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# BAHIR DAR UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
MECHANICAL AND INDUSTRIALENGINEERING
THERMO FLUID LAB (DRAG FORCE)
PRESENTED BY GROUP 2:
2.G/Michael Getaneh….0701746
3.Habtamu Dessie……….0701827
4.Samuel Getachew…….0702241
5.Yabebal Chekole ………0702463 Instructor: Mr. Million A
Table of content
● Introduction
drag force
drag force factor
drag force application area
drag force distribution
● Objective of the experiment
● Apparatus used
apparatus set up
apparatus specification
● Experiment procedure
● Analysis
● Discussion
● Conclusion
Drag forces experiment
 Drag force: Is the force on an object that resist its
motion
 It is also called air resistance acting on opposite to the
relative motion of moving objects.
 It can be exist between two fluid layers or a fluid and
solid surface.
 Drag force always decrease fluid velocity and moving
object velocity.
 It is aerodynamic force that opposes aircraft’s motion
through the air.
 It is a vector quantity that have both magnitude and
direction.
Drag force depends on:
1.the density of air(𝜌)
2.the square of velocity of air relative to object(v²)
3.the air viscosity and compressibility
4.the size and shape of the body(A=projected area)
5.body’s inclination to the flow
6.drag coefficient(cd)

##  Drag force is determined from the following formula:

Fd=0.5𝜌 × 𝑐𝑑 × 𝑣² × 𝐴
Drag force is act on:
 humans
 airplane
 Boat
 Car
 Ballistic missile
 In side pipes
Drag force distribution on different
shapes:
 It is different for different drag body shapes. Mostly flat plates have high drag
force than other shapes like spherical, cylindrical and aero foil shapes as
shown below.
Objective of the experiment:

##  The main objective of this experiment is:

● To measure drag forces when air flows around a
model
● To determine drag coefficient of each drag body
● To record pressure distribution on cylindrical drag
body and
● To measure the wake depression and velocity
distribution over aero foil(blade drag body)
Apparatus used:
 Apparatus
used in this drag force
experiment are:
1. Aerodynamic trainer air flow bent(HM 225)
2.Drag force apparatus(HM 225.04)
3.Drag body(blade, cylinder and flat plate)
4.Pitot tube
5.Balancing mass(10 g and 40 g)
6.Manometer(water)
Apparatus set up
 The complete set up is shown in the figure below:
Apparatus specification
 Some of the specific data we taken directly from the
manufacturer are:
∆ length from drag body center to pivot center, ld =75 mm
∆ surface of the axis transverse to the flow dxn, Aa=10 mm²
𝑘𝑔
∆ density of air,𝜌 = 1.2
𝑚3
∆ density of water,𝜌 = 1000𝑘𝑔/𝑚³
∆ drag coefficient of the axis, cd,a=0.7
∆ area of drag body transverse to the flow
direction, Ab=45*15=675 mm²
 Lw is from pivot center to mass center
Complete Experimental procedure
1.insert the flat plate drag body
2.horizontally align the beam balance
3.open fan and valves
4.measure free stream velocity at 48 mm pitot tube position
5.align the beam balance with weights(10 g or 40 g or both)
6.record moment arm lw and added weight
7.change the drag body by blade and balance it(align it first at 0°
8.open fan and balance the drag force by weight and record it and lw
9.remove weight and record velocity at different position of pitot tube
10.change the drag body by cylinder and align the beam balance
11.open fan and balance the drag and record lw and weight added
12.remove weight and by rotating the cylinder record pressure at d/t angle of rotation
Analysis
 H ref=280mm WC
 H tot=260mm WC
 Cylinder: mass added, m=40g and lw=50mm
 Flat plate: mass added, m=40g and lw=86mm
Pdy=∆H*g*𝜌=(280-260)*9.81*1000/1000=196.2pa
𝑝𝑑𝑦
v∞=𝑠𝑞𝑟𝑡(2 ∗ )=sqrt(2*196.2/1.2)=18.08m/s
𝜌
Fd,a= 0.5*𝜌 ∗ 𝑐𝑑, 𝑎 ∗ 𝐴𝑎 ∗ 𝑉∞2
0.5*1.2*0.7*18.08²*0.00001=0.001373N
Fd,b=Fw*lw/ld-(2*Fd,a)=m*g*lw/ld-(2*Fd,a)
Therefore, Cd,b=2*Fd,b/𝜌 ∗ 𝐴𝑏 ∗ 𝑉∞²=2*0.087506/1.2*0.000675*18.08²
Analysis continue….
●FOR CYLINDER DRAG BODY:
V∞=18.08m/s the same for all drag body
Fd,a=0.001373N
Fd,b=Fw*lw/ld-(2*Fd,a)=m*g*lw/ld-(2*Fd,a)
Therefore, Cd,b= 2*Fd,b/𝜌 ∗ 𝐴𝑏 ∗ 𝑉∞²=2*0.258854/1.2*0.000675*18.08²

