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A presentation by: Aditya Shukla


Ajay Kumar
Amit Gupta
Anil Gupta
Ankur Gulati
Amit Kumar

FMS, Delhi University


September 12, 2008
|ross communication:
KK  
 

 
 
  
 

  
  

|ross communication:
.... Origin, History & relevance

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ƥ $
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|ross communication:
. . . . .the two elements

| | | 

| | | 


|ULTURE:
KK 
 
 
 

 
    



 

 

 
 



KK 



  
   
  K 

 


  

    



 



  
 







 
 
 
|ULTURE: definitions cont.
] | 
  
 



 
 


 
 

 
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(/,0112.

]| 

 
 

 



  
  
  
 

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· at is culture?

RR   
 
visible R R R 
   R   R

invisible R
  R
RR

 R

HO· TO MEASURE |ULTURE ??
MEASUREMENT OF |ULTURE:-
A FE· MILESTONES...
HOFSTEDEƞS VALUE SURVEY MODEL:

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011!
HOFSTEDEƞS |ULTURAL DIMENSIONS:


"
 

|    "
|

 
|

|  

   


INDIVIDUALISM (IDV):
È    
            
         
        
                  



       

      
             
    


       
      
     

°
 
 


 
  %+ 
  %, .
INDIVIDUALISM Vs. |OLLE|TIVISM:

V   

Iƞ consciousness is dominant ·eƞ consciousness is


dominant

Bottom-up decision making is Bottom-up decision making is


impossible very possible

Disregard ot erƞs feelings Pay a lot of attention to


ot erƞs feeling
UN|ERTAINITY AVOIDEN|E (UAI):

È              
              È

°

  
  
 
%

 '%+ '%


HIGH UAI Vs. LO· UAI :
V 
  


Usually feel worried in Feel little pressure in


communication |ommunication

|onservative, dedicated, insist |ompre ensive, flexible and


on consistency, open-minded

Need regulations in written form Dislike regulations


PO·ER DISTAN|E:

È         
        
           
  


      È

°  
 


 5°%+ 5°%


HIGH & LO· PO·ER DISTAN|E |ULTURE:

V     
           
   
    
   

         


   

      !  "   


         
 
    #
$
%
MAS|ULINITY (MAS):

È  
              
           

        


            

   
                  !"
    
               

          

        
           !È

° 
 
  

 4%+ 4%


MAS|ULINITY Vs. FEMINITY:

V & $
'
(!  & $
'
(!
Man is dominant Man and woman are equal

Respect aut ority and T ink muc of life


s owing self-confident
Independent in Hope to rely on ot er
communication members
Desire of self-expression is Suc desire is not intense
intense
Fast pace Low pace

| ina, Japan, UK, US Korea


LONG TERM ORIENTATION (LTO):

] 
 
 
   6%

(
 
  % 

 
( (
 
 
 (    

 
  6% 
 
7

°  


 
   


|OMMUNI|ATION:

More t an language...
|OMMUNI|ATION:

]·  R— 

R
R R
R

 
RR
R  R  
R 
R

R 

R  R  

R 

THE |OMMUNI|ATION MODEL:

| 

  
  


THE |OMMUNI|ATION MODEL:
|
| 

  
  


|OMMUNI|ATION:

|ontext is t e situation in w ic language occurs:


ƛ p ysical location
ƛ relations ip between people
ƛ s ared knowledge (culture, memories, etc)
ƛ reason for communication
ƛ gestures
ƛ be aviour
|OMMUNI|ATION: Low & Hig
context . . . . .

Low context communication:


T e message is mainly carried by t e language.
eg. TV, books, talking to a stranger

Hig context communication:


T e message is mainly carried by t e context.
eg. telling your mot er ow you feel
LO· & HIGH |ONTEXT
|ULTURES:
Hig 

 


R 
Low
R 

NON VERBAL |OMMUNI|ATION:

ƥ Body language

ƥ Body space and body touc

ƥ Paralanguage
BODY LANGUAGE:

± 


± #   


± $  

± | 


BODY SPA|E & BODY TOU|H:

±  


± 
PARALANGUAGE:
± 

±

±"  

±  

±
NON VERBAL |OMMUNI|ATION:









