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Chapter 6 Lecture

Conceptual
Integrated Science
Second Edition

Heat

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


This lecture will help you understand:

• The Kinetic Theory of Matter


• Temperature
• Absolute Zero
• What Is Heat?
• Quantity of Heat
• The Laws of Thermodynamics
• Entropy
• Specific Heat Capacity
• Thermal Expansion
• Expansion of Water
• Heat Transfer: Conduction
• Heat Transfer: Convection
• Heat Transfer: Radiation
• Emission of Radiant Energy
• Absorption of Radiant Energy
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The Kinetic Theory of Matter

• Kinetic theory of matter:


– Matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms or
molecules) that are always in motion.

• Thermal energy:
– The total energy (kinetic and potential) of the
submicroscopic particles that make up a
substance.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Temperature

Temperature
– is the measure of hotness
or coldness of an object
(degrees Celsius, or
degrees Fahrenheit, or
kelvins).
– is related to the average
translational kinetic
energy per molecule in
a substance.

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Temperature

• A thermometer is an instrument that measures


temperature by comparing the expansion and
contraction of a liquid as it gains or loses thermal
energy.
• An infrared thermometer measures temperature
by the radiation a substance emits.

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Temperature

• Temperature has no upper limit.


• The temperature of a substance is registered
on a liquid-base thermometer when the
substance has reached thermal equilibrium
with the thermometer.

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Temperature

• Three temperature scales differ in zero point and


divisions:
– Celsius scale
freezing point of water: 0C
boiling point of water: 100C
division: 100 degree units

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Temperature

• Fahrenheit scale
freezing point of water: 32F
boiling point of water: 212F
division: 180 degree units

• Kelvin scale (used in scientific research)


freezing point of water: 273 K
boiling point of water: 373 K
division: same-size increments as Celsius scale

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Temperature
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
There is twice as much molecular kinetic energy in
2 liters of boiling water as in 1 liter of boiling water.
Which is the same for both?

A. Temperature
B. Thermal energy
C. Both temperature and thermal energy
D. Neither temperature nor thermal energy

Explain your answer to your neighbor.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Temperature
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
There is twice as much molecular kinetic energy in
2 liters of boiling water as in 1 liter of boiling water.
Which is the same for both?

A. Temperature
B. Thermal energy
C. Both temperature and thermal energy
D. Neither temperature nor thermal energy

Explanation:
The average kinetic energy of the molecules is the
same, which means that the temperature is the same for
both.
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Absolute Zero

• Absolute zero or zero K is the lowest limit of


temperature at –273C where molecules have
lost all available kinetic energy. A substance
cannot get any colder.

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What Is Heat?

• Heat is defined as a flow of thermal energy due


to a temperature difference.
• The direction of heat flow is from a higher-
temperature substance to a lower-temperature
substance.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


What Is Heat?
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
If a red-hot thumbtack is immersed in warm water,
the direction of heat flow will be from the

A. warm water to the red-hot thumbtack.


B. red-hot thumbtack to the warm water.
C. There is no heat flow.
D. There is not enough information.

Explain your answer to your neighbor.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


What Is Heat?
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
If a red-hot thumbtack is immersed in warm water,
the direction of heat flow will be from the

A. warm water to the red-hot thumbtack.


B. red-hot thumbtack to the warm water.
C. There is no heat flow.
D. There is not enough information.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Quantity of Heat

Heat is measured in units of energy—joules or


calories.

A calorie is defined as the amount of heat needed to


raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 Celsius
degree.

4.19 joules = 1 calorie

so 4.19 joules of heat will change the temperature


of 1 gram of water by 1 Celsius degree.
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Quantity of Heat

• The energy rating of food and fuel is measured by


the energy released when they are metabolized.
• The heat unit for labeling food is the kilocalorie.
• One kilocalorie or Calorie (with a capital C) is
the heat needed to change the temperature
of
1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius.

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Quantity of Heat
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
The same quantity of heat is added to different
amounts of water in two equal-size containers. The
temperature of the smaller amount of water

A. decreases more.
B. increases more.
C. does not change.
D. There is not enough information.

Explain your answer to your neighbor.


© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Quantity of Heat
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
The same quantity of heat is added to different
amounts of water in two equal-size containers. The
temperature of the smaller amount of water

A. decreases more.
B. increases more.
C. does not change.
D. There is not enough information.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Quantity of Heat
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
You heat a half cup of tea and its temperature
rises by 4C. How much will the temperature rise if
you add the same amount of heat to a full cup of tea?

A. 0C
B. 2C
C. 4C
D. 8C

Explain your answer to your neighbor.


© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Quantity of Heat
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
You heat a half cup of tea and its temperature
rises by 4C. How much will the temperature rise if
you add the same amount of heat to a full cup of tea?

A. 0C
B. 2C
C. 4C
D. 8C

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


The Laws of Thermodynamics

• First law of thermodynamics:


– Whenever heat flows into or out of a system,
the gain or loss of thermal energy equals the
amount of heat transferred.

• When thermal energy transfers as heat, it does


so with no net loss or gain.

