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NEUROENDOKRIN

YUYUN ARYUNI (17/418162/PKU/16654)


Build of Function as

Nervous System Endocrine System

Neroendocrine

Hipotalamus & Kelenjar Hipofisis


HIPOTALAMUS DAN KELENJAR HIPOFISIS
HIPOTALAMUS
HYPOTHALAMIC REGULATORY MECHANISM
Kontrol hipotalamus terhadap hipofisis

 Hipotalamus mengontrol kelenjar hipofisis dengan releasing-inhibition


factors / hypophysiotrophic hormones
 Sekresi kelenjar hipofisis anterior diatur oleh hormon-hormon release-
inhibition yang disekresikan oleh hipotalamus melalui sistem portal.
 Sekresi kelenjar hipofisis posterior diatur oleh sinyal-sinyal saraf yang
berasal dari hipotalamus
Hipotalamus – hipofisis Pathway
/Biosynthesis
 Anterior hipofisis : Neurosecretory cell
releasing and inhibiting hormones (arcuate
nuclei)  axon  axon terminal 
eksositosis hormon  kapiler primer
sistem portal  pembuluh darah portal 
kapiler sekunder sistem portal (anterior
hipofisis)

 Posterior hipofisis : Cell bodies of the


neurosecretory in the supraoptic and
paraventricular nuclei  axons  axon
terminal (posterior pituitari)  sekresi
hormon
Macam-macam hormon hipotalamus

Hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones :


- Thyrotropin-release hormone (TRH)  release thyroid hormon
- Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)  release adrenocorticotropin
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)  release LH and FSH
- Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)  release GH
- Growth hormone-inhibitory hormone (somatostatin) inhibition GH
- Prolactin-release hormone (PRH)  release prolactin
- Prolactin-inhibitory hormone (PIH)  inhibition prolactin
Kelenjar Hipofisis (pituitari)

 Pars anterior = adenohipofisis


 Pars posterior = neurohipofisis
 Pars intermediet
MACAM-MACAM HORMON HIPOFISIS

HIPOFISIS ANTERIOR HIPOFISIS POSTERIOR

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, Oxytocin


thyrotropin)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Arginine Vasopressin (AVP)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Prolactin
Growth hormone
HIPOFISIS ANTERIOR
 Tipe sel pada kelenjar hipofisis anterior ada 5 ; somatotrope, lactotrope
/mammotrope, corticotrope, thyrotrope dan gonadotrope.

secrete five releasing


hormones
neurosecretory
cells in the
hypothalamus

Secretion two inhibiting hormones


of anterior
pituitary
hormones
thyrotrophs, gonadotrophs, and
Negative corticotrophs decreases when
feedback blood levels of their target gland
hormones rise
 For example negative feedback
 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the cortex of the adrenal
gland to secrete glucocorticoids, mainly cortisol  an elevated blood level
of cortisol  decreases secretion of both corticotropin and corticotropin-
releasing hormone (CRH) by suppressing the activity of the anterior
pituitary corticotrophs and hypothalamic neurosecretory cells.
SOMATOTROPHS
 Somatotropin adalah sel terbanyak di hipofisis
anterior. Mensekresikan human growth hormone (hGH)
 Fungsi utama dari hGH adalah untuk sintesis dan
sekresi insulinlike growth factors (IGFs) or
somatomedins.
 Somatotropin dikontrol dari GHRH dan GHIH di
hipotalamus
THYROTROPHS

 Mensekresikan thyroid stimulating


hormone (TSH).
 TSH berfungsi untuk mengontrol aktivitas
sekresi kelenjar tiroid.
 Dikontrol Thyrotropin-release hormone
(TRH) di Hipotalamus
GONADOTROPHS

 Mensekresikan Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) dan


Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
 FSH berfungsi merangsang perkembangan folikel dan berperan
pada proses spermatogenesis
 LH berfungsi menstimulasi sekresi estrogen,
progesterone,testosterone dan berperan pematangan oosit di
ovarium.
 Dikontrol oleh gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
LACTOTROPHS

 Mensekresikan prolaktin.
 Berfungsi dalam proses menyusui, untuk
menginisiasi produksi air susu dari kelenjar
mamae.
 Dikontrol oleh Prolactin-release hormone (PRH)
dan Prolactin-inhibitory hormone (PIH di
hipotalamus
CORTICOTROPHS
 Mensekresikan hormon adrenokortikotropik .
 Hormon Adenokortikotropik menstimulasi korteks adrenal
untuk mensekresi hormon glukokortikoid seperti kortisol.
 Dikontrol oleh Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) di
hipotalamus
HIPOFISIS POSTERIOR

Mensekresikan:
-Arginine Vasopressin (AVP)
-Oxiocin
 The hormones of the posterior pituitary gland are synthesize in the cell bodies
of the magnocellular neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and
transported down the axons of these neurons to their endings in the posterior
lobe, where they are secreted in response to electrical activity in the
endings.
 Some of the neurons make oxytocin and others make vasopressin.
 Oxytocin and vasopressin are typical neural hormones, that is, hormones
secreted into the circulation by nerve cells.
 The posterior lobe hormones are synthesized as part of larger precursor
molecules. Vasopressin and oxytocin each have a characteristic neurophysin
associated with them in the granules in the neurons that secrete them—
neurophysin I in the case of oxytocin and neurophysin II in the case of
vasopressin.
 The precursor for arginine vasopressin is prepropressophysin, Prepro-
oxyphysin, the precursor for oxytocin
VASOPRESSIN

 Vasopressin atau biasa disebut


antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
 Bekerja pada ginjal dan pembuluh
darah
 Mencegah hilangnya cairan dari
tubuh dengan menurunkan
produksi urin dan membantu ginjal
menyerap air ke dalam tubuh.
OXYTOCIN

 oxytocin acts primarily on the


breasts and uterus, though it
appears to be involved in luteolysis
as well
 Oxytocin causes contraction of the
myoepithelial cells  milk
ejection reflex
 Oxytocin causes contraction of the
smooth muscle of the uterus.
TERIMA KASIH