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Manajemen Perawatan dan Kehandalan

“#3. Engineering and Analysis Tools”


Norman Iskandar , ST. MT
Departemen Teknik Mesin UNDIP
HP : 0818 0242 8055 / 0813 2914 9090
email : norman.undip@gmail.com
#1. CHAPTER 1 REDEFINING MAINTENANCE—
DELIVERING RELIABILITY
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

The practice of reliability and maintenance engineering involves


selecting alternative :
1. designs,
2. procedures,
3. plans,
4. and methods
that consider time and economy restrictions in their implementation.

The satisfaction of the engineer’s sense of perfection does not necessarily


assure the best alternative.

Preferred rational approaches to the selection of alternatives are based on


methods of engineering economy that are concerned only with
alternatives that already have been established as technically feasible and
providing economic analysis of their prospective differences
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

engineers are basically trained as physical scientists, it is necessary repetitively


to stress that economics, which studies these processes, is an empirical social
science that provides us with the conceptual framework known as a theory of
choice.

Positive economics, as opposed to normative economics, which is outside our


interest, is concerned with questions of facts to which assumptions relating
theoretical constructs to real objects are added.

Economic models then represent the purely logical aspects of these


behavior or
theories and serve as tools for decision making,
consequence predictions, and testing or refutation of
underlying assumptions and propositions based upon
economic rather than physical consequences.
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

RELIABILITY AND VALUE


Relative Importance of Reliability, Price, and Performance

Most of the purchase decisions


in the area of consumer
electronics consider product
price much more important than
reliability because of small
impact of failures, protectionby a
warranty period, seller’s
goodwill, and so on.

The decisions in the Apollo Space


Program were dominated by reliability
onsiderations (weight 0.7 on scale of
1.0) because of the severity of adverse
consequences of a failure
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

Reliability as a Capital Investment


Considering the relationship of reliability to value and its impact on price, product
can be analyzed for its attractiveness as a capital investment convenient
measure of this attractiveness is return on investment (ROI).
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

WORK SIMPLIFICATION IN MAINTENANCE

The traditional approach to industrial engineering techniques to spend full time


on this activity. These “experts” are assigned the task of studying one activity
after another throughout the entire organization. They are expected to
locate opportunities for improved performance, develop ways for these
improvements to be achieved, evaluate their desirability, sell their acceptance,
and assist in their implementation. A great deal of progress has been achieved in
this manner. But the effectiveness of this approach is diluted in two ways:
1. Much time and effort must be expended by the “expert” to become
familiar with each new activity studied, in order to be sure that all pertinent
aspects and interactions with related activities are uncovered and properly
evaluated.
2. The improvements developed and proposed by these “experts” are
usually strongly resented by the prospective users. Their implementation is
often resisted, even occasionally deliberately sabotaged.
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

WORK SIMPLIFICATION IN MAINTENANCE

The work-simplification approach is designed to minimize these


difficulties. Each employee is assisted to become his own “expert” and
is encouraged to study and recommend ways to improve the
performance of his own job. Motivation is developed by demonstrating the
value to both workers and management of the results they can achieve by
working together as a team.
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

THE LAW OF INTELLIGENT ACTION


When confronted with a problem, the intelligence of an individual’s actions
is dependent upon his
1. Desire to solve the problem.
2. Ability to perform the tasks required.
3. Capacity to handle the human relations involved.

Desire. Motivations for the actions of human beings can be divided into
two basic categories:
1. To gain (What’s in it for me?)
2. To avoid loss (That’s mine. Hands off!)

Thus the employee seeks employment as a means of gaining:


1. Security (reasonable control over his own future)
2. Material reward (money to buy things)
3. Opportunity to improve his position (economic and/or social)
4. A sense of participation (belonging to a group and having a say in
activities)
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

Ability. Until the introduction of participative work-simplification programs,


which provided both the receptive climate and the necessary training of the
participants, the idea that the average employee could successfully conceive,
develop, and implement worthwhile methods improvements was only a
hypothesis. Management possessed little evidence and even less faith that
such efforts were likely to be really productive of meaningful results

