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Chapter 12

Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
• Definitions Ejection
• Basic Requirements for Any Ejection Method
• General Ejection Guidelines
• Ejector Pins and Sleeves
• Strippers
• Air Ejection
• Multiple Ejection Stroke
• Special Ejection Methods
• Two-Stage and Multistage Ejection
• Molding Surface Finish
• Sequence of Ejection
• Collapsible Cores
• Unscrewing MoldsDr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
Background and Definitions
• After plastic flows into the mold and cools it has to be
removed (or ejected) from the mold
• Parts can be removed
– manually
– with robotics,
– automatically
• Automatic ejection
– Molds have ejection mechanisms to separate the product from the
molding surface, usually the core
– Free fall- products fall freely into box or conveyer belt
– Advantages-
• Consistent cycle time and uniform products
• Improves safety of plant since no operators are close to machinery.
• Faster cycle times
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Basic Requirements
• Rule of ejection
– As mold opens, products must stay on side from which are ejected
• Sometimes ribs, bosses, undercuts keep part on core side
– Molds have election actuator on clamp (moving) side of machine
• Ejection Features
– Mold with ejector pins shown in Fig 12.1
• Knock-out pads are used to keep the machine ejectors level with the moving
platen surface for ease of mold installation.
• Stripper plate is actuated from the ejector plate (Fig 12.2) used if ejector
plate cannot be directly reached (Fig 12.3)
– Length of Machine Ejectors
• If mold can be inserted by moving it toward the moving platen,
– there is no need for knockout pads, and
– the machine ejectors can reach all the way to contact the ejector or stripper plate
(Fig 12.4)
• Less expensive than adding the knockout pads
• More difficult mold installation
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General Ejection Guidelines
• Stroke, Clearance, and Product Height
– Must have clearance between cores and the cavities to permit the
products to fall freely.
– Stroke should be about S=2.5H (H=product height) for deep
– Method of alignment affects required stroke

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Stroke, Clearance, Product Height
• Excessive stroke presents no problem other than
extending cycle time and reduces productivity.
• Small strokes are possible for very flat products
• For servicing of the mold, it is best to keep stroke
large enough, minimum of 150 mm for access.
• Husky guide rails on Husky machines the stroke can
be as low as 2.5H.
• In single level molds, available stroke is usually

