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# Power Control

2004-06-19

## 0 2018/4/16 Huawei Profile

Content
• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Questions and other.

Power Control

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The Basic Idea
• This is the Basic Idea of Power Control
Too
Weak!

Louder Plz!

Still
Weak!!

Louder Plz!!

 Good!

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• The basic idea of power control is;
– To guarantee the service quality of the
– By adjusting the transmission power,

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Power Control concepts

## • 2 type: close loop and open loop;

• Close loop power control
– Adjust the Tx power according to the Rx’s
feedback.
– Bi-directional connection needed.
• Open loop power control
– To set the Channel initial power.
– No “loop”, only one direction.

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Power Control
Open Loop Close Loop
Inner-Loop Outer-Loop

## Note: Sometimes the “power control” means close

Loop power control .

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Content
• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Other aspects
–…

- BER or BLER

## - BER: Bit Error Ratio, e.g. 10e-3, 10e-6

- BLER: Block Error Ratio, e.g. 1%, 5%

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BLER

SIR
• SIR : Signal to Interference Ratio.
Signal _ Power
SIR 
Intererence _ Power

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BLER

X%

SIR
Y

• 1, BLER≤X%  SIR≥Y
• 2, If the Interference is constant, “Io”,
•  P = SIR·Io ≥ Y·Io
• 3, If P is equal or larger than “Y·Io”, the BLER will be
better than x%.
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• Question:
– Should the Tx power be as high as possible?

– Will waste the power;
– Will cause extra interference to other users.

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Why Power Control

• Interference
–Why Interference is
important for CDMA
system?

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CDMA Multiple Access Technology
User#1 User#1
Frequency User#2 Frequency
User#3 User#2
User#3

Time Time
TDMA FDMA

Frequency

User#1
User#2 UN
User#3 Conferenc
Time
e
CDMA
Code

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• In CDMA system,
– Each user is an interference source to other
users.
– So, each user’s Tx power should be
minimized.
• Power Control:
– Adjust users Tx power to just enough, as the

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The usage of Power Control

Path Loss
Tx Power with PC
Tx Power with outPC

Time

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PC usage - Review

## • Why Power Control

– Quality (BLER): be satisfied;
– Interference: be minimized;

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• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Other aspects
–…

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PC mechanism – Inner Loop.

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Inner loop power control

BLER
X%

SIR
Y

Path Loss
Tx Power without PC
Tx Power with PC

Time

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Inner loop power control
Ptx
Prx  ........L : Path _ Loss
L
Prx
SIR  ......I : Interference
I
Ptx  L  I  SIRt arg et
SIR  SIRt arg et
SIRtarget: The target SIR to get
the target the target quality (BLER)

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Inner Loop PC

1
2
+/-xdB SIR estimate
4
TPC cmd: +1/-1 3 SIRtarget
decode compare

ILPC - Summary

## • Inner Loop Power Control:

– Based on the comparison between received
SIR and the target SIR,
– The receiver command the transmitter to
increase or decrease the transmitting power.

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• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Other aspects
–…

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PC mechanism - Outer Loop

OLPC - Why
BLER

SIR

## • The Mapping between BLER and SIR is

time-varied, is not fixed.
• When propagation environment changed,
the mapping will changed.

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OLPC –- BLER-SIR mapping

BLER
only
Urban
Dense urban
X%

SIR
Y1 Y2 Y3

## • As channel condition changing, the

required SIR (target) is changing slowly.
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OLPC

1
Data Blocks BLER Meas
Rx
2

ILPC Comparing

OLPC - Summary

## • Outer Loop Power Control

– Based on the comparison between measured
BLER and the target BLER,
– To set the target SIR for the ILPC.

Data Blocks

## TPC cmd: +1/-1 SIRtarget BLERtarget

decode compare Comparing

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Content
• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Other aspects
–…

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Power Control In WCDMA

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UL power control
Uu interface SIRtarget

UE NodeB RNC

TPC cmd
Iub Interface

UL ILPC UL OLPC

UL power control

UL PC summary

## • In UL ILPC, the NodeB controls the UE’s tx power, based

on the comparison of received SIR and SIRtarget.

