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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

REGION III

TRAINING ON
GENDER EQUALITY
MOVEMENT IN
SCHOOLS OF CENTRAL
LUZON
August 22 – 24 , 2017

Otel Pampanga, City of San Fernando


Module 1
Session 1

GENDER AND
DEVELOPMENT CONCEPTS
OBJECTIVES

At the end of the session, the


participants should be able to:
1. Identify the basic concepts in gender
and development;
2. Differentiate between sex and
gender; and
3. Appreciate the importance of
gender sensitivity.
OVERVIEW

Human rights are for all human


beings - men as well as women. This
means women are entitled to the
same human right as men.
However, in the Philippines,
women have historically been
discriminated in so many ways
because they are born as female
and not male.
Gender and Development
(GAD) approach focuses on
intervention to address unequal
gender relations in the entire
development cycle. This approach
emphasizes long-term strategic
concerns in order to reach the
ultimate goal of gender equality.
PRIMING ACTIVITIES
Scrambled Letters
Instruction: Arrange the following letters to form a word.
1. E X S 6. A U E Y L Q T I
2. D N E R E G 7. S S A A L N Y I

3. L S U T X A E Y I 8. S E S N E R W A A

4. Y T I R A P 9. P E R O V I E S N S

5. U I Y T Q E 10. N O I T A N I M I R C S I D
MAIN ACTIVITIES
Sex vs. Gender
Set Up:
1. Group yourselves into six.
2. Each group will be given cartolina and
meta cards.
3. The groups will categorize the words in
the meta cards as to gender or sex.
4. The group with the most number of
correct answers will be the winner.
Sex Gender
1. How do sex and gender differ?
2. Why is differentiating sex and
gender important?
MAIN ACTIVITIES

Name Game

In a sheet of paper, write the


appropriate gender sensitive term
from the given key term.
Gender Sensitive
Key terms
Term

Policeman/policewoman

Sales man/ Sales lady

Congressman/
Congresswoman

Actor/Actress

Chairman/chairwoman
1. Why is gender sensitivity
important?
2. In what way/s can you be
gender sensitive?
SEX VS. GENDER

Sex refers to the biological


differences between men and
women.
Gender is a social and cultural construct, which
distinguishes differences in the attributes of
men and women, and accordingly refers to
the roles and responsibilities of men and
women. Gender-based roles and other
attributes, therefore, change over time and
vary with different cultural contexts. The
concept of gender includes the expectations
held about the characteristics, aptitudes and
likely behaviors of both women and men
(femininity and masculinity).
DETERMINANTS OF SEX
FEMALE MALE

GENITALIA  Vagina  Penis


 Clitoris
REPRODUCTIVE  Uterus  Testes
ORGANS
 Ovary
CHROMOSOMES
 XX  XY
HORMONES  Estrogen  Testosterone
 Progesterone  Androgen
SEX GENDER
BIOLOGICAL SOCIALLY
CONSTRUCTED

Born with Not born with

CAN’T BE CHANGEABLE
CHANGED Women can do traditional
Only women can give male jobs as well as men
birth; Only men can can take good care of
supply sperm. children as women do.
Some examples of sex characteristics:
 Women menstruate while men do not
 Men have testicles while women do not
 Women have developed breasts that are
usually capable of lactating, while men do
not
 Women can give birth to babies, while men
cannot

Some examples of gender characteristics:


 Women are expected to take care of family or
domestic duties and remain close to home
 All men are expected to work and earn money
for the family
 Boys are better in mathematics than girls
 Boys never cry
 Girls are very emotional w Women usually do
more housework than men
Gender and Development Concepts