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• Venting is very important where a vacuum occurs
– Especially for cup-shaped and flat products
– Fig 12.8- A cup-shaped product is pushed off the core
– For flexible material, PE, it may return to original shape
– For a brittle material, PS, it may break.
– An ejector near the center may act as a vent
• Where to Eject Relative to the Product
– Guidelines
• For deep products, eject at the points where product is stiffest
– Fig 12.10- Do not eject at center of cup on inside
• For products with deep ribs, eject at the points where it is stiff
– Fig 12.11 Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved 7
• Where to Eject Relative to the Product
– Guidelines
• Shallow ribs (where the height is less than 1.5 times thickness)
usually do not need ribs but need venting to prevent implosion.
• For pin ejection of shallow products:
– Distribute ejectors to lift product without tipping.
– Place ejectors at lowest point for ribs or bosses.
– Use ejector pins and sleeves as natural vents.
• Land should be not longer than 2D (Diameter of pin). (Fig
• Witness lines are round marks left on the part by ejector pins.
• Ejection of bosses depends upon the shape and solidity of boss.
– No need for ejection for solid bosses that are shallow (depth=width or
D) and there is good draft angle (at least 5° per side) 8
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Ejection Location
• Where to Eject Relative to the Product
– Guidelines
– Diameter of ejector should be standard size and should be smaller than
the bottom diameter of the boss.
– Avoid solid bosses to prevent sinks.
– Width or diameter of boss should be less than wall thickness of the
– Tubular bosses (Fig 12.14) are preferred wherein
» a hole passes through a boss, or (Fig 12.14)- No sink marks on end
» Blind hole (Fig 12.14)- no sink marks and provides cooling
– Place a few ejector pins evenly spaced at the bottom of a large boss
» Fig 12.15
– Avoid small ejector pins
– Use standard pins and sleeves
Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
Ejector Pins and Sleeves
• Pins and sleeves can be used or any shape of product
– Advantage of ejectors versus stripper plate
• Inexpensive and easy to use
• Good natural, self cleaning venting in areas where the air would
otherwise be trapped and require vent pins
– Disadvantage of ejector pins and/or sleeves
• Area where product is pushed is relatively small
• The area must be well cooled (stiff) so as not to bend
• Witness lines
– Advantage of strippers (plates, rings, bars) or air ejection
• Surface of ejection is large and vestige is smaller.
• Only used where product at the parting line has proper contour
• Air is simple without out moving parts but limited to cup10shape
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Clearance (Fit) and Length of Land
• Clearances for ejector pins and sleeves
– Specified by pin manufacturer per vent sizes in Chap 11
– Clearance of pin in bore
• Too tight a fit may bind the ejector causing it to break.
• Too loose a fit may create flash
– Length of land
• Land should not be longer than 2D for small pins D up to 6mm
• Land should not be longer than 1.5D for large pin sizes
• Too long lands are costlier to produce and may result in poor
• Too short a land may cause excessive flashing and may cause
bore to wear out more rapidly.
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Size, Finish, and Shape
• Size of pins
– Use standard sizes. Special sizes are expensive
• Finish of pins
– Pins are made from H13 or similar hard steel, hardened
and nitrided, with surface hardness of 70 Rc. High polish.
• Finish of bore
– Must be smooth and free of grinding marks that could act
as a file on the pins. Suggested finish of 0.4microns
– Produced usually by jig grinding.
• Avoids bell mouth, which causes flash at location of bore.
• Bell-mouthing is a funnel or bell-shaped ending of the bore at
the molding surface. (Fig 12.16)
Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
Size, Finish, and Shape
• Shape of ejector pin (or sleeve) hole in core
– Holes must be funnel-shaped from the rear to facilitate
entry of the pins (sleeves) during assembly (Fig 12.17).
• Selection of ejector pin sizes
– Make ejector pins as large as possible.
– Bore diameters above 6mm are cheaper to produce than
smaller ones.
– Avoid sizes 3mm diameter and smaller, especially if
length is 50 times diameter.
– Sizes smaller that 3mm (2.5,2.0, and 1.5mm) are stepped
down from 3 mm, which extends to 75mm
– Long, slender pins may collapse under ejection force and
could wear faster and need to be replaced often
Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
Special Ejector Shapes
• Very small ejectors required for bottom of ribs,
– Better to provide a flat ejector pin instead of a round pin
– Example,
• Width at the bottom of the rib is 1.5mm, it is better to have a
flat ejector (1.5mm x 5mm). The area facing the plastic in the
round pin is 1.77 mm2, whereas for flat pin is 7.5mm2.
6 mm
1.5 mm 6 mm standard pin size
1.5 mm