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The Laws of Thermodynamics

• Second law of thermodynamics:


– Heat never spontaneously flows from a
lower-temperature substance to a higher
temperature substance.

• Heat can be made to flow the opposite way


only when work is done on the system or
when energy is added from another source.

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The Laws of Thermodynamics

• Third law of thermodynamics:


– No system can reach absolute zero.

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The Laws of Thermodynamics
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
When work is done on a system–compressing air in a tire
pump, for example–the temperature of the system

A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. remains unchanged.
D. is no longer evident.

Explain your answer to your neighbor.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


The Laws of Thermodynamics
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
When work is done on a system–compressing air in a tire
pump, for example–the temperature of the system

A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. remains unchanged.
D. is no longer evident.

Explanation:
In accord with the first law of thermodynamics, work input
increases the energy of the system.

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Entropy

• Entropy is a measure of the disorder of a


system.
– Whenever energy freely transforms from one form
into another, the direction of transformation is toward
a state of greater disorder and, therefore, toward one
of greater entropy.

Greater disorder  higher entropy

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Entropy

• Second law of thermodynamics — a restatement:


– Natural systems tend to disperse from
concentrated and organized energy states
toward diffuse and disorganized states.

• Energy tends to degrade and disperse with time.


• The total amount of entropy in any system tends
to increase with time.

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Entropy
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
Your room gets messier each week. In this case, the
entropyof your room is

A. increasing.
B. decreasing.
C. hanging steady.
D. nonexistent.

Explain your answer to your neighbor.

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Entropy
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
Your room gets messier each week. In this case, the
entropy of your room is

A. increasing.
B. decreasing.
C. hanging steady.
D. nonexistent.

Comment:
If your room became more organized each week, then entropy
would decrease in proportion to the effort expended.

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Specific Heat Capacity

• The specific heat capacity is the quantity of heat


required to change the temperature of 1 unit
mass of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.
• Specific heat capacity is
– thermal inertia that indicates the resistance of
a substance to a change in temperature.
– sometimes called specific heat.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Specific Heat Capacity
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
Which has a higher specific heat capacity: water or land?

A. Water
B. Land
C. Both of the above are
the same.
D. None of the above

Explain your answer to your neighbor.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Specific Heat Capacity
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
Which has a higher specific heat capacity: water or land?

A. Water
B. Land
C. Both of the above are the same.
D. None of the above

Explanation:
A substance with small temperature changes for large heat
changes has a high specific heat capacity. Water takes
much longer to heat up in the sunshine than does land.
This difference has a major influence on climate.

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Thermal Expansion

• When the temperature of a substance is


increased, its particles jiggle faster and move
farther apart.

• All forms of matter generally expand when


heated and contract when cooled.

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Thermal Expansion
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
When telephone lines are strung between poles in the
summer, it is advisable for the lines to

A. sag.
B. be taut.
C. be close to the ground.
D. allow ample space for birds.

Explain your answer to your neighbor.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Thermal Expansion
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
When telephone lines are strung between poles in the
summer, it is advisable for the lines to

A. sag.
B. be taut.
C. be close to the ground.
D. allow ample space for birds.

Explanation:
Telephone lines are longer in a warm summer and shorter in a cold
winter. Hence, they sag more on hot summer days than during the winter.
If the lines are not strung with enough sag in the summer, they might
contract too much and snap during the winter—especially when they are
covered with ice.

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Expansion of Water

• When water becomes ice, it expands. Ice has


open-structured crystals resulting from strong
bonds at certain angles that increase its volume.
This make ice less dense than water.

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Expansion of Water

• Water between 0C and 4C does not expand


with temperature. As the temperature of 0 water
rises, the water contracts until it reaches 4C.
Thereafter, it expands.
• Water is at its smallest volume and greatest
density at 4C. When 0C water freezes to
become ice, however, it has its largest volume
and lowest density.

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Expansion of Water

• Volume changes for a 1-gram sample of water:

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Expansion of Water
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
When a sample of 0C water is heated, it first

A. expands.
B. contracts.
C. remains unchanged.
D. There is not enough information.

Explain your answer to your neighbor.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Expansion of Water
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
When a sample of 0C water is heated, it first

A. expands.
B. contracts.
C. remains unchanged.
D. There is not enough information.

Explanation:
Water continues to contract until it reaches a
temperature of 4C. With further increase in
temperature beyond 4C, water then expands.
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Expansion of Water
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
When a sample of 4C water is cooled, it

A. expands.
B. contracts.
C. remains unchanged.
D. There is not enough information.

Explain your answer to your neighbor.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Expansion of Water
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
When a sample of 4C water is cooled, it

A. expands.
B. contracts.
C. remains unchanged.
D. There is not enough information.

Explanation:
Parts of the water will crystallize and occupy more
space.
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Heat Transfer

• Processes of thermal energy transfer:


– Conduction
– Convection
– Radiation

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Heat Transfer: Conduction

• Conduction occurs predominately in solids


where the molecules remain in relatively
restricted locations.

