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LET REVIEW
Concepts in Chemistry,
Biology and
Environmental Science

Crist John M. Pastor


Pronounced as one letter but written
with three, only two different letters are
used to make me.

I'm double, I'm single I'm black, blue,


and gray.

I'm read from both ends and the same


either way.
EYE
How many black dots do you see?
Actually there’s
no black dot at
all…
Answer this simple question as fast as you can…

Mary’s father has five daughters


1)Nana 2)Nene 3)Nini 4)Nono.

What is the name of the fifth


daughter?
Fifth daughter is

MARY
Mary’s father has five daughters
1)Nana 2)Nene 3)Nini 4)Nono… 
So let us have some simple mental
math 

Take 1000 and add 40


then add another 1000
add 30
add 1000
add 20
add 1000
add 10
5,000
Actually it is just 4,100
Add it again… SUM is 4,100
Take 1000 and add 40
then add another 1000
add 30
add 1000
add 20
add 1000
add 10
REVIEW Time!
Outline of Discussion
Introduction to Principles of
Chemistry

Basic Concepts in Biological


Science

Ecology and Environmental


Issues
Science and technology
has transformed human
societies…

Life continues to become more comfortable…


"That's one small step for [a]
man, one giant leap for
mankind.“
-Neil Armstrong
Would you dare use
this phone in a
public place today?
"We'll go from knowing almost nothing about how our genes work
to enlisting genes in the struggle to prevent and cure illness. This will
be the scientific breakthrough of the century, perhaps of all time.“

-President Bill Clinton


Louise Brown

Robert G. Edwards
Matter is anything that
occupies space and
has mass
Mass refers to the particles that
make up materials around us.
Particles that make up matter are
molecules and atoms
The atom is further consists
of sub-atomic particles.
The SPACE occupied by
matter is called VOLUME
The SPACE occupied by
matter is called VOLUME
Phase is a homogenous part of a material
in contact with other components but
separated by them by a well-defined
boundary
PHASES OF MATTER
Properties of Matter

Physical Property Chemical Properties


can be perceived by Observable when it reacts
senses with other chemicals that
result to the change in its
composition
Intensive Extensive
Property Property
does not depend on depends on mass
mass or amount of
or amount of
material
material
In the given list,
box all the
intensive
physical
properties and
encircle the
extensive
physical
properties of
matter
In the given list,
box all the
intensive
physical
properties and
encircle the
extensive
physical
properties of
matter
What is
density?
Density describes
how COMPACT a
given material is…
So why density is
regarded as an
intensive physical
property of matter?
Density of a pure substance
doesn’t depend on the
quantity of material.
How would you know
that a jewelry is pure
gold?
Are terms mass and
weight synonymous?
Physical Change
change in phase, size,
Changes in and shape but not
Matter composition

Law of Conservation
of Mass
“Matter is neither created Chemical Change
nor destroyed in chemical
reactions.” changing a substance
into a new one
Physical Change – a change in matter that can
be observed or measured without changing the
identity
•change in the state of matter
•change in size, shape or state without a
change in composition
Physical Changes
Evidences of a Chemical Change
Which of the following is an
example of a physical change?
a. burning metal
b.changing of iodine crystals into a violet gas
c. formation of two gases during electrolysis
of water
d.formation of a black solid from heated iron
and sulfur
Which of the following process takes
place when ice cubes form vapor
without passing
through the liquid state?

A. Transpiration
B. Condensation
C.Sublimation
D.Evaporation
An ELEMENT is the simplest form of matter
and is made of only one kind of atom.
Two new elements
were added to the
periodic table

January WHAT MIGHT


BE NEXT IN
2012 LINE?
An ELEMENT is the simplest form of matter
and is made of only one kind of atom.
CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS
• Metal – an element that conducts electricity, has
metallic luster, ductile and malleable; forms cations and
has basic oxides; located on the left side of the periodic
table

• Nonmetal – does not conduct electricity, not malleable


and ductile and found on the right side of the periodic
table; mostly gases

• Metalloid – an element that has the physical


appearance of a a metal but behaves chemically like a
nonmetal; found along the zigzag line on the periodic
table
What is the
difference between
malleability and
ductility?
Compounds
• are made of elements that can be
separated into its elements by
chemical means.
• are substances consisting of atoms of
two or more elements in a definite
ratio.
• have definite compositions
Compounds are considered as ORGANIC
if they contain carbon and
INORGANIC if there is no carbon,
except for the following:
Identify whether the given compound is
organic or inorganic
Generally, acids yield Hydrogen
ions (H+) in solution while bases
produce Hydroxide ions (OH-)
in solution.
An INDICATOR is a substance which
changes its color in response to difference in
pH. Litmus paper is a common indicator.