## ●FOR FLAT PLATE DRAG BODY:

V∞=18.08m/s and Fd,a=0.001373
Therefore, Cd,b= 2*Fd,b/𝜌 ∗ 𝐴𝑏 ∗ 𝑉∞²=2*0.447206/1.2*0.000675*18.08²
Analysis continue…
 Result is tabulated as follows:

## drag body added mass moment armdrag force drag coefficient

cylinder 40g 50mm 0.258854N 1.95
flat plate 40g 86mm 0.447206N 3.38
 For velocity distribution velocity is calculated as follow and result tabulated and graph is drawn:
V=sqrt(2*Pdy/𝜌)
at 0mm of pitot tube position, Href=280mm WC and Htot=265mm WC
 Pdy=(Htot-Href)g=(280-265)9.81=15*9.51=147.15Pa
Analysis continue…
 The result data is tabulated as follow and graph looks like the one below:
Angle of rotation of the drag body is =0°

## Potentio Position Atmosph Total Dynamic Velocity

meter Of pitot eric Pressu Pressure m/s
setting Tube Pressure re pa velocity distribution of blade
mm mm WC mm 0
WC -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60
10 -48 280 260 196.2 18.08
-5
10 -45 280 259 206.01 18.53

## 10 -35 280 258 215.82 18.97 -10

velocity
10 -25 280 257 225.63 19.39
-15
10 -15 280 256 235.44 19.81

## 10 -5 280 255 245.25 20.22

-20
10 0 280 265 147.15 15.66

## 10 5 280 255 245.25 20.22 -25

pitot tube position
10 15 280 256 235.44 19.81

## 10 48 280 260 196.2 18.08

Analysis continue…
 Pressure distribution around a cylindrical drag body table and graph:
Angle of Pressure at Atmospheric Pressure in
rotation of the the cylinder pressure in Pa
cylinder in mm WC mm WC
degree

## 0 248 280 313.92

10 250 280 294.3
20 254 280 255.06
30 264 280 156.96
40 280 280 0
50 288 280 78.48
60 295 280 147.15
70 296 280 156.96
80 295.5 280 152.055
90 295 280 147.15
100 295 280 147.15
110 295 280 147.15
120 295 280 147.15
130 295 280 147.15
140 295 280 147.15
150 295 280 147.15
Analysis continue…table continue
160 295 280 147.15
170 295 280 147.15
180 295 280 147.15
190 295 280 147.15
200 295 280 147.15
210 295 280 147.15
220 295 280 147.15
230 295 280 147.15
240 295 280 147.15
250 295 280 147.15
260 295 280 147.15
270 295 280 147.15
280 295.5 280 152.055
290 296 280 156.96
300 295 280 147.15
310 288 280 78.48
320 280 280 0
330 264 280 156.96
340 254 280 255.06
350 250 280 294.3
360 248 280 313.92
Discussion
● In this experiment we discuss that how the drag force and drag coefficient depend on
the shape (geometry) of the drag body by keeping other parameters (like flow velocity,
air density, projection cross sectional area) constant.
● In this experiment we see that drag coefficient and drag force are related directly
each other .this implies that if the drag force of the drag body increase,
the drag coefficient also increase.
● We also look that the drag force and drag coefficient of the blade drag body or aero foil
structure is less than the other drag body(cylinder and flat plate) where compered.
● The velocity distribution over the blade drag body is symmetrical about the center and wake
depression is also occurs at the center. wake depression is a region increasing air velocity or
dynamic pressure.
● The pressure distribution over the cylindrical drag body is also discussed.
Conclusion
 Generally, the shape with lowest drag coefficient is the best for an
aerodynamic applications, so the blade drag body has the lowest
Cd value and thus an aerodynamically favorable shape.
The Cd value of the cylinder is greater than the Cd value of the blade
thus less favorable. The flat plate transverse to the flow direction
that has the highest Cd value in this experiment and thus the least
aerodynamically favorable shape, so we can conclude that the shape with
an aero foil or blade is the best for application.