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Human Resource

Management
ELEVENTH EDITION
1
GARY DESSLER

Part 2 | Recruitment and Placement

Chapter 4

Job Analysis

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook


The University of West Alabama
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

• Discuss the nature of job analysis, including


what it is and how it’s used
• Use at least three methods of collecting job
analysis information
• Write job descriptions
• Write job specifications
• Explain job analysis in a “jobless” world,
including what it means and how it’s done in
practice

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Job Analysis – What is it and how is it used?
The procedure for determining the duties and skill
requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be
hired for it.

Jobs: Analyze, Describe and Provide


Specifications
Job description – A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities,
reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory
responsibilities – one product of a job analysis.
Job specification – A list of a job’s “human requirements”: the
requisite education, skills, knowledge, and so on – another
product of a job analysis.

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Types of Information Collected

Work
activities

Human Human
requirements behaviors
Information
Collected Via
Job Analysis Machines, tools,
Job
equipment, and
context
work aids

Performance
standards

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Use of Job Analysis Information

Recruitment and
Selection

EEO
Compliance Compensation
Information
Collected Via
Discovering Job Analysis
Performance
Unassigned
Appraisal
Duties

Training

4–5
Uses of Job Analysis Information

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Steps in Job Analysis

Steps in doing a job analysis:

1 Decide how you’ll use the information.

2 Review relevant background information.

3 Select representative positions.

4 Actually analyze the job.

5 Verify the job analysis information.

6 Develop a job description and job specification.

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Process Chart for Analyzing a Job’s Workflow

Source: Compensation Management: Rewarding Performance by Richard J.


Henderson. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
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Methods of Collecting Job Analysis
Information: The Interview
• Information Sources • Interview Formats
 Individual employees  Structured (Checklist)
 Groups of employees  Unstructured
 Supervisors with
knowledge of the job
• Advantages
 Quick, direct way to find
overlooked information
• Disadvantages
 Distorted information

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Job Analysis: Interviewing Guidelines
• The job analyst and supervisor should work together
to identify the workers who know the job best.
• Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee.
• Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists
open-ended questions and provides space for answers.
• Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of
importance and frequency of occurrence.
• After completing the interview, review and verify
the data.

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Methods of Collecting Job Analysis
Information: Questionnaires
• Information Source • Advantages
 Have employees fill out  Quick and efficient way to
questionnaires to describe gather information from
their job-related duties and large numbers of
responsibilities employees
• Questionnaire Formats • Disadvantages
 Structured checklists  Expense and time
 Open-ended questions consumed in preparing
and testing the
questionnaire

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Methods of Collecting Job Analysis
Information: Observation
• Information Source • Advantages
 Observing and noting the  Provides first-hand
physical activities of information
employees as they go  Reduces distortion of
about their jobs information
• Disadvantages
 Time consuming
 Difficulty in capturing
entire job cycle
 Of little use if job involves
a high level of mental
activity

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Methods of Collecting Job Analysis
Information: Participant Diary/Logs
• Information Source • Advantages
 Workers keep a  Produces a more complete
chronological diary/ log of picture of the job
what they do and the time  Employee participation
spent on each activity
• Disadvantages
 Distortion of information
 Depends upon employees
to accurately recall their
activities

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Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques

Quantitative Job
Analysis

Department of
Position Analysis Functional Job
Labor (DOL)
Questionnaire Analysis
Procedure

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Portion of a Completed
Page from the Position
Analysis Questionnaire

The 194 PAQ elements are grouped into


six dimensions. This exhibits 11 of the
“information input” questions or elements.
Other PAQ pages contain questions
regarding mental processes, work output,
relationships with others, job context, and
other job characteristics.

4–15
TABLE 4–1 Basic Department of Labor Worker Functions

Data People Things


0 Synthesizing 0 Mentoring 0 Setting up
1 Coordinating 1 Negotiating 1 Precision working
2 Analyzing 2 Instructing 2 Operating/controlling
Basic Activities

3 Compiling 3 Supervising 3 Driving/operating


4 Computing 4 Diverting 4 Manipulating
5 Copying 5 Persuading 5 Tending
6 Comparing 6 Speaking/signaling 6 Feeding/offbearing
7 Serving 7 Handling
8 Taking instructions/helping

Note: Determine employee’s job “score” on data, people, and things by observing his
or her job and determining, for each of the three categories, which of the basic functions
illustrates the person’s job. “0” is high; “6,” “8,” and “7” are lows in each column.