Capacity. The basic pattern of human nature has been fairly well stablished
and demonstrated to be essentially unchangeable. Human behavior, however,
can be modified and to a certain extent controlled. In fact, human behavior is
relatively predictable and can be measurably influenced by anyone with a
thorough understanding of the basic mechanics of human nature plus a
willingness to take the prerequisite actions. In respect to influencing attitudes
toward prospective methods-improvement installations, it is usually sufficient
to learn to recognize and deal with two of the most basic traits of human
nature:
1. Resistance to change or to the new
2. Resentment of criticism
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

A successful work-simplification program must make provision to assist


Participants to become familiar with this universal reaction and to learn
how to minimize its hampering effect. Participants must learn:

1. To avoid confusing fact and opinion.


Practice results in habits and can lead to the development of biased opinions
that cannot be properly extrapolated. Experience increases knowledge of facts
which provide a sounder basis for extrapolation.
2. To avoid misunderstandings.
Failure to ascertain all the facts may result in incorrect conclusions. Reliance
upon the results of a single nonrepresentative example may lead to erroneous
decisions.
3. To avoid snap judgments.
Time is required for mature judgment. Lack of experience must be taken into
consideration in making evaluations.
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD


Frederick W. Taylor, the alleged founder of scientific management, once said,
“The art of management is knowing exactly what you want done and then
seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest manner.” Arthur D. Little, the
famous research chemist and head of a worldwide management consultant
firm, claimed that there were four facets of the scientific approach:
1. The simplicity to wonder
2. The ability to question
3. The power to generalize
4. The capacity to apply
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

Estimating maintenance work is defined as the process of predicting


probable costs of any physical change in plant equipment or facilities. A
physical change may be the relocation or replacement of machinery or the
cleaning, oiling, adjusting, or repairing of machinery, and so on.

The success and effectiveness of a maintenance operation depends to


a large degree on the accuracy and timeliness of estimating. Control of
labor costs may be accomplished by targeting on estimated standards set
by management to limit overtime, regulate crew size, and provide a full work
load. Make or buy decisions, methods improvements, and overall
management cost controls are necessarily based on some form of
estimating
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

A maintenance cost estimate is based on two areas of information:


1. the type or classification of the job and
2. the end use to which the estimate will be put

1. CLASSIFYING THE JOB

What the estimator knows about the job is determined by the degree to which
the job is or can be planned before the work is started. Where there is more
information, there can be better planning, better estimates, and, usually, better
costs. In many cases an important benefit derived from having thorough
estimating procedures is more effective management when the work is carried
out because the work has to be clearly defined and planned to be accurately
estimated.
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

Maintenance supervisors often feel that all their work is emergency


work and that consequently both planning and estimating are impractical. In
order to avoid the obvious limitations which result from this position, it is
important to have a realistic appraisal of the classifications of work in
each individual plant.

This means that the real emergencies must be separated from the work
which can be planned or repetitive. Careful consideration of each of the
following general classifications will show that at least some of the
maintenance work in every plant can be considered as “planned or repetitive.”
These items can be planned and estimated as accurately as the end use of
the estimate requires
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

Planned and Repetitive Maintenance


1. Repetitive repair or replacement of specific items, such as belts,
bearings, motors, filters, and screens
2. Scheduled routine work, such as oiling, cleaning, housekeeping, and
inspection
3. Spare-parts production and overhaul
4. Planned equipment overhaul
5. Building and facility repairs
6. Assigned area service
7. Planned nonrepetitive replacements and repairs
8. Relocations
9. Modifications
10. Equipment improvements
11. Repairs on noncritical or lightly loaded equipment that can be
economically shut down pending scheduled repair
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

Emergency Service.
While different techniques may be required, estimating procedures may be
applied profitably to many emergency service situations as well. Generally the
key to accurate estimates here is having repetition of the same or similar
problems. In classifying these jobs it is necessary to identify first the highly
repetitive items and then the high-cost items which may be expected to repeat
after long intervals.
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

2. HOW THE ESTIMATES WILL BE USED


1. Determination of the extent of approvals required (example: over or under $500?)
2. Evaluation of work-order backlog
3. Long-range forecasting
4. Evaluation of equipment-purchase recommendations
5. Evaluation of method proposals
6. Make-or-buy decisions—limited annual dollar volume
7. Critical-path scheduling
8. Monthly schedules and work-load forecasts
9. Plantwide cost-control reports of work performance
10. Weekly schedules and manpower assignments
11. Departmental cost-control reports
12. Plantwide group incentive
13. Individual cost-control reports
14. Daily manpower assignments and work schedules
15. Make-or-buy decisions—high annual volume
16. Departmental group weekly incentives
17. Small-group daily incentive
18. Individual weekly incentive
19. Individual daily incentive
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