– Larger surface area is less likely to penetrate the plastic during ejection
– pin is stronger and will last longer
• Design a slot for the special shape pin.
– Use EDM into the solid core or use two-piece construction. Fig 12.18
– Rear of the core under the slot is bored out for clearance of the shank of
the pin from which a special ejector was made.
– For a 2-piece construction, a shallow U-tube is machined into one
portion of Dr.
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Special Ejector Shapes
• Number and location of Ejector pins
– No set rules for number of ejector pins per cavity.
• More pins yield better ejection and product flatness, higher cost
• Example,
– 24-cavity mold that has 2 unnecessary pins per cavity results in 48
unnecessary pins per mold and the cost to produce pins.
– Guidelines for location of pins
• Located where they will provide necessary venting of areas which do not
vent to the parting line.
• Located at the lowest points of the products, ribs, rim, bosses.
• Required at or near the corners of the product.
• Located symmetrically and evenly spaced around product
• Located at intersections of rib and rib OR wall and rib. fig12.20
• Intersection locations allow increased ejector size.
• Example, Fig 12.20: Part with 1.5mm ribs,
– Rib intersection diagonal dimension would be 1.5x(2)1/2 =2.12mm (2 rib)
– At wall, 1.5x1.25=1.875mm (Use 2mm pin with 0.15mm corners) 15
Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
Ejector and Ejector Retaining Plate
• Two forces tend to deflect the ejector plate:
– Ejection and injection
• Ejection Force
– Forces depend upon
• Finish of core: rougher the core = more force
• Draft angle: smaller draft = more force
• Undercuts required from product: heavy undercuts = high force
• Undercuts required when product remains in cavity due to:
– Vacuum under bottom of product, e.g., containers.
– Stickiness of plastic, e.g., some adhere more to steel.
– Shrinkage forces in cavity, e.g. pins in cavity or too warm a core.
– Symmetrical products about parting line, e.g., records, dinner plates, etc
• Max ejector force is 6-10 tonnes (metric tons =1000kg) small
• Max ejector force is 10-16 tonnes for larger machines
Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
Ejector and Ejector Retaining Plate
• Injection Force
– Ejector pins are loaded at their face with the injection
pressure during injection, packing, and hold stages.
• The bigger the area subjected to pressure, the greater the force
transmitted through the ejector pin to the ejector plate.
– High forces can cause the pins to deflect and bend.
• Stop pins under or near heavily loaded pins, the effect of plate
deflection due to these forces can be eliminated.
• Ejector plate is more often a plate rather than a simple beam,
with ejector pins well distributed over the entire surface.
– Complicated plate theory is actual condition.
– Simple beam calculations due not apply.
– Plate deflection, f, must be kept to a minimum.
– Rule: f < 0.1 mm is acceptable.
Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
Ejector and Ejector Retaining Plate
• Location of Ejectors Relative to Machine Ejectors
– Fig 12.21
Max. ejection force Max. ejection force Max. ejection force Max. ejection force

f f f f f

– Make the ejector plate thick to keep deflections low

– Design ejector as beam.
– Deflection depends upon the stiffness of the plate.
– The stiffness of the plate is (Flex Mod)(Thickness)3
• Example,
– If ejector plate is 25mm thick and the head is 6mm, the stiffness is 253 = 15625
mm3. If the plate thickness is increased to 31mm, then the stiffness is 313 =
29,791 or almost twice as stiff.
– Thickness of plate does not depend upon tensile strength.
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Ejector and Ejector Retaining Plate
• Ejector Retainer Plate
– Purpose
• Hold the ejector pins (or sleeves) on the ejector plate.
– Bad practice to thread ejectors into ejector plate to eliminate retainer.
• Sometimes several small retainer plates rather than one large
plate are used on one ejector plate.
• Heads of the ejector plate and return pins or sleeves, should
float with lateral play in the retainer plate for proper alignment.
• Fig 12.22
• Thickness of retainer plate at the head need never be more than
• Axial clearance should be very little (0.1mm)
• Radial clearances, HC and SC, should be a minimum of 0.5mm
Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
Ejector and Ejector Retaining Plate
• Preventing Ejector Pins from Turning
– Must be prevented from turning when
• Front of pin in the cavity is shaped to match the product.
• It carries engraving.
• A large pin is used for ejection and partly as a return pin.
– Preferred method is to key the head of the pin.
– Fig 12.23 A and B
• B is preferred, but milling the cutter in view B is smaller and
thereby slower.
• Thickness of the ejector retainer plate does not add anything to
the strength of the ejector plate against deflection.
• Spacing the screws close to groups of ejectors and return pins,
few screw are usually necessary.

Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
Ejector and Ejector Retaining Plate
• Return Pins (Fig 12.26)
– Ensure all ejector pins are returned to their back position
by the time the mold closes.
• This prevents the pins from contacting (and possibly damaging)
the opposite cavity surface.
– Design guidelines
– Always have 4 return pins, evenly spaced so plate doesn’t cock.
– Do not position pins where they could hit a vent channel.
– Minimum diameter of return pin should be 12 mm. Preferable sizes are
16 or 19mm. Larger pins have less damage on plate
– Always use standard (commercial) pin sizes.
– Passage through plate can be larger tolerances than ejector pin
– Length of return pin should be less than the theoretical length required
to push the ejector plate back all the way.
• Must protect cavity wall opposite an ejector pin from damage.
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Ejector and Ejector Retaining Plate
• Ejector Box (Fig 12.29)
– Portion of the mold assembly which surrounds, supports,
and guides the ejector plate.
• Consists of a mold mounting plate, two parallels, and supports
– Many molds built this way in the past.
– Based on certain standard sizes of rectangular plates and round pillars.
– Occasionally, ejector plate must have pins in odd
locations. (Fig 12.30)
• Preferred method to some designers.
– Machine all supports and parallels into the core backing plate.
– Requires few assembly screws required to enter the core backing plate.
– More space is available for the cooling and air channels.
• Tapped holes or slots core mounting ledges can be machined
into core backing plate.
• Important Note: Larger the cutter diameter, the faster the
milling operation. Deep pockets require large cutters. 22
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Ejector and Ejector Retaining Plate
• Guiding Ejector Plates
– All moving plates must be guided in
• At least 2 and preferably 4 locations, evenly spaced.
• Standard leader pins (LP) and LP bushings should be used.
• Clearance C (Figure 12.31) should be about 0.1 mm (0.004in)
– Guidelines
• Retainer plate is inserted first, then the pins are inserted through
the plate and into the core plate.
• Ejector plate is lined up with guide pins, pushed into position,
and all the screws are installed to hold retainer plate.
• Good practice to align ejector retainer and ejector plate with
two dowels at opposite corners.
• Guide pins must be long enough (Dim L in Fig 12.31) to project
beyond the bottom face of the ejector box for alignment.
• There must be at least one tapped hole on the underside of the
ejector plateDr.for removal because the plate is in the box. 23
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Ejector and Ejector Retaining Plate
• Returning the Ejector Plates
– With the use of return pins, there is no need to provide
additional features to return ejector plate.
• As mold closes, the return pins drive ejector plate back into its
“rest” position, touching the stop pins.
– Acceptable for slow closing speeds of the clamp and short ejector
• Normally, ejector pins move so far out that the return pins strike
the cavity side of the mold while the clamp is moving fast
– Resulting impact could damage return pins and be Noisy.
• Helpful if ejector plate is returned by an independent method
before the return pins strike the opposing mold half.
• Methods to return the ejector plate.
– Tying ejector plate to molding machine
– Using linkages attached to the mold
– Using return springs
– Attaching air cylinders to the ejector plate. 24
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Ejector and Ejector Retaining Plate
• Methods to return the ejector plate.
– Tying ejector plate to molding machine
• Push-pull method. Used with hydraulic machine ejectors.
– Disadvantage is the additional connection of mold and machine. Time
– Using linkages attached to the mold
• Both ejection and return motions of ejector plate are linked to
mold stroke.
– Requires exact and repetitive opening stroke.
– Must ensure that the clamp does not open beyond design intent.
– Using return springs
• Internal and external return springs placed between core and
ejector plates. (Fig 12.34)
– Springs must be pre-loaded 10% of maximum stroke to solid.
– Spring must not be compressed by more than 25% of this stroke.