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Sample Report
Based on
Department of
Labor Job
Analysis
Technique

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Writing Job Descriptions

Job
Identification

Job Job
Specifications Summary

Sections of a
Typical Job
Working Description Responsibilities
Conditions and Duties

Standards of Authority of the


Performance Incumbent

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Sample Job
Description,
Pearson
Education

4–19
Sample Job
Description,
Pearson
Education
(cont’d)

4–20
Sample Job Description

Figure 3 - 7
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The Job Description
• Job Identification • Responsibilities and
 Job title Duties
 FLSA status section  Major responsibilities and
 Preparation date duties (essential functions)
 Preparer  Decision-making authority
 Direct supervision
• Job Summary
 Budgetary limitations
 General nature of the job
 Major functions/activities • Standards of
Performance and
• Relationships
Working Conditions
 Reports to:
 What it takes to do the job
 Supervises: successfully
 Works with:
 Outside the company:

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Relationships Statement for Human
Resource Director
Vice President
Employee Relations
Works with
Works with all employment
department Human Resource agencies,
managers and recruiters, union
Director
executive reps, state and
management federal agencies,
Department Human Resource vendors
Secretary Clerk

Test Labor Relations


Administrator Manager

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Writing Job Specifications

“What traits and


experience are required
to do this job well?”

Specifications for Specifications


Specifications
Trained Versus Based on
Based on
Untrained Statistical
Judgment
Personnel Analysis

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Job Related Behaviors
• Industriousness
• Thoroughness
• Schedule flexibility
• Attendance
• Off-task behavior
• Unruliness
• Theft
• Drug misuse

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Writing Job Specifications (cont’d)
• Steps in the Statistical Approach
 Analyze the job and decide how to measure job
performance.
 Select personal traits that you believe should
predict successful performance.
 Test candidates for these traits.
 Measure the candidates’ subsequent job
performance.
 Statistically analyze the relationship between the
human traits and job performance.

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Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World

• From specialized to
enlarged jobs
• Why managers are
“de-jobbing” their
companies

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Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World

Job Design:
Specialization and
Efficiency?

Job Job Job


Enlargement Rotation Enrichment

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Specialized to Enlarged Jobs
• Job Enlargement = same-level
activities
• Job Rotation = moving from one job to
another
• Job Enrichment = redesigning to
experience more responsibility,
achievement, growth and recognition

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Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World (cont’d)

Dejobbing the
Organization

Using Self- Reengineering


Flattening the
Managed Work Business
Organization
Teams Processes

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Trends and De-Jobbing

Rapid product and


technological
changes Competition

Global
Changes

Demographics

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Traditional Organization Chart
President
Chief Executive Officer

Executive Assistant

Vice President Vice President Vice President Vice President Vice President
Sales Marketing Human Resources Operations Finance

Director Director Director Director Director Director Driector


East Region West Region Public Relations Compensation Training and Manufacturing Audit and
and Benefits Development Accounting

Manager Manager Manager Clerk Manager Logistics Tax

Manager Manager Manager Administrator Plant Manager Finance


Tech. Writer
Manager Manager Plant Manager Accounting
Sr. Trainer
Manager Manager
Sr. Trainer Clerk

Sales Sales Sales Sales Sales Accounting

Accounting

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Flatter Organizations

Executive and
Operations
Team

Technical Manufacturing People Finance Purchasing and Sales, Service and


Development Engineering Systems Team Suppllier Quality Marketing
Team Team Team Team Team

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How Organizations are Responding
• The boundaryless organization
• Re-engineering
• “Broadbanding” job descriptions
• Performance-based job descriptions
• Empowered employees
• Skills matrices

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Competency/Performance-Based Job Analysis
• Competencies
 Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable
performance of a job.
• Reasons for Competency-Based Job Analysis
 To support a high-performance work system.
 To create strategically-focused job descriptions.
 To support the performance management process in
fostering, measuring, and rewarding:
 General competencies
 Leadership competencies
 Technical competencies

4–35