LSUTXAEYI
Sexuality is a fundamental aspect of
human physiology. It encompasses sex,
gender identities and roles, sexual
orientation, and reproduction. Sexuality is
experienced and expressed in various
forms and manners, including thoughts,
fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes,
values, behaviors, practices, roles and
relationships. Sexuality is not always
experienced/expressed openly and in a
direct manner. It is influenced by the
interaction of physical, psychological,
social, economic, political, cultural,
ethical, legal, historical, religious and
spiritual factors.
YTIRAP
Gender parity is a
numerical concept. Gender parity
in education implies that the same
number of boys and girls receive
educational services at different
levels and in diverse forms.
UIYTQE
Gender equity is the process of being
fair to men and women. To ensure fairness,
measures must often be put in place to
compensate for the disadvantages that
prevent women and men from operating on
an even playing field. For instance, countries
where female students outnumber their male
counterparts at the tertiary education level
particularly in science and technology fields)
can introduce a quota system or affirmative
action. This helps to ensure that the same or
increased number of female students are
enrolled in this field at the university level.
AUEYLQTI
Gender equality means that women
and men have equal conditions,
treatment and opportunities for realizing
their full potential, human rights and
dignity, and for contributing to (and
benefiting from) economic, social,
cultural and political development.
Gender equality is, therefore, the equal
valuing by society of the similarities and
the differences of men and women, and
the roles they play. It is based on women
and men being full partners in their
home, community and society.
DNEREG
GNIMAERTSNIAM
Gender
mainstreaming in
education is the process
of assessing the implications
for girls and boys/women
and men of any planned
action, including legislation,
policies or programs, at all
levels of the education
system.
TNEMREWOPME
Empowerment is about
people, both women and men, taking
control over their lives: setting their
own agendas, developing skills
(including life skills), building self-
confidence, solving problems and
developing self-reliance. Education
facilitates this process of
empowerment, enables boys and girls
to question existing inequalities, as
well as act for change.
MWNEON NI
TNEMPOLEVED
Women in Development
(WID) is a concept which is based on a
recognition that women play important
roles in the development process. The WID
approach, however, does not necessarily
result in changing male-female
hierarchical gender relations. Rather, it
intends to support women-specific
practical needs, such as women’s skills
development for income generation.
DNEREG DAN
NEMTPOLEEDV
Gender and Development (GAD)
approach focuses on intervention to
address unequal gender relations in the
entire development cycle (access,
processes and outcomes) that prevent
women from full and equal participation in,
and benefits from development. GAD is a
concept developed out of lessons learnt
from the experiences gained through WID
programs and activities. It seeks to have
both women and men participate, make
decisions and share benefits.
LAPRCTIAC EDESN
Practical needs are immediate,
material daily needs such as water,
shelter, clothes and food. Addressing
women’s practical needs means
focusing on releasing women from
water fetching, promoting skills
development education, and
supporting income-generating
activities that improve impoverished
conditions faced by women and their
families.
GICSTRAET
DNEREG
SSINTREE
Strategic gender interests are long-
term in nature, not necessarily material, and
often related to structural changes in society.
Interventions based on strategic gender interests
focus on fundamental issues related to women’s
(or, less often, men’s) subordination and gender
inequities. In education, strategic gender
interests focus on creating an enabling
educational environment to prevent gender-
biased attitudes and practices from taking hold,
and promoting the empowerment of women
and girls so that they can take control over their
lives, by being active change agents.
DNEREG
SSAALNYI
Gender analysis investigates the different
experiences, knowledge and activities of women and
men in a given context. It explores these differences so
that policies, programs and projects can identify and
meet the different needs of men and women. Gender
analysis is usually supported by the use of sex-
disaggregated information and data, and requires good
understanding of and sensitivity to the socio-cultural
context.
In the area of education, gender analysis can be
integrated into curriculum analysis to assess how a given
curriculum may have an impact on boys’ and girls’
learning attitudes, motivation and achievements, as well
as how they perceive themselves.
DNEREG
SSBLIDNNE
Gender blindness is the failure to recognize that
the roles and responsibilities of men/boys and
women/girls are given to them in specific social, cultural,
economic and political contexts and backgrounds.
Projects, programs, policies and attitudes which are
gender-blind do not take into account these different
roles and their diverse needs, maintain status quo, and
will not help transform the unequal structure of gender
relations.
For instance, a gender-blind teacher may think that
school education is gender-neutral because there is no
difference between boys and girls in teaching and
learning. However, in reality, teachers’ unconscious
gender-stereotyped attitudes and biases can affect
classroom practices, and result in differential treatment
towards both boys and girls.
DNEREG
SESNERWAA
Gender awareness is an
understanding that there are socially and
culturally determined differences between
women and men based on learned behavior,
which affect their ability to access and control
resources.
A school head who is gender-aware will
understand that special attention should be
given to the way education is delivered to both
male and female students because society (and,
more specifically, teachers), may value girls and
boys differently. This has implications for their
learning.
GENRDE
YTIVITISNES
SESSAPMOCNE
Gender sensitivity
encompasses the ability to
acknowledge and highlight existing
gender differences, issues and inequalities,
and incorporate these into strategies and
actions.
However, it does not mean that
someone who is gender-sensitive has
gender-responsive attitudes because a
gender-sensitive person does not
necessarily take action.
DNEREG
PEROVIESNS
Gender-responsive policies and
interventions associate with actions or concrete
measures that reflect the unique needs, aspirations
and capacities of men and women. However, they do
not necessarily challenge biased and discriminatory
policies, practices, ideas and beliefs.
For example, in communities where women are
faced with social constraints that prevent them from
being out of their homes in the evening, for instance, a
gender-responsive intervention would be to offer
training to these women only when they are able to
attend training sessions. This kind of intervention
therefore addresses women’s needs (of training), but it
does not challenge the discriminatory idea that
women cannot be out of their homes during certain
hours of the day/night.
DNEREG
EVITAMROFSNART
SEICILOP
DAN
SNOITNEVRETNI
Gender-transformative
policies and interventions
challenge biased and discriminatory
policies, practices, ideas and beliefs. It
is an approach that addresses the
transformation of unequal gender
relations through working with both
women and men in ways that seek to
reconstruct power relations in a more
egalitarian way.
DNEREG
NOITANIMIRCSID
Gender discrimination refers to
any distinction, exclusion or restriction
made on the basis of socially and culturally
constructed gender roles and norms which
prevent a person from enjoying full human
rights. Girls who are discriminated against
are discouraged to specialize or learn
further those subjects thought to be
masculine, such as mechanics. Boys can
be discriminated against in the same way
when they are teased for learning so-
called “feminine subjects”, such as nursing.
DNEREG
YTIRAP
XDNIE
Gender parity index (GPI) is a ratio of
female-to-male values (or males-to-females, in
certain cases) of a given indicator. A GPI of 1
indicates parity between sexes; a GPI above or
below 1 indicates a disparity in favor of one sex
over the other.
Gender parity can, however, be attained
at a very low level of participation for both boys
and girls (such as in early childhood education
and secondary education). Hence, it is important
to consider both absolute figures along with the
parity index.
DNEREG
PEROVIESNS
GNITEGDUB
Gender-responsive budgeting
(GRB) refers to an analysis of the
“impact” of actual government
expenditure and revenue on women and
girls, as compared to men and boys.
It neither requires separate budgets
for women, nor does it aim to solely
increase spending on women-specific
programmes. Instead, it helps governments
decide how policies need to be adjusted,
and where resources need to be re-
allocated to address gender inequalities.
DILCH
CINOTEROTP
Child protection refers to programs,
services, procedures, and
structures that are intended to
prevent and respond to abuse,
neglect, exploitation,
discrimination, and violence.
NDEGRE
SDEBA
EVIONCEL
Gender-based violence refers to
violence that targets individuals or
groups on the basis of their
gender. This includes acts that
inflict physical, mental, or sexual
harm or suffering, the threat of
such acts, coercion, and other
deprivations of liberty.
NDEGRE
SDEBA
NOITANIMIRCSID
Gender-based discrimination refers to any
gender-based distinction, exclusion, or
restriction that has the effect or purpose
of impairing or nullifying the recognition,
enjoyment, or exercise by men and
women regardless of their sexual
orientation, gender identity, and civil
status, on the basis of equality of men
and women, of human rights and
fundamental freedoms in the political,
economic, social, cultural, civil, or any
other field.