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Ejector and Ejector Retaining
Methods to return the ejector plate.
– Using return springs
• Effective stroke must be less than 15% of max stroke to solid.
» Ejection travel of 30mm, standard medium duty spring = 200 mm long
» Tough to package that mush length. Follow spring mfg guidelines
• Note: unguided (unsupported) length of any spring should
never be more than its diameter.
– If distance is larger, spring must be supported (internally) with a rod
• Springs with long strokes should be placed outside mold
– Enough space and where broken springs can be identified.
– Four springs should be used and located near corners of ejector plate.
• For small molds Fig 12.36
– One spring, centrally located should suffice.
– Disadvantages
» The moving platen has a large central opening.
» Projecting spring assembly is easily damaged during storage or
hoisting of mold
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Ejector and Ejector Retaining Plate
• Methods to return the ejector plate.
– Attaching air cylinders to the ejector plate.
• Advantage is that the force generated is constant over the whole
length of the stroke, unlike springs, which are weaker in the
expanded state and stronger in the compressed state.
• Example 1,
– Four cylinders are located near the corners of the ejector plate to
provide balanced force on plate.
» Typical arrangement for 4 air actuators to return the ejector plate .
» Left illustration, the piston holds the plate against the stop pins.
» Right illustration, the machine ejectors push the plate forward.
• Example 2,
– One air cylinder is centrally located (small molds only).
» The piston is fixed to the core plate, and the cylinder is fastened to
and moves with the ejector plate.
– Compressed air may be connected permanently to the air cylinders.
– Force of the air is less than the machine ejectors. 27
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• Strippers (plates, rings, or bars) are preferable to
ejector pins.
– Surface of the product where it is pushed is relatively
large, and the ejection force is evenly distributed.
– Vestige left from the stripper is usually less noticeable.
– Should be used where product at parting line has a shape
which can be easily generated when machining.
– Must seat on taper which is preloaded to prevent flashing
• Odd-shaped strippers with tapered shut-offs are CNC or EDM
– Should have simple geometric shape.
• Circular or linear that is easily machined.
• Fig 12.37- Noncircular product ejected 3 ways
– Reference preload on tapers (sec 22.8.2)
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• General Rules for Strippers
– Stripper must always clear the core.
– All stripper must seat on a taper (tapered shut-off is best)
– Cylindrical shut-off is not recommended
• Guidelines
– Minimum clearance between stripper and core is 0.25 mm (0.010
• Clearance prevents scratching and damage to the core and to
the edge of the stripper, especially with little side draft on core.
– Fig 12.39
• Commercial ejector sleeves are the only exception to rule that
all stripper must seat on a taper.
– Sleeves are inexpensive and easily replaced
– Superior quality surface finish will not easily wear or damage the bore
in core
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• Good reasons for not specifying cylindrical shut-off
– Shut-off will wear as the stripper slides on core (Fig
• Wear means flashing
• Good sliding fit when new may be too large to prevent plastic
from entering and flashing between two mating surfaces.
• Gap on one side of the stripper or core may be zero, then the
other side can have twice the intended gap and flash.
– Shut-off leaves the seat on the core if the product
requires a long ejection stoke.
• When returning, the sharp edge can be damaged easily.
– Once stripper is worn, it cannot be reseated but must be
Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
• Guidelines Strippers
– Vertical shut-off is inexpensive.
– Cylindrical shut-off may be acceptable in prototype
molds and used for a few sample parts.
– Tapered shut-off method is best for all good molds.
• Angle a is usually between 5° to 15° (Fig 12.41)
• Smaller tapers might be needed if there is not enough
– thickness in the stripper to accommodate a standard taper without the
steel becoming too thin at end with the wider taper dimension.
– Manufactured sleeves (Fig 12.42) may not allow enough room for a
standard taper, so a smaller taper may be specified.
• Stripper seat must have pre-load or flashing will occur (22.14)
– Advantage is the taper shut-off ensures that the critical edges of stripper
and core will not collide as the stripper moves forward on its seat and
prevents damage to the edges.
– Sharp edge can be damaged but easily recreated
– Loose tapers can be reseated by grinding underside of stripper. 31
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• Strippers
Guiding the stripper
– Stripper must be guided in axial direction of the mold.
• Ensures that the taper seat is moving properly into engagement
without hitting the edge of the core.
• Methods
– Use the leader pins of mold to guide stripper. (Fig 12.44)
» Disadvantage is that the alignment of leader pins may fight the
alignment of the stripper taper.
» Guide bushings on the stripper plate are made looser than standard
» Looseness in leader pin bushings must not exceed the total of the
positional tolerances of leader pins and cores.
» Floating core mounting can overcome alignment problem.
– Use separate guide pins for stripper plate. (3-plate molds) Fig 12.45
» Mold leader pins align the mold but also guides the stripper plate.
» Disadvantage is floating stripper rings are required, otherwise the
taper fit will fight the alignment in leader pin bushings.
– Ejector stroke must be less than the stroke limiter stroke so that the
stripper bolt will never be stressed by the ejector force. 32
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• Strippers
Guiding the stripper
– Methods
• Actuate the stripper from the ejector box (Fig 12.47)
– Mold leader pins have the same function as previous example.
» Pins should protect the core and do not require a bushing in the
cavity plate.
» Stripper is guided by pins and bushings in the core backing plate.
» Stroke is limited in the ejector box.
– No need for stop buttons.
– Guide pin made from hardened steel
– Guide bushings should be permanently greased ball bushings or plastic
• Stripper plates without stripper rings are used only when the
cost of supplying a hardened stripper is little different or lower
cost than the cost of a softer plate with hardened, inserted
stripper ring.