An acid changes blue A base changes red


litmus paper to red litmus paper to blue
LITMUS PAPER pH paper
A SALT is an ionic compound that is
formed either directly or indirectly from
the neutralization reaction between an acid
and a base.
NaCl
Large quantities of calcium carbonate are
dumped into polluted lakes to fight the
effect of acid rain. It is inferred from this
action that calcium carbonate is
a/an__________.

A. acid
B. base
C. neutral substance
D. powdered substance
Mixtures
Solution
homogeneous mixture composed of
solvent and solute

Colloid
--exhibits Tyndall Effect, Brownian movement

Suspension/Coarse
--has suspended particles/different phases
Are all solutions
liquids?
Are bronze and
brass considered
as metals?
Why are these two
metals (bronze and
brass) not included in
the periodic table?
Ikaw ba ay nababagabag sa
nalalapit na pagsusulit?

may PAGASA pa…


Mixtures result from mixing
two or more materials that
retain its separate identity.
Solutions = solvent + solute
*solute – a substance that is being dissolved
*solvent – a substance that dissolves
Filtration is a separation
technique
that is being used in
separating insoluble
material from the
liquid by allowing the
mixture to pass through a
filter paper.
Sedimentation is the
tendency for
particles in suspension or
molecules in
solution to settle out of the
fluid
Decantation carefully
pouring a solution from
a container in order to
leave the precipitate
(sediments)
in the bottom of the
original container.
Centrifugation a
process that involves
the use of the
centrifuge machine for
the separation of
mixtures, used in
industry and in
laboratory settings
Two immiscible
liquids can be
separated by using
a separatory funnel.

A mixture that is composed


of a metal and a non-metal
can be easily separated by
using a magnet.
THE CELLULAR THEORY OF LIFE
 Living things are made
of cells.
 Complex organisms
are made of different
kinds of cells specialized
to carry out specific
functions, all working
together to accomplish
the total needs of life.

 A group of similar cells having similar


functions form TISSUES
 A group of tissues forms an ORGAN
 Several organs working together form a
SYSTEM
Functions of a Cell
• to manufacture proteins and
other materials to help build
the cell

• to manufacture food for


energy

• to reproduce
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
Bacterial Cell
Cells can be classified as Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic…
Each organelle has its specific roles to perform…
PARTS of the CELL
Flagella
PARTS of the CELL
Cell Wall
PARTS of the CELL
Cell Membrane
PARTS of the CELL
Cytoplasm
PARTS of the CELL
Nucleus
PARTS of the CELL
Endoplasmic Reticulum
PARTS of the CELL
Ribosomes
PARTS of the CELL
Golgi Apparatus
PARTS of the CELL
Lysosomes
PARTS of the CELL
Mitochondria
MITOCHODRION is
maternally inherited.
PARTS of the CELL
Chloroplast
PARTS of the CELL
Vacuole
PARTS of the CELL
Cytoskeleton
PARTS of the CELL
Centriole
PARTS of the CELL
Structures Animal cell Plant Bacterial
cell cell
Cell wall X / /

Cell membrane / / /

Cytoplasm / / /

Mitochondria / / X

Ribosomes / / /

Endoplasmic
reticulum / / X

Golgi bodies / / X

Lysosomes / X X

Vacuoles / / X

Chloroplasts X / X

Nucleus / / X

Chromosomes / / /
Cell Division
Meiosis (sex cells) –
produce two new cells
with half the number
of chromosomes as
the parent cell
(haploid)
CHROMOSOMES

All the features found in living


things, such as eye color, the pattern
on a butterfly’s wings, or the color of
a flower’s petals, are determined by
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is
a long, coiled molecule. It is located
in structures called chromosomes,
found within the nucleus of every
cell.
Cell Division
Mitosis (somatic cells)-
produce two new cells
whose chromosomes are
the same in number as
the parent cell (diploid)
"We'll go from knowing almost nothing about how our genes work
to enlisting genes in the struggle to prevent and cure illness. This will
be the scientific breakthrough of the century, perhaps of all time.“

-President Bill Clinton


Structure and Function of
Animals

Basic functions:
nutrition response
respiration movement
excretion regulation
circulation reproduction
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Your digestive system is
made up of many
important organs that
work together to digest
the food you eat. It also
helps your body absorb
all the nutrients that the
food contains. Nutrients
are substances that keep
you healthy.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

The RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM helps your
body take oxygen from
the air. The respiratory
system is made up of
your nose, mouth,
trachea, lungs, and
diaphragm
Inhaled and Exhaled Air
EXCRETORY SYSTEM

Made possible through


the KIDNEYS and other
excretory organs that
extract liquid waste from
the body fluids and
eliminate from the
organisms
SKIN – an excretory organ (perspiration)
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
The CIRCULATORY
SYSTEM is made up
of the HEART and
blood vessels known as
arteries and veins. The
heart pumps blood
throughout your body
through the blood
vessels. Blood delivers
oxygen and nutrients to
cells and carries away
carbon dioxide and
other waste materials.
Today, a computerized machine could
send regular electrical impulses to the
heart muscles in order for it to beat
rhythmically. What is this machine is
called?

A. homeostatic machine
B. laser
C. pacemaker
D. pressure maker
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
You have 650 muscles in
your body. Some muscles
work by themselves to
digest food or make your
heart beat. Other
muscles, like those
shown here, are under
your control. You use
them to do such things as
kicking a ball or lifting a
bag of groceries.
SKELETAL SYSTEM

New born babies have


295 bones while adult
skeletal system
contains 206 bones of
various shapes and
sizes. Bones protect
your internal organs
and support your body
as you stand, sit, walk,
and run.
Types of joints
 Ball-and-socket joints, such as the shoulder and hip
joints, allow backward, forward, sideways, and
rotating movements.
 Hinge joints, such as in the fingers, knees, elbows,
and toes, allow only bending and straightening
movements.
 Pivot joints, such as the neck joints, allow limited
rotating movements.
 Ellipsoidal joints, such as the wrist joint, allows all
types of movement except pivotal movements
NERVOUS SYSTEM
The NERVOUS SYSTEM is
the master controller of the body.
Through its many parts, the
nervous system monitors
conditions both within and
outside the body. It then
processes that information and
decides how the body should
respond, if at all. This system
sends out electrical signals that
spur the body into immediate
action. Although one of the
smallest of the body's systems in
terms of weight, the nervous
system is the most complex and
versatile.
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
.

Reproduction is accomplished either sexually or asexually through specialized organs


and specialized systems that ensures perpetuation of the species. The male and female
gonads (testes and ovaries) produce sex cells (ova and sperm). Sexual reproduction is the
process of producing offspring for the survival of the species, and passing on hereditary
traits from one generation to the next. The male and female reproductive systems
contribute to the events leading to fertilization (ZYGOTE – fertilized egg).
Asexual Reproduction
• Asexual reproduction is reproduction
which does not involve meiosis, or
fertilization.

• Only one parent is involved in asexual


reproduction

• Asexual reproduction does not require the


formation of gametes (often in separate
individuals) and bringing them together
for fertilization, it occurs much faster than
sexual reproduction and requires less
energy.

• Asexual lineages can increase their


numbers rapidly because all members can
reproduce viable offspring.
Sexual Reproduction
Requires the union of a male gamete (reproductive
cell) and a female gamete.
Structure
and
Function of
Plants
Parts of a Flower
STAMEN with
anther and
filament - the main
reproductive organ
of a flower

PISTIL or
CARPEL with
stigma, style and
ovary - the female
reproductive organ
of a flower
Attracts insects for
cross pollination

captures pollen
(sticky)

manufactures
pollen (male
reproductive)
Female
reproductive

manufactures
ovules
When the pollen nuclei join the ovule nuclei, fertilized seeds result.
Classification of Plants
BRYOPHYTES
Liverworts - Flattened green portions of the plant
represent the non-vascular gametophyte stage, while the
stalked structures are the sporophytes.
Classification of Plants
BRYOPHYTES
Hornworts - generally appear similar to mosses but have
distinctive conical or horn-shaped sporophytes
Classification of Plants

BRYOPHYTES
Mosses - The gametophyte
is the dominant phase of
the moss life cycle, but the
plants are non-vascular and
lack true roots and leaves.
In general, mosses are
limited in size to no more
than a few inches, since
water must be drawn up by
simple capillary action.
Classification of Plants
TRACHEOPHYTES
Have transport vessel such as xylem and phloem
Classification of Plants
TRACHEOPHYTES
Tropism refers to response of
organisms to stimuli…
Geotropism
- response to
gravity
Phototropism
- response to light

Thigmotropism
- leaves of mimosa
quickly close when
touched
(basic principle of evolution)
What is the escape mechanism by which the
mud fish and the catfish change from a
darker color to a lighter one depending on
the color of the water called?