WHO WILL PREPARE THE ESTIMATES

Foremen Estimates

Engineering Estimates

Planner Estimates
Rate Setter Estimates

ESTIMATING TECHNIQUES FOR LABOR COST


ESTIMATING TECHNIQUES FOR MATERIAL COST
ESTIMATING TECHNIQUES FOR OVERHEAD COST

TRAINING ESTIMATORS
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

Best practice refers to the doing of something that will achieve superior
result or performance. Best practice in key performance indicators (KPI)
therefore has to refer to the process of developing useful performance
measures for an organization. A process is good in an organization if it is
integrated as a system within the total organization. A useful and effective
KPI therefore has to come from a well-formalized performance
measurement system (PMS).

Figure 6.1 illustrates the key components of a knowledge-based


organization. Organization needs to have a model—an organizational
excellence model—if we are talking about achieving best managerial
practices. Within the model, will be the performance scorecard of key
performance indicators. A good set of key performance measures must take
into consideration three important aspects of businesses; productivity,
total quality, and competitiveness. There should be at least a set of three
indicators to monitor these three aspects.
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

Figure 6.2 illustrates the organizational excellence model.


#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

If you have a quality management system (QMS) like the ISO 9001 model,
it will not be sufficient to develop best practice KPI. The QMS is limited to
achieving customer satisfaction—only the quality aspect. The
organizational excellence model is holistic model to develop the set of best
practice KPI, as the model looks at all the three aspects.

The best practice KPI has come a long way. The focus of
performance measurement has changed in recent years. Table 6.1
summarizes the major changes that have taken place in the best
practice KPI. These are important shift in managerial thinking in an
ever competitive and complex business environment.
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

PMS MODELS (performance measurement system)

There are three distinct models for the creation of best practice KPI.

The first model is strictly hierarchical (vertical), and is characterized by cost and
non-cost performances on different levels of aggregation until they ultimately
become economic-financial, which connects productivity with the ROI.

The second type is the balanced scorecard, where several separate performances
are considered independently. These performances correspond to different
perspectives of analyses (financial,internal business processes, customers, and
learning and growth). However, the perspectives substantially remain separate
and the linkages are defined only in a generally way. The model integrates vertical
linkages—from operational measures up to the financial measures. See
illustrations
in Figs. 6.3 and 6.4
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

The third model is related to the value chain and also considers the
internal and external relationship of customer and supplier. This is as
illustrated in Fig. 6.5. Many enterprises surviving in a highly competitive
environment, such as those in the consumer businesses has to work on
the total value chain to be able to assure that their products are always
available to the consumers at the right time, right place, and right price.
Quality is a standard and is not a competitive factor anymore.
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

A primary responsibility of the maintenance engineer is to identify and


analyze asset failures and deviations from optimum performance. This
responsibility requires tools or methods that the engineer can use to
effectively determine the potential failure modes of assets, as well as
determine the true root cause of the problem. The maintenance
engineer’s toolbox includes:
SIMPLIFIED FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (SFMEA)
FAULT-TREE ANALYSIS
CAUSE-AND-EFFECT ANALYSIS
SEQUENCE-OF-EVENTS ANALYSIS

THE FIVE WHYS


STATISTICAL ANALYSES TOOLS
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

SIMPLIFIED FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (SFMEA)


#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

FAULT-TREE ANALYSIS
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

FAULT-TREE ANALYSIS
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

CAUSE-AND-EFFECT ANALYSIS
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

SEQUENCE-OF-EVENTS ANALYSIS
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

THE FIVE WHYS


#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

STATISTICAL ANALYSES TOOLS

Pareto Analysis
Flow Charts
Control Charts
Scatter Plots
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY
#1. ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY

Toyota Motor Corporation is famed for its ability to relentlessly improve


operational performance.Central to this ability is the training of engineers,
supervisors, and managers in a structured problem-solving approach that
uses a tool called the A3 Problem-Solving Report
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