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• Stripper Bars
– Can be considered stripper rings with an infinite
inside radius.
• All rules for stripper rings apply
– Guiding, limiting of stroke, taper seat.
• Bars need additional force to make it seat on the core with the
use of an outside taper.
• Stripping from Injection Side
– Some cases (cosmetic reasons) to gate from inside of part
• Product requirements do not allow for gate or vestige
– Rules for either ejectors or strippers are similar to before
• Added depth to injection side increases lengths of drops in hot
runner or sprues which increases tool costs.

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Air Ejection
• Air Ejection
– Can be used for practically any cup-shaped product
• Air enters the space between the core and the product, it
– does not immediately exhaust into the open, but
– creates pressure under the product and pushes it free from core.
– Problems
• Little draft products with undercuts may build up significant
pressure that can burst the product.
• Product may suddenly let go from undercuts and fly against the
cavity causing damage.
• Product may lodge itself inside the cavity and stop the machine.
• Reducing pressure may solve one problem, but fail to eject
• Mechanical ejection may be needed in addition to air ejection
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Air Ejection
• Air Ejection
– Containers with little or no draft, but with no undercuts are very
successfully ejected with air. Fig 12.56
– Bernouolli effect must be taken into account
• Flow past a horizontal surface causes a vacuum to occur.
• The flow of air out of the cup causes a suction force which keeps the cup on
the core.
– The air pressure on the bottom of the cup must overcome this
suction force to eject the part.
– If air pressure isn’t enough the cup may eject some distance but
then stop and float in mid-air without falling off core.
– Air pressure can be pushed at the
• center of the cup bottom, or
• 2 alternative locations at the bottom of the cup.
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Air Ejection
• Basic Requirements of Air Ejection
– Air supply must be sufficiently large
• Amount of air permitted to escape in each cavity of a multi-
cavity mold to push out products and runners.
– Dimensional uniformity of air slots or jets is imperative
to avoid flashing into them, but still be able to eject parts.
– Air must be clean and filtered without dust, oil, or water
• Special sterile air is needed for medical or food applications

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Air Ejection
• Advantages of Air Ejection versus mechanical
– Simpler core half constructions
– Fewer masses to be moved (less energy consumption)
– Less shut height
– Less mold weight
– Absence of impact noise and wear of ejector mechanism
– No metal wear, which is present with taper seats of
stripper rings
– Less downtime required for maintenance, particularly on
parting line

Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
Air Ejection
• Disadvantages of Air Ejection versus mechanical
– Much compressed air required, which can be expensive.
– Existing compressed air supply might have to be
upgraded to greater capacity.
– Balancing of air outlets, particularly in multi-cavity
molds, requires intricate channeling in cores.
– Mold layout is more complicated due to air channels.
– Additional controls, such as air circuits, hoses, and
valves, are required.
• Advantages usually outweigh the disadvantages.

