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By: Annie Lawn, Stephanie Joseph,
and Jacqui Landmesser
r 3he Victorians and those who have studied
them have categorized several opposing
trends, movements, and loosely structured
schools of Victorian thought.

"Punch Cartoon, 1894." BBC. Web. 21 Sep 2010.

r Progressives
 Also known as Liberals or Rationalists
 Composed mainly of middle class, they feared
government intervention and stressed the importance
of freedom of action.
r 3ory Radicals
 Also known as Christian Socialists or Marxists
 3his anti-aristocratic class emphasized the need for a
strong central government and welfare of the
interventionist state. 3hey had an ambivalent attitude
toward middle class
r Conservatives
 Also known as
3ories or
revival, social
hierarchy, and
Winsford Walled Garden. Web. 21 Sep 2010. an official state
<http://www.winsfordwalledgarden.com/Data/images/H religion
r A battle of Moral vs. Aesthetic
r Hebrews
 3his mostly middle-class group was distinguished by
its prophetic modes, social protest, autobiographies,
emphasizing conversion, dense & grotesque images
an analogy, & contemporary attitude.
r Hellenes
 Hellenes emphasized on clarity, greater use of classical
myth, and a secular version of 3ractarian notion of

r After Queen Victoria came into power,
Victorian writing soon divided into two
classes, established by the beliefs of Jeremy
Bentham and Samuel 3aylor Coleridge. 3he
two philosophers are said to be each other͛s
͞completing counterpart.͟ 3he strong
convictions of the one are compatible with the
weak points of the other.
r 3his progressive
thinker was known
as a great asker of
socially and
politically alarming
r He challenged
people to consider
the validity of
popular notions
accepted by
"Jeremy Bentham by Henry William Pickersgill
detail.͟ Wikipedia. Web. 21 Sep 2010.
A Conservative
thinker who
taught the people
to consider the
meaning and
significance of
popular issues.
"Coleridge Samuel 3aylor 1772-1834."
Life Photo Archive. Web. 21 Sep 2010.


r John Locke argued that experience, rather than heredity or God, is the
primary source of moral, as well as intellectual, ideas.


r ͞Father of English Empiricism͟

r Felt strongly about religious

freedom; remained a Christian.

r 3reatises on Government, written in

1679 and 1680, employed to justify
the Glorious Revolution. by
͞denying the validity of the theory of
the divine right of kings.͟


] $  V  
r Patriarchal 3heory: ͞an extension
and justification of the theory of
divine right drew an analogy
between the absolute authority of
the monarch over his kingdom
and the absolute authority of the
father over his family.͟
r Patriachal- characteristic of
system of a government
controlled by men
r Robert Filmer thought that
parents did not have a full
authority over their children
because they are not always
dependent upon their parents.
] $  V   Ú 
r When children reach adulthood, they agree to a contract
establishing their relationship to their parents. He then
connected this idea to the people and government.
r Locke thought that governors do not have power through a
divine right but through who is most ͞able͟ to govern.
r He thought the people should give consent on who their
governor should be.
Π   %

1.Necessarianism- ͞everything was
consequence of what had
preceded it͟
2. Everything that is going to happen
was planned to happen and no
outside decisions can change that
3. Society operates under natural
4. Martineau envisioned a free
society that was governed under
natural laws.
5. Anything that happened that
wasn͛t supposed to would
automatically get fixed through
Harriet Martineau." flickr.com. Web. 21 Sep
Works Cited
r Victorianweb.org
r Harriet Martineau." flickr.com. Web. 21 Sep 2010.
r "Life, Liberty, and Property ͶGetting back to the original ideals." 3he
Bagpipe Online. Web. 21 Sep 2010.
Works Cited Úcont͛d)
r "Coleridge Samuel 3aylor 1772-1834." Life Photo Archive. Web. 21
Sep 2010.
r "Jeremy Bentham by Henry William Pickersgill detail." Wikipedia.
Web. 21 Sep 2010.
r Winsford Walled Garden. Web. 21 Sep 2010.
r "Punch Cartoon, 1894." BBC. Web. 21 Sep 2010
r Decoupling. Web. 21 Sep 2010. <http://decouplingblog.com/wp-
r "Elderly Lady." Flickr. Web. 21 Sep 2010.
<http://www.flickr.com/photos sheila_smart/264895850
r "Honey." Flickr. Web. 21 Sep 2010.