## • In UL OLPC, the RNC update the SIRtarget setting to

NodeB, according to the measured BLER and the
required BLER(target).

DL Power Control

UE
User data
SIRtarget
Uu
DL OLPC Signal
NodeB
TPC cmd

DL ILPC

DL PC

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DL PC summary
• DL PC is used to control the DL power and quality;

## • In DL ILPC, the UE controls the NodeB tx power, based

on the comparison of received SIR and target SIR.

## • In DL OLPC, UE update the SIRtarget for DL-ILPC,

based on the comparison of received BLER and the
required BLER.

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Review of the PC mechanism

## • OLPC is used to adjust SIR target that will

be used by ILPC;
• ILPC is used to adjust the tx power on air
interface

## • Both UL and DL ILPC are on Uu interface.

• UL OLPC is in RNC;
• DL OLPC is in UE.

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WCDMA Power control
• Some figures:
– On air inter face, one TPC cmd transmit per slot.
• Q: How many “TPC cmd” can be sent out in 1
second? i.e. What’s the ILPC frequency?
• Q: If ILPC step is 1 dB, At most, how much power
can change in 1 frame?

## – For voice speech, BLERtarget can be set to 1%. And

each voice data block transmission takes 20ms.
• Q: To measure a BLER, generally how long time is
needed.

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Content
• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Other aspects
–…

## 38 2018/4/16 Huawei Profile

• ILPC and OLPC together is called closed-
loop-power-control.
– Aim: power adjustment when communication
ongoing.
– Close Loop power control is a adaptive
control that can make the Tx converge to the
power just needed.
• Question:
– Is that mean initial power is not important?
– If there’s no feedback loop, how to set the
power?

Open loop

## • OPEN LOOP POWER CONTROL

– To set the initial power value.
• Initial Access;
• DL DPCH initial power;
• UL DPCH initial power;

Quality
(BLER)

SIR

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OPEN LOOP – Random Access

Ptx  L  I  SIR
– L: Path Loss
– I: Interference
– SIR: The required SIR

the 3 values?

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The Random access power

Preamble_Initial_Power =
Primary CPICH DL TX power -CPICH_RSCP
+ UL interference + Constant Value，
where Primary CPICH DL TX power , UL interference
and the constant value are broadcasted in the
System Information，and CPICH_RSCP is
measured by UE。

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The DL DCH initial power setting.
 
 

P
Eb  R
    
PCPICH
 I 0  W   Ec 
   Ptotal 

  I0  
 CPICH 

## •(Eb/Io)*(R/W)  SIR required.

•Pcpich: Primary CPICH transmit power.
• (Ec/Io)cpich: measurement value reported by the UE.
•Ptotal: Cell total DL power.

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The UL DPCH intial power

## • Calculated by RNC, and signaled to UE, in

a same manner as that of initial access.

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Content
• What’s Power Control
• Why Power Control
– Quality;
– Interference;
• How Power Control Works
– The Inner Loop,
– The Outer Loop.
• Power Control in WCDMA
• Open Loop Power Control,
• Other aspects
–…

WCDMA PC

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WCDMA PC

• Question:
– Why BLER is used for OLPC? BER?

WCDMA PC

## • Is BLER always available?

• What can OLPC to do when BLER can not
measured?

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WCDMA power control

• Question:
– Why UL OLPC is located in RNC? Why not
in NodeB?

WCDMA PC

data
NodeB#1

data#1

Combination

data#2

NodeB#2

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• Question:
– In SHO state, what will happen if UE received
different TPC cmd from different NodeB?

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• Question:
– In ILPC, the TPC cmd is tx on air-interface,
unavoidable error will occur? What’s the TPC
cmd error impact?

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• Discussion:
– What’s the difference between GSM power
control and WCDMA power control?
– The PC in SHO. Issues (ul, dl).
– Abnormal Protections.
– Initial power control.

WCDMA PC

review

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Review OPEN LOOP Parameters

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• NOTE:
– The parameters in the following 2 page, are
very sensitive for network quality. Without
100% necessary, do not change it.

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Inner Loop Power Control Parameters

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OLPControl Parameters