NDEGRE
IFAR
EGAUGNAL
Gender-fair language is
understood as language that is
gender sensitive or non-sexist.
NDEGRE
YTTIDEN
Gender identity is understood to refer to
each person's deeply felt internal and
individual experience of gender, which
may or may not correspond with the sex
assigned at birth, including the personal
sense of the body (which may involve, if
freely chosen, modification of bodily
appearance or function by medical,
surgical, or other means) and other
expressions of gender, including dress,
speech, and mannerisms.
DNEREG
PEROVIESNS
CSBIA
NOITACUDE
o Gender-Responsive Basic Education (GRBE) is
inclusive education that ensures girls' and
boys' and women's and men's equal access
to learning opportunities, addresses gender-
based barriers and the intersection of different
forms of discrimination, takes affirmative steps
where necessary to reduce gender gaps and
disparities in the management of the learning
process, provides children a learner-friendly
environment that addresses their diverse
learning needs and results in the progressive
achievement of gender equality in
educational outcomes.

DNEREG
PEROVIESNSNESS
Gender responsiveness refers to
taking action to correct gender bias
and discrimination so as to ensure
gender equality and equity. It entails
consistent and systematic attention to
the differences between men and
women with a view to addressing
structural constraints to gender
equality.
DNEREG
NOISSERPXE
Gender expression refers to the way
in which a person acts to
communicate gender within a given
culture; for example, in terms of
clothing, communication patterns
and interests. A person's gender
expression may or may not be
consistent with socially prescribed
gender roles, and may or may not
reflect his or her gender identity.
PNAL
DAN
GEDBUT
GAD Plan and Budget (GPB) is not about creating
separate budgets for women, or solely increasing
spending on women's programs. Rather, gender-
responsive budgeting seeks to ensure that the collection
and allocation of public resources is carried out in ways
that are effective and contribute to advancing gender
equality and women's empowerment. It should be
based on in-depth analysis that identifies effective
interventions for implementing policies and laws that
advance women's rights. It provides tools to assess the
different needs and contributions of men and
women,and boys and girls, within the existing revenues,
expenditures, and allocations and calls for adjusting
budget policies to benefit all groups.

