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Today’s Plan: 5/7/18

• Bellwork: E/R for Unit 6 Test (30 mins)


Type of Questiion Number wrong Notes
Meiosis,
Chromosome
Number and
Karyotyping
Punnett Square
Problems
Pedigrees
Inheritance Patterns
(without Punnett
Squares or
Pedigrees)

• Finish Adaptation activities (the rest of


class)
• Pack/Wrap-up (last few mins of class)
Today’s Plan: 5/8/18
• Bellwork: Pre-lab Write up (20 mins)
– Copy Title, purpose
– Make a Hypothesis based on the story
– Save space for procedure
– Copy Data charts
• Part 1 of bear lab and go over tomorrow’s
variation (40 mins)
• Natural selection readings/data (the rest of
class)
Today’s Plan: 5/9/18
• Bellwork: Finish bear lab and turn it in (60
mins)
• Natural Selection Historical Perspective
notes (the rest of class)
Today’s Plan: 5/10/18
• Bellwork: Sexual selection video and
discussion (15 mins)
• Natural selection POGIL (30 mins)
• Finish Natural Selection notes (the rest of
class)
• If time-Amoeba sisters natural selection
video
Today’s Plan: 12/12/17
• Bellwork: Finish Natural Selection History
Notes (20 mins)
• Wrap-up lab and watch amoeba sisters
video with worksheet (40 mins)
• Natural selection mechanism notes (the rest
of class)
• Pack/Wrap-up (last few mins of class)
Today’s Plan: 12/13/17
• Bellwork: Finish notes on speciation and
changes to gene frequency (15 mins)
• Natural Selection quiz (30 mins)
• When you finish, while you wait for others,
go to
• Flu Video and questions (When everyone is
done)
Evolution Historical Perspective
• Before Darwin:
– Jean Baptiste de Lamarck believed that
organisms could change their bodies to fit the
environment. Giraffe example. What is wrong
with this idea?
– Charles Lyell was building roads through rock,
and discovered evidence that the earth was
much older than the church believed. Found
fossils in strange places
Charles Darwin
• Originally trained for the church
• Studied science at school, and was a
member of several scientific societies
(Geology, zoology, etc.)
• Read Lyell’s work
• Took a job on the HMS Beagle as a
naturalist traveling to South America and
the Galapagos Islands for 5 years.
Darwin (cont.)
• Wasn’t the only one working on how species
change over time. Another naturalist, Alfred
Russel Wallace, was working with insect
populations and simultaneously &
independently had the same ideas as Darwin.
• Darwin studied his collections and evidence
over a very long period of time. When his
hypothesis was formulated, he waited to
publish his findings until he realized that
Wallace was about to publish and get all of
the credit.
Darwin’s Evidence
• Same species living on different islands w/
different habitats had different adaptations.
• Noticed homologous (seen in different
groups of descendants-ex. Hands/feet in
primates) and analagous(same structure but
different function structures in animals-ex.
Wings/forelimbs).
• Had read Thomas Malthus’ which said that
food produces arithmetically while
populations produce geometrically-There
will be competition for resources.
More Evidence
• Vestigial Structures-once had a function but
now reduced in size and function
• fetal development
• Fossil evidence
Natural Selection
• In On the Origin of Species, Darwin
proposed “descent with modification” as a
mechanism for species change. This later
became known as natural selection.
• Organisms with favorable adaptations will
survive to reproduce longer and therefore
pass on more favorable traits and their
descendants will outnumber others. This
takes lots of time. Eventually, as a result of
this, species change (much different from
Lamarck)
Types of Natural Selection
• Stabilizing-selecting for individuals with
“middle” phenotypes.
• Disruptive-selecting for individuals with
phenotypes in the outer limits
• Directional-selecting for individuals with
phenotypes toward one limit or the other
• Artificial-humans select for traits using
selective breeding
Making Species
• Requires isolation and evolution in different
directions
• Originally thought to be slow and gradual
(gradualism), now known to be stable, with
short bursts of evolution (punctuated
equilibrium)
• Isolation can be because of a physical or
behavioral barrier.
– Physical requires geographic isolation.
– Behavioral requires non-mating because of
unrecognizable courtship rituals.
Genetic Equilibrium
• Evolution works on genes to change whole species
or populations of species over time, not on
individuals.
• Gene Pool=all of the genes of a population
• Gene frequency=# or % of a certain allele in a
population (p+q=1, p=dominant, q=recessive)
• Using the present phenotypes, we can sometimes
calculate the frequency of genes in the population.
This helps us determine if populations are
evolving or in equilibrium.
• Hardy-Weinberg Theory for equilibrium:
– p2+2pq+q2=1
– where p^2=homozygous dominant,
q^2=homozygous recessive and pq=heterozygotes
About Hardy-Weinberg
• Theoretical and requires certain conditions
– No immigration and emigration
– Random mating
– No net mutation
– No selection
– Large population
• Has been shown to exist over time when the above
conditions are met, however many populations
don’t exist under these stable conditions
• In other words, if the theory is an inequation,
population change is occurring.
Changes in equilibrium
• Selecting mechanisms cause gene frequencies to
change.
• Immigration and Emigration mean that organisms
bring in and take out new genes, which influences
frequencies.
• Catastrophic events that drastically reduce the
gene pool also cause change (this is one example
of genetic drift, which effects small populations
more than large ones. Why?)