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Heat Transfer: Conduction

• Example:
When one end of a solid is placed near a heat
source, electrons and adjacent molecules gain
kinetic energy and start to move faster and
farther. They collide with neighboring molecules
and transfer some of their kinetic energy to
them. These molecules then interact with other
neighboring molecules, and thermal energy is
gradually transferred along the solid.

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Heat Transfer: Conduction

• Good conductors
– are composed of atoms with "loose" outer electrons.
– are known as poor insulators.
– Examples: all metals to varying degrees.

• Poor conductors
– delay the transfer of heat.
– are known as good insulators.
– Examples: wood, wool, straw, paper, cork, Styrofoam,
liquid, gases, air or materials with trapped air

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Heat Transfer: Conduction

• No insulator can totally prevent heat from getting


through it.
• An insulator reduces the rate at which heat
penetrates.

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Heat Transfer: Conduction
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
If you hold one end of a metal bar against a piece of ice, the
end in your hand will soon become cold. Does cold flow from
the ice to your hand?

A. Yes
B. In some cases, yes
C. No
D. In some cases, no

Explain your answer to your neighbor.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Heat Transfer: Conduction
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
If you hold one end of a metal bar against a piece of ice, the
end in your hand will soon become cold. Does cold flow from
the ice to your hand?

A. Yes
B. In some cases, yes
C. No
D. In some cases, no

Explanation:
Cold does not flow from the ice to your hand. Heat flows from
your hand to the ice. The metal is cold to your touch because
you are transferring heat to the metal.
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Heat Transfer: Convection

Convection
– occurs in liquids and gases.
– involves the movement of warmer gases or
liquids to cooler surroundings.

Two characteristics of convection:


– The ability of flow—carrying thermal energy
with the fluid
– The ability of warm fluid to rise in cooler
surroundings

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Heat Transfer: Convection
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
Although warm air rises, why are mountaintops cold and
snow covered, while the valleys below are relatively warm
and green?

A. Warm air cools when it rises.


B. There is a thick insulating blanket of air above valleys.
C. Both of the above
D. None of the above

Explain your answer to your neighbor.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Heat Transfer: Convection
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
Although warm air rises, why are mountaintops cold and
snow covered, while the valleys below are relatively warm
and green?

A. Warm air cools when it rises.


B. There is a thick insulating blanket of air above valleys.
C. Both of the above.
D. None of the above.

Explanation:
Earth's atmosphere acts like a blanket, which keeps Earth
from freezing at nighttime.
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Heat Transfer: Radiation

• Radiation is the process by which thermal


energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves.

• A thermal energy source such as the Sun


converts some of its energy into electromagnetic
waves. These waves carry energy, which
converts back into thermal energy when
absorbed by a receiver. The energy source
radiates energy, and a receiver absorbs it.

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Heat Transfer: Radiation

• The wavelength of radiation is related to the


frequency of vibration.

Low-frequency vibrations  long waves


High-frequency vibrations  short waves

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Emission of Radiant Energy

• All substances at any temperature above


absolute zero emit radiant energy.
• The average frequency (f ) of radiant energy is
directly proportional to the absolute temperature


T of the emitter:
f T


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Emission of Radiant Energy
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
If a good absorber of radiant energy were a poor emitter, its
temperature compared with its surroundings would be

A. lower.
B. higher.
C. unaffected.
D. none of the above

Explain your answer to your neighbor.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Emission of Radiant Energy
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
If a good absorber of radiant energy were a poor emitter, its
temperature compared with its surroundings would be

A. lower.
B. higher.
C. unaffected.
D. none of the above

Explanation:
If a good absorber were not also a good emitter, there would
be a net absorption of radiant energy, and the temperature of a
good absorber would remain higher than the temperature of
the surroundings. Nature is not so!
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Absorption of Radiant Energy

• A material's ability to absorb and radiate thermal


energy is indicated by its color.
• Good absorbers and good
emitters are dark in color.
• Poor absorbers and poor
emitters are reflective or
light in color.

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Absorption of Radiant Energy

• The surface of any material both absorbs and


emits radiant energy.
• When a surface absorbs more energy than it
emits, it is a net absorber, and temperature
rises.
• When a surface emits more energy than it
absorbs, it is a net emitter, and temperature falls.

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Absorption of Radiant Energy

• Whether a surface is a net absorber or a net


emitter depends on whether its temperature is
above or below that of its surroundings.
• A surface hotter than its surroundings is a net
emitter and will cool.
• A surface colder than its surroundings is a net
absorber and will warm.

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Absorption of Radiant Energy
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR
Which melts faster in sunshine: dirty snow or clean
snow?

A. Dirty snow
B. Clean snow
C. Both of the above
D. None of the above

Explain your answer to your neighbor.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


Absorption of Radiant Energy
CHECK YOUR ANSWER
Which melts faster in sunshine: dirty snow or clean
snow?

A. Dirty snow
B. Clean snow
C. Both of the above
D. None of the above

Explanation:
Dirty snow absorbs more sunlight, whereas clean
snow reflects more.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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