INCLUVIES
NOITACUDE
Inclusive education is an approach that enjoins
schools to accommodate all children regardless
of their physical, intellectual, emotional, social,
linguistic, or other conditions (Article 3,
Salamanca Framework for Action).
Schools must adopt an inclusive orientation
as a means of combating discriminatory
attitudes, creating welcoming communities,
building an inclusive society, and achieving
education for all. Moreover, they provide an
effective education to the majority of children
and improve the efficiency and, ultimately, the
cost-effectiveness of the entire education
system.
LASUEX
NOITATNEIRO
Sexual orientation is understood
to refer to each person's capacity
for profound emotional,
affectional, and sexual attraction
to, and intimate and sexual
relations with, individuals of a
different gender or the same
gender or more than one gender.
YTILANOITCESRETNI
lntersectionality is an analytical tool
for studying, understanding, and
responding to the ways in which sex
and gender intersect with and are
constituted by other social factors
such as age, class, disability,
ethnicity, race, religion, sexual
orientation, gender identity or gender
expression, and other status.
EVIONCEL
AGINSTA
MOWEN
DAN
RHIET
NCHILRED
Violence against women and their
children (VAWC) refers to any act of
gender-based violence that results in, or is
likely to result in, physical, sexual, or
psychological harm or suffering to women,
including threats of such acts, coercion,
or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether
occurring in public or in private life, as
provided under Republic Act (RA) 9262 or
The Anti- Violence Against Women and
Their Children Act of 2004.
EVIONCEL
AGINSTA
NCHILRED
TTEDCOMMI
NI
LSHCOO
Violence against children committed in schools
refers to a single act or a series of acts
committed by school administrators, academic,
and non academic personnel against a child,
which result in or is likely to result in physical,
sexual, psychological harm or suffering, or other
abuses including threats of such acts, battery,
assault, coercion, harassment, or arbitrary
deprivation of liberty.
It includes, but is not limited to, physical,
sexual, psychological violence, and other acts
of violence of a physical, sexual, or
psychological nature that are prejudicial to the
best interest of the child.
GENDER SENSITIVITY
• A perspective; a way of thinking; a
manner of viewing things
• Conscious of the gender issue – that the
other half of humankind is unable to
enjoy life to the fullest because of
gender bias
• Actively promotes gender equality and
equity
• Core message
oThis is not a war of the sexes.
oWomen and men have differential
experiences, and in general, women
are at a disadvantaged position.
oBoth women and men are
stakeholders, so everyone should
contribute to changing the situation.
Create a slogan that observes
equality between men and
women.
SOURCES
• Adapted from Proceedings of the WHO Technical Consultation on Sexual Health in
2002.
• Adapted from UN ECOSOC Resolution 1997/2.
• Adapted from Gender Analysis, Learning and Information Pack, UNDP, 2001.
• Adapted from ‘Scaling Up’ Good Practices in Girl’s Education,
• American Psychological Association & National Association of School Psychologists.
(2015). Resolution on gender and sexual orientation diversity in children and
adolescents in schools. Retrieved from
• http:/ / www.apa.org/ about/ policy / orie ntation-diversity.aspx
• American Psychological Association.2012. Guidelines for Psychological Practice with
Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients. American Psychologist, 67(1), 10-42. doi: 10.1037/
a0024659
• DepEd Order 32, s. 2017 Gender-Responsive Basic Education Policy
• DepEd Order 40, s. 2012 DepEd Child Protection Policy
• http://www.gender-budgets.org
• National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women & Canadian International
Development Agency (NCRFW). 2003. Transforming the Government to Think
and Act GAD: A Handbook on Gender and Development Training. Manila.
• http:/ / library.pcw.gov.ph/ sites/ default/ files/ gmrk-tgtag dictionary.pdf
• OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe).
• Republic Act No. 9262 The Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act
of 2004
• Republic Act No. 9710 Magna Carta of Women.
• UNDP, Introductory Gender Analysis & Gender Planning Training Module for
UNDP Staff, 2001.
• UNESCO, EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2009.
• UNESCO, Guidelines on Gender-Neutral Language, 1999.
• UNESCO/UNGEI, 2005, p. 27.
• United Nations Women. Gender mainstreaming: An overview. 2002.
• http:/ / www.un.org/ womenwatch/ osagi/ pdf/ e65237.pdf
• United Nations Women. Gender equality glossary. 2017.
• https:/ / trainingcentre. unwomen.org/ mod/ glossary/view.php
• United Nations Women. Gender Responsive Budgeting. 2017.
• http:/ / www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/ tools_citationguide.html
• Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in
Relation to Sexual Orientation http: / /
www.yogyakartaprinciples.org /