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Lecture Notes

10
Musculoskeletal
A PowerPoint Presentation System

Classroom Activity to
Accompany Medical
Terminology Systems,
Seventh Edition
Barbara A. Gylys ∙ Mary Ellen Wedding
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Structure and Function


• Muscles
• Three types
• Skeletal
• Smooth
• Cardiac
• Contract for body movement

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Structure and Function (continued)


•Muscles (continued)
• Provide body posture
• Help passage and
elimination of food
• Help propel blood through
arteries and other vessels
• Contract bladder to
eliminate urine

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Structure and Function (continued)


•Skeleton
• Two divisions (See illustration.)
• Axial (bones colored in illustration)
• Appendicular (blue colored in
illustration)
• Provides a skeletal framework to
support and protect the body
• Stores calcium and other
minerals
• Produces blood cells within bone
marrow

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Structure and Function (continued)


•Bones
• Provide a framework to support and
protect the body
• Point of attachment with muscles
• Held close together at the joint by
ligaments, which are flexible bands
of fibrous tissue
• Store calcium and other minerals
• Produce blood cells within bone
marrow

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Structure and Function (continued)


•Bones (continued)
• Four types
• Short
• Irregular
• Flat
• Long
• Diaphysis — shaft, or long portion, of the bone
• Distal and proximal epiphysis — two ends of the
bone

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Structure and Function Exercise


1. Name three types of muscles.

2. Where are smooth muscles found in the body


and are they voluntary muscles?

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Structure and Function Exercise


1. Name three types of muscles. Cardiac,
smooth, and skeletal

2. Where are smooth muscles found in the body


and are they voluntary muscles? Smooth
muscles are found in the walls of arteries,
respiratory passages, urinary and
reproductive ducts, and visceral organs.
Their actions are controlled by the autonomic
(involuntary) nervous system.
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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Structure and Function Exercise


4. What are the four principal types of bones?

5. What are the terms given to the ends of a


long bone?

6. What is the function of ligaments?

9
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Structure and Function Exercise


4. What are the four principal types of bones?
Short, flat, irregular, and long

5. What are the terms given to the ends of a


long bone? Distal epiphysis and proximal
epiphysis

6. What is the function of ligaments? Ligaments


are flexible bands of fibrous tissue that hold
bones close together at the joint.
10
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Combining Forms Exercise


List the CF(s) for:

1. cranium:

2. femur:

3. patella:

4. tibia:

5. carpals:
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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Combining Forms Exercise


1. cranium: crani/o

2. femur: femor/o

3. patella: patell/o

4. tibia: tibi/o

5. carpals: carp/o

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Combining Forms Exercise


6. pelvis:

7. maxilla:

8. scapula:

9. vertebra:

10.sternum:

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Combining Forms Exercise


6. pelvis: pelv/o, pelv/i

7. maxilla: maxill/o

8. scapula: scapul/o

9. vertebra: vertebr/o

10.sternum: stern/o

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Combining Forms Exercise


11. ribs:

12. radius:

13. fibula:

14. tarsals:

15. phalanges:

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Combining Forms Exercise


11. ribs: cost/o

12. radius: radi/o

13. fibula: fibul/o

14. tarsals: tars/o

15. phalanges: phalang/o

16
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Complete the Medical Word Exercise


1. inflammation of ribs and cartilage:
/o/ /itis

2. act of measuring the pelvis: /i/

3. malignant tumor of connective tissue and


muscle: /o/sarcoma

4. cell that breaks down bone: /o/clast


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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Complete the Medical Word Exercise


1. inflammation of ribs and cartilage:
cost/o/chondr/itis

2. act of measuring the pelvis: pelv/i/metry

3. malignant tumor of connective tissue and


muscle: my/o/sarcoma

4. cell that breaks down bone: oste/o/clast


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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Complete the Medical Word Exercise


5. inflammation around bone: / /itis

6. pertaining to under or below the ribs:


sub/ /al

7. pertaining to the sternum (breastbone) and


ribs: /o/ /al

8. pain in the calcaneum (heel bone):


/o/

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Complete the Medical Word Exercise


5. inflammation around bone: peri/oste/itis

6. pertaining to under or below the ribs:


sub/cost/al

7. pertaining to the sternum (breastbone) and


ribs: stern/o/cost/al

8. pain in the calcaneum (heel bone):


calcane/o/dynia

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Build Medical Words Exercise


1. porous bone:

2. tumor (composed) of muscle:

3. binding, fixation (of a bone or joint):

4. rupture of muscle:

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Build Medical Words Exercise