  





 
|ross communication wit | ina

ƥ Background

ƛ Oldest continuous civilization


ƛ Government - |ommunist
ƛ Population one-fift of t e world
ƛ language ƛ | inese (business language
Englis )
Religion in | ina
Hofstedeƞs scale: India Vs | ina

°   
       
°  
   

  
  





   

| ina - |ore issues in communication

ƥ Dos and Don'ts


ƛ  )Movements
ƥ no large and movements
ƥ '   )Use open palm instead of index finger

ƛ *+'$,
ƥ ) like clocks, straw sandals, andkerc ief or
anyt ing w ite, blue or black indicate deat .
ƛ *+'$
ƥ ) t ings from your city, good pen, c ocolate, banquet
ƥ Present/receive gifts wit bot arms
ƥ Donƞt wrap a gift in w ite paper
ƥ Do refuse a gift several times before accepting it.
| ina - |ore issues in communication
ƥ Dos and Don'ts

ƛ General
ƥ |arry your address wit you
ƥ No tipping
ƛ · at to wear
ƥ Donƞt wear brig t colors for business
ƥ Donƞt wear revealing outfits if a woman
ƛ Food/Drinks
ƥ Donƞt start first. Donƞt put sugar or milk in your tea.
ƥ Donƞt take t e last bit of food in a serving plate
ƥ Donƞt discuss business at meal
ƛ S opping
ƥ Learn basic questions and numbers
ƥ Bargain
| ina - |ore issues in communication
ƥ Dos and Don'ts
ƛ Business
ƥ Appointment must, contact prior to trip
ƥ Bring several copies of all written documents
ƥ Do arrive early or on time
ƥ Greeting t roug bowing and nodding or ands ake
ƥ Present/receive business cards bot arms
ƥ Donƞt put early in pocket or write on card
ƥ Do address wit t eir professional titles
ƥ Important member lead t e discussion
ƥ Have a Interpreter
ƥ Present some gift
ƥ Decision process is slow
ƥ Allow a | inese to leave early
ƥ Donƞt discuss business at meal
| ina - Business Negotiations
ƥ Donƞt cross t e line or sign it too soon
(Key decision maker or donƞt be overw elmed by ospitality)
ƥ Lost in translation
(Don't rely on t e translator provided by t e | inese)
ƥ | aracters and odd Names
(|ards printed wit c inese language saves time)
ƥ Square peg in t e round ole
(Be ave politely and naturally)
ƥ |as is King
(stay in 4 or 5 star otels to ave impression)
ƥ Political influence
(T e | inese are ard negotiators )
|HINA - FINAL NOTE
Don't do anyt ing in | ina you feel

would be inappropriate in your ome

country. If it doesn't work at ome,

it certainly won't work in | ina


|ross |ommunication - Japan

ƥ Background
ƛ Parliamentary democracy under a monarc
ƛ Introvert people
ƛ Literacy rate ~ 100%, wit Population of 125
million approx.
ƛ Language - Japanese
Religion in Japan
Hofstedeƞs scale: India Vs Japan

°    
       

°   
   
 
  




   

Japan-- |ore issues in communication
ƥ Dos and Don'ts
ƛ General
ƥ |arry your address wit you
ƥ No tipping
ƥ Japanese rarely entertain in t e ome.
ƥ Do not openly display money
ƛ · at to wear
ƥ Dress to impress
ƥ Man- ·ear suits -tie for business
ƥ For woman flat s oe - no eal
ƥ S oe- easy to remove ( Temple & Tea places)
ƥ Dress conservatively for visiting temple
Japan
ƥ Dos and Don'ts
ƛ Food / drinks
ƥ Let t e ost order t e meal and pay
ƥ Punctuality is not expected in a social event
ƥ Gifting is very important
ƥ Drinking is important in t eir culture
ƥ Do eat family style, Slurping your noodles is acceptable
ƥ Donƞt pay if you are invited ƛ no split billing- but insist
ƥ Donƞt get noticeably drunk in a nice restaurant
ƛ Language
ƥ Excuse me ƛSumimasen
ƥ T ank you ƛ Ari gato Gojamus
ƥ ( -SAN
Japan

