2, If the Interference is constant, “Io”,
•  P = SIR·Io ≥ Y·Io
• 3, If P is equal or larger than “Y·Io”, the BLER will be
better than x%.
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• Question:
– Should the Tx power be as high as possible?

• Answer: NO
– Will waste the power;
– Will cause extra interference to other users.

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Why Power Control

• Link Quality
• Interference
–Why Interference is
important for CDMA
system?

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CDMA Multiple Access Technology
User#1 User#1
Frequency User#2 Frequency
User#3 User#2
User#3

Time Time
TDMA FDMA

Frequency

User#1
User#2 UN
User#3 Conferenc
Time
e
CDMA
Code

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• In CDMA system,
– Each user is an interference source to other
users.
– So, each user’s Tx power should be
minimized.
• Power Control:
– Adjust users Tx power to just enough, as the
radio propagation environment is changing.

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The usage of Power Control

Path Loss
Tx Power with PC
Tx Power with outPC

Time

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PC usage - Review

• Why Power Control


– Quality (BLER): be satisfied;
– Interference: be minimized;

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• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Other aspects
–…

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PC mechanism – Inner Loop.

• The Inner Loop Power Control

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Inner loop power control

BLER
X%

SIR
Y

Path Loss
Tx Power without PC
Tx Power with PC

Time

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Inner loop power control
Ptx
Prx  ........L : Path _ Loss
L
Prx
SIR  ......I : Interference
I
Ptx  L  I  SIRt arg et
SIR  SIRt arg et
SIRtarget: The target SIR to get
the target the target quality (BLER)

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Inner Loop PC

1
Transmitter Receiver
2
+/-xdB SIR estimate
4
TPC cmd: +1/-1 3 SIRtarget
decode compare

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ILPC - Summary

• Inner Loop Power Control:


– Based on the comparison between received
SIR and the target SIR,
– The receiver command the transmitter to
increase or decrease the transmitting power.

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• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Other aspects
–…

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PC mechanism - Outer Loop

• Outer Loop Power Control

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OLPC - Why
BLER

SIR

• The Mapping between BLER and SIR is


time-varied, is not fixed.
• When propagation environment changed,
the mapping will changed.

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OLPC –- BLER-SIR mapping

Suburb For example


BLER
only
Urban
Dense urban
X%

SIR
Y1 Y2 Y3

• As channel condition changing, the


required SIR (target) is changing slowly.
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OLPC

1
Data Blocks BLER Meas
Rx
2

TPC cmd SIRtarget 3 BLERtarget


ILPC Comparing

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OLPC - Summary

• Outer Loop Power Control


– Based on the comparison between measured
BLER and the target BLER,
– To set the target SIR for the ILPC.

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Data Blocks
Transmitter Receiver BLER Meas

+1/-1dB SIR estimate

TPC cmd: +1/-1 SIRtarget BLERtarget


decode compare Comparing

Inter Loop Outer Loop

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Content
• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Other aspects
–…

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Power Control In WCDMA

• Power Control in WCDMA:


– The Uplink;
– The Downlink;

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UL power control
Uu interface SIRtarget

Signal User data


UE NodeB RNC

TPC cmd
Iub Interface

UL ILPC UL OLPC

UL power control

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UL PC summary

• UL PC is used control the UL power and quality.

• UL ILPC is between UE and NodeB;

• In UL ILPC, the NodeB controls the UE’s tx power, based


on the comparison of received SIR and SIRtarget.

• UL OLPC is done in RNC.

• In UL OLPC, the RNC update the SIRtarget setting to


NodeB, according to the measured BLER and the
required BLER(target).

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DL Power Control

UE
User data
SIRtarget
Uu
DL OLPC Signal
NodeB
TPC cmd

DL ILPC

DL PC

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DL PC summary
• DL PC is used to control the DL power and quality;

• DL ILPC is between UE and NodeB

• In DL ILPC, the UE controls the NodeB tx power, based


on the comparison of received SIR and target SIR.

• DL OLPC is in UE internal implemented.

• In DL OLPC, UE update the SIRtarget for DL-ILPC,


based on the comparison of received BLER and the
required BLER.

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Review of the PC mechanism

• OLPC is used to adjust SIR target that will


be used by ILPC;
• ILPC is used to adjust the tx power on air
interface

• Both UL and DL ILPC are on Uu interface.


• UL OLPC is in RNC;
• DL OLPC is in UE.

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WCDMA Power control
• Some figures:
– On air inter face, one TPC cmd transmit per slot.
• Q: How many “TPC cmd” can be sent out in 1
second? i.e. What’s the ILPC frequency?
• Q: If ILPC step is 1 dB, At most, how much power
can change in 1 frame?

– For voice speech, BLERtarget can be set to 1%. And


each voice data block transmission takes 20ms.
• Q: To measure a BLER, generally how long time is
needed.

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Content
• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Other aspects
–…

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• ILPC and OLPC together is called closed-
loop-power-control.
– Aim: power adjustment when communication
ongoing.
– Close Loop power control is a adaptive
control that can make the Tx converge to the
power just needed.
• Question:
– Is that mean initial power is not important?
– If there’s no feedback loop, how to set the
power?

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Open loop

• OPEN LOOP POWER CONTROL


– To set the initial power value.
• Initial Access;
• DL DPCH initial power;
• UL DPCH initial power;

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Quality
(BLER)

SIR

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OPEN LOOP – Random Access

Ptx  L  I  SIR
– L: Path Loss
– I: Interference
– SIR: The required SIR

Question: For Initial Access How Can UE knows


the 3 values?

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The Random access power

Preamble_Initial_Power =
Primary CPICH DL TX power -CPICH_RSCP
+ UL interference + Constant Value,
where Primary CPICH DL TX power , UL interference
and the constant value are broadcasted in the
System Information,and CPICH_RSCP is
measured by UE。

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The DL DCH initial power setting.
 
 

P
Eb  R
    
PCPICH
 I 0  W   Ec 
   Ptotal 

  I0  
 CPICH 

•(Eb/Io)*(R/W)  SIR required.


•Pcpich: Primary CPICH transmit power.
• (Ec/Io)cpich: measurement value reported by the UE.
•“α”: downlink cell orthogonal factor.
•Ptotal: Cell total DL power.

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The UL DPCH intial power

• Calculated by RNC, and signaled to UE, in


a same manner as that of initial access.

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Content
• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Other aspects
–…

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WCDMA PC

• Some Questions about power control

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WCDMA PC

• Question:
– Why BLER is used for OLPC? BER?

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WCDMA PC

• Is BLER always available?


• What can OLPC to do when BLER can not
measured?

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WCDMA power control

• Question:
– Why UL OLPC is located in RNC? Why not
in NodeB?

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WCDMA PC

data
NodeB#1

data#1

Combination

data#2

NodeB#2

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• Question:
– In SHO state, what will happen if UE received
different TPC cmd from different NodeB?

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• Question:
– In ILPC, the TPC cmd is tx on air-interface,
unavoidable error will occur? What’s the TPC
cmd error impact?

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• Discussion:
– What’s the difference between GSM power
control and WCDMA power control?
– The PC in SHO. Issues (ul, dl).
– Abnormal Protections.
– Initial power control.

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WCDMA PC

• The power control parameters


review

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Review OPEN LOOP Parameters

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• NOTE:
– The parameters in the following 2 page, are
very sensitive for network quality. Without
100% necessary, do not change it.

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Inner Loop Power Control Parameters

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OLPControl Parameters

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