A. protective mimicry
B. adaptive coloration
C. habitat protection
D. aggressive coloration
LIFE CYCLE: Plant
LIFE CYCLE: Insect
LIFE CYCLE: Tapeworm
ECOLOGY is the study of the interactions of
organisms with their environment and with
each other.
Ecosystem

asystem formed by the interaction of a


community of organisms with their
physical environment.

 dynamic and interrelating complex of plant


and animal communities and their
associated non-living environment.
Producers
(autotrophs)

BIOTIC Consumers
FACTORS (Heterotrophs)
(living things)

Decomposers

ECOSYSTEM
sunlight
atmosphere
temperature
ABIOTIC pressure
topography
FACTORS land
(non-living things)
nutrients
water
Biotic Factors

Living factors in
the ecosystem

Composed of the
autotrophs and the
heterotrophs
Autotrophs

 organisms capable of
synthesizing its own
organic substances from
inorganic compounds.

 produce their own sugars,


lipids, and amino acids
using carbon dioxide as a
source of carbon, and
ammonia or nitrates as a
source of nitrogen.
Photoautotrophs

 Organisms that use


light for the energy to
synthesize organic
compounds.
 include the green
plants, certain algae,
and the pigmented
sulfur bacteria
Chemoautotrophs

 Organisms that oxidize


such compounds as
hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
to obtain energy .

 Include iron bacteria, the


nitrifying bacteria, and
the nonpigmented sulfur
bacteria
Heterotrophs

 Organisms that must


obtain their energy
from organic
compounds

 Organisms that
depend on autotrophs
for subsistence
 All animals and most
bacteria and fungi
Decomposers

 areorganisms
(often fungi or
bacteria) that
break down
organic materials
to gain nutrients
and energy
Scavengers

 animals that feed on


dead or injured
animals.

 theyclean the earth


of organic garbage.
Consumers

 Organisms that feed on


producers and other
consumers.
 Include animals which
are plant eaters, meat
eaters and those animals
which feed on both the
producers and other
consumers.
Abiotic Factors
Non -living
factors in the
ecosystem

Biosphere,
Physical and
Chemical Factors
ENERGY PYRAMID
When we say that chemical reactions in
the cell waste energy, we mean that:
A. energy is being destroyed.
B. pieces of chemicals are being broken.
C. chemical energy is being converted to heat
energy which is lost.
D. cells use only the chemicals they need and get rid
of all excess chemicals.
Shown below is a simple food web in a grassy
community. The arrow symbol “” means eaten by.
What would happen if all snakes are killed?

A. Grass population would increase.


B.Grasshopper population would increase.
C.Bird and frog populations would increase.
D.Grasshopper and bird populations would
increase.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Recycling of organic matter and nutrients within an ecosystem occurs as
plants and animals excrete waste materials back into the environment
and die. Microorganisms recycle all these materials back to the
environment.

NUTRIENTS & OTHER


ORGANIC MATTER RECYCLING OF
MATERIALS . . . .
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Carbon Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
Phosphorous Cycle
Which of the following disposal
system can food scraps and food
peelings be converted to humus?

A.Open dump
B.Sanitary landfill
C.Recycling
D.Composting
Which of the following environmental
conditions has been blamed for the usual
occurrence of “fish kills”?
A. Acid rain
B. Eutrophication
C. Atmospheric pollution
D. Silting of lakes
Impact of Science and Technology
MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY – involves the use and
development of materials to achieve a desired result
like construction, preservation and recycling of
materials
BIOTECHNOLOGY – involves agriculture, tissue
culture, food production, health and the environment,
industrial processes and genetic engineering
PROCESS TECHNOLOGY - this include chemical
and industrial processes, mechanical systems,
manufacturing and transportation
ELECTRONIC CONTROL / TECHNOLOGY –
involves the design and production of simple circuits,
robotics control systems and electronic devices
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY –
deals with locating and acquiring, storing, sorting, receiving,
communication information in variety of forms, data collection
techniques, storage and data search programs and generation
models
HEALTH TECHNOLOGY – is concerned with reducing the exposure of
humans to conditions that threaten health, as well as with increasing the
body’s resistance to such conditions and minimizing the harmful effects
that do occur
AIR POLLUTION
GLOBAL WARMING

LAND POLLUTION

WATER POLLUTION
The wise use of resources for
the permanent good of all is
referred to as:
A. restoration
B. preservation
C. conservation
D. reforestation