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Air Ejection
• Poppet Ejection
– Oldest method of air ejection, though rarely used alone
today, but rather with air slots or mechanical ejection.
– During ejection,
• The poppet is tight on the taper seat in the tip of the core and
prevents plastic from entering into the air system.
• After mold starts opening, the poppet moves forward by
amount SE (less than 0.25mm). Fig 12.58
– The forward motion can come from the air pressure on the underside of
the poppet, and/or from the pressure of the coolant.
– Poppet can be actuated by ejection mechanism in the mold.
» Some use double acting air cylinder at base and at stem giving
more force and eliminating the need for mechanical action.
» Disadvantage is poor cooling of poppet resulting in slower cycle
» Need cooling of poppet (Fig 12.59) with cooling water pressure
acting of face and keeping poppet open without air pressure
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Air Ejection
• Rules for All Poppet Designs
– Poppet should be opposite gate so that
• the inrushing plastic will close the poppet and prevent plastic
from entering air channels.
– If poppet is not opposite gate, springs are used to close it.
– Stroke, SE, for poppet opposite gate, must be 50% of the
thickness of the product at this spot.
• There must be enough space for cold slug in the gate to eject
freely into the space between gate and the top of the poppet.
• Stroke is usually 0.25mm.
– Commercial poppets with complete assemblies of poppet
and spring in one unit Fig 12.60 can be pressed into core.
• They must be drilled out for removal
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Air Ejection
• Rules for All Poppet Designs
– Size of seat (land) of the poppet is similar to any other
seat that comes under injection or clamping pressure
• Load should be limited to 5% of the yield of the softer of two
materials contacting at the seat. Land width in Fig 12.59
– Plastic should never enter the air channels.
– For positive return poppets, with a larger poppet stroke,
• the poppet must be returned to its seat before the cavity
approaches the poppet to ensure no damage to poppet or cavity.
• Forward and return stroke of poppet can be moved
– mechanically or by
– connecting the poppet to the mold ejector system, or by
– independent double acting air (hydraulic) actuators acting directly on
poppet 42
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Air Ejection
• Poppet with Double-Acting Actuator
– Moved by double-acting piston, which is held by a snap
ring. (Fig 12.61)
– Air sequence is as follows:
• Piston forward,
• Blow-off air, and
• Piston return
– Sealing elements must be properly selected for this.
• T-seals are better than O-rings for sealing in axial direction.
• Teflon seals (Glyd and Double Delta II) are better still.
• Others in Fig 12.61
– Double Delta II ring, O-ring, and Glyd ring.

Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
Air Ejection
• Blow Jets (Fig 12.62)
– Prevents plastic from entering orifice.
• Intensity or force of the air blast coming from a blow jet
(orifice) decreases considerably with the distance from orifice.
– Orifice must be far enough from the molding surface so that the plastic
cannot enter and plug orifice
– Orifice should be uncovered only after the cavity moves away, and/or
after the stripper moves forward a certain distance
• Blow-off on the underside of the product is used to separate the
product from ejector pins or stripper if it sticks (Fig 12.63)
– Advantage: Blow-off permits a smaller ejector stroke of the stripper.
– Disadvantage:Distance from the orifice increases as stripper advances
• Example, Fig 12.64
– Jet is inside the taper of the stripper ring.
– Air blast helps remove part around tight area.
Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
• Blow Down Air Ejection
– Air blasts or air streams
• Blow at the product from the outside, after the ejector stripper
(or pins) have come forward, to remove the product if they stick
to the ejectors.
– Two methods of blow down
• Individual open jets
– Directed against the tip of the product are used to get best leverage for
knocking the products off stripper.
– Open designs (old method) used open jets by squeezing the ends of
flexible copper tubes.
» Advantage: simple. Better to use Exair nozzle for 80% less air
» Disadvantage: Safety regulations limit pressure to 30 psi,
* Noise of escaping air is often above legal limits.
* Air through jets is difficult to control
* High operating cost. 1/4” nozzle at 80 psi = $2,970/yr
Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved
• Two methods of blow down Air Ejection
• Blow Down Curtains: Continuous sheet of air blows down over
surface of mold.
– As the mold opens, the products arrive into a moving air stream and are
blown down.
» Air curtains are used even if products eject easily to prevent them
from hitting side of mold or assist in sliding down a sheet
– Method 1: High volume, low-pressure air curtain. (Rarely used)
» Low-power air blower is mounted above the mold and blows a
steady stream of air down over mold.
* Advantage- noiseless and negligible power consumption and no
timing devices since air is continuous
* Disadvantage- Air pressure is low and may not remove products.
Blowers are bulky and awkward to move.
– Method 2: Exair Knife: Similar to Exair jets
» Applied to a continuous narrow gap (0.02 in) along plenum
chamber of standard lengths from 6 t o30 in.
» Air escaping the gap entrains surrounding air causing fast curtain
Dr. Joseph Greene Copyright 2000 all rights reserved

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