ƥ Dos and Don'ts


ƛ Gifts
ƥ Present/receive gifts wit bot arms
ƥ Avoid gift wit number Ơ4ơ
ƥ Do give a gift to t ank somebody
ƥ Make sure it is wrapped nicely
ƥ Do refuse a gift several times before accepting
ƥ S ow a lot of interest in gift
ƛ Bat ing etiquette
ƥ |ommunal bat ing culture - Onsen
Dos and Don'ts
ƛ Business
ƥ Appointment must, contact prior to trip
ƥ Bring several copies of all written documents
ƥ Do arrive early or on time
ƥ Greeting t roug bowing and nodding or ands ake -
weak
ƥ Receive business cardsƠ MEISHIơ bot arms ƛ s ow
interest
ƥ Donƞt put early in pocket or write on card
ƥ Do address wit t eir professional titles - SAN
ƥ Important member lead t e discussion
ƥ Have a Interpreter
ƥ T ey do not use word NO or YOU
Japan - Business Negotiations

ƥ Establis personal rapport


( prior meeting over dinner)
ƥ lawyer is ired Gun
(Avoid placing a negotiating lawyer )
ƥ Learn t e extent of Japanese negotiator aut orities
(t ey may c eck wit superiors )
ƥ Avoid addressing a Japanese as ƠYouơ
(use names of companies )
ƥ Be prepared for Long Hours
(stalk tactics, fatigue & last minute demand - Negotiation)
ƥ Explain Idea Several Different ways
(t ey donƞt say NO )
Hongkong

ƥ Background
ƛ |apitalist firm of Govt.
ƛ Predominantly | inese
ƛ No official religion
Hofstedeƞs scale: India Vs Hong Kong

R

 R  
 
R 

 
R 
R 
 R 

  R
 

°      !

"  $  $% %!
#
Religion in HongKong
HongKong

ƥ |ore issues

ƛ Be avior
ƥ T e guest of onor makes t e first toast
ƥ Gifting is very important
ƥ Bar opping and karaoke ƛ means of
entertainment
HongKong

ƥ |ore issues

ƛ |ommunications
ƥ Hands ake is fairly common
ƥ Silence is eld in ig regard
ƥ Names are used wit titles
HongKong:Dos and Don'ts

ƛ · at to wear
ƥ Donƞt wear blue/w ite in social settings
ƛ Food/Drinks
ƥ Donƞt turn a fis over
ƥ Leave a little bit of food on plate w en full
ƛ Gifts
ƥ Donƞt give s arp objects
ƥ Donƞt give anyt ing in sets of 4
ƥ Donƞt wrap a gift in w ite
orea



  
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6 

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Hofstedeƞs scale: India Vs orea

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&' )'(  (+ ' ((
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°      !

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Religion in orea

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orea

ƥ |ore issues

ƛ Be avior
ƥ Donƞt leave table until oldest person finis es eating
ƥ Never write a orean name in red ink
ƥ Pour drinks wit your rig t ands
ƥ orean spit quite frequently
orea

ƥ |ore issues

ƛ |ommunications
ƥ Many s ake ands w en introduced but most still
bow
ƥ Do address people wit respect
ƥ Pay attention to small details
orea

ƥ Dos and Don'ts


ƛ · at to wear
ƥ Dress modestly and conservatively in business

ƛ Food/Drinks
ƥ Donƞt eat wit your ands
ƥ Do try a little bit of everyt ing

ƛ Gifts
ƥ Donƞt open a gift upon receipt
ƥ Donƞt give someone an expensive gift if t ey canƞt
reciprocate
orea

ƥ Business Negotiations

ƥ oreans are clever, forceful negotiators


ƥ Negotiate in groups
ƥ Masters at wearing opponents down
ƥ |ommunication s ould be as complete as possible
ƥ Attempt to put all business relations on personal
emotional level
O ggestions
ð $*  
(to avoid cross c t re s ock)
- ( . 
(earn, sensitivity, expectation,)
/ ( È armonize
r '  È c t re, ang age, management
stye, etc
5.   
|onc sion

ƥ Importance of |ross | t re |omm nication


(Goba patform, make /brake, nitty-gritty's)
ƥ Understanding c t re ƛ visibe / invisibe
(| t re dimension, |ontext ƛ Hig /Low)
ƥ |omm nication ƛ Verba / Non verba
(Body Lang age, Body to c ,Ʀ.)
ƥ |o ntries ƛ 5D ranks, be avior, dos and donƞts,
b siness negotiations.
± estion?
Do bts!
O ggestion.
If any.