1. porous bone: oste/o/porosis

2. tumor (composed) of muscle: my/oma

3. binding, fixation (of a bone or joint):


arthr/o/desis

4. rupture of muscle: my/o/rrhexis

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Build Medical Words Exercise


5. abnormal condition of being stiff, bent, or
crooked:

6. weakness or debility of muscle:

7. softening of cartilage:

8. visual examination of a joint:

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Build Medical Words Exercise


5. abnormal condition of being stiff, bent, or
crooked: ankyl/osis

6. weakness or debility of muscle: my/asthenia

7. softening of cartilage: chondr/o/malacia

8. visual examination of a joint: arthr/o/scopy

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions


Fracture
•Break or crack in a bone
•8 common types (See
illustration.)
•Closed (simple) — break with no
external skin wound (1)
•Open (compound) — break with
external wound that leads to the
fracture site and a piece of bone
protruding through the skin (2)

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Fracture (continued)
•8 common types (continued)
•Complicated — broken bone
injures an internal organ, such as
the lung (3)
•Comminuted — bone broken or
splintered into pieces (4)

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Fracture (continued)
•8 common types (continued)
•Impacted — end of broken bone
wedged into the interior of
another bone (5)
•Incomplete — fracture line does
not include the whole bone (6)

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Fracture (continued)
•8 common types (continued)
•Greenstick — break in which bone
is partially bent and split (7), which
occurs most commonly in children,
especially those who have rickets,
or adults with soft bones

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Fracture (continued)
•8 common types (continued)
•Colles— break in lower end of
radius (8), which commonly occurs
when the wrist is extended to
break a fall

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Fracture (continued)
•Signs and Symptoms
•Depends on whether the fracture is caused by
trauma from a fall, an accident (usually motor
vehicle), or a crushing injury
•Depends on whether the fracture is the result of
trauma from bone disease, such as osteoporosis,
bone cancer, or some other pathological condition
of the bones

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Fracture (continued)
•Treatment
•External immobilization of affected part using
traction, casting, or splinting
•Open or closed reduction, which may be required
to realign bone for proper healing

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Fracture (continued)
•Treatment (continued)
•Analgesics or muscle relaxants to ease pain
•Open reduction (surgical) and external fixation or
internal fixation using metal plates, screws, or rods
•Possibly no treatment or bandaging or taping for
support and pain control (as with rib fractures)

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mr. O. is involved in an automobile accident
and arrives at the ED with a broken rib that
pierces his lung. The physician diagnoses
this fracture as (closed, comminuted,
complicated).

2. Mr. Q.'s x-ray shows a line of fracture on his


femur that does not include the entire bone.
The radiologist identifies this as a(n) (Colles,
comminuted, incomplete) fracture.
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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mr. O. is involved in an automobile accident
and arrives at the ED with a broken rib that
pierces his lung. The physician diagnoses
this fracture as (closed, comminuted,
complicated).

2. Mr. Q.'s x-ray shows a line of fracture on his


femur that does not include the entire bone.
The radiologist identifies this as a(n) (Colles,
comminuted, incomplete) fracture.
34
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


3. The doctor explains to Mrs. P. that he will
immobilize and align the bones of her hip at
the site of the fracture by inserting pins and
screws. This type of procedure is known as
(internal fixation, osteoclasis, synovectomy).

35
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


3. The doctor explains to Mrs. P. that he will
immobilize and align the bones of her hip at
the site of the fracture by inserting pins and
screws. This type of procedure is known as
(internal fixation, osteoclasis, synovectomy).

36
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Herniated disk
•Protrusion, or herniation,
of the nucleus pulposus
(gelatinous material at the
center of the
intervertebral disk)
between two vertebrae
•Also called prolapsed disk

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Herniated disk (continued)
•Signs and symptoms
•Depend on the particular site of herniation
•Severe back pain that worsens with motion
•Paresthesia and restricted mobility of the neck (with
cervical disk herniation)
•Intensifying pain with coughing, sneezing, or bending
•Dull ache progressing to severe pain with lumbar
sciatic involvement

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Herniated disk (continued)
•Treatment
•Bed rest and alternating application of heat and cold
to affected portion of the spine
•Muscle relaxants, salicylates, and analgesics
•Traction of lower extremities and a back brace
•Laminectomy possibly required if conservative
treatment is unsuccessful
•Spinal fusion possibly necessary to stabilize the spine

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mr. J. has a sensation of numbness and a
burning feeling in his right foot. His
physician diagnoses this condition as
(paraplegia, paresis, paresthesia).

2. Mr. F. complains of pain radiating from his


lower back and down his left leg. The
physician suspects an inflammation of the
major leg nerve, causing a condition called
.
40
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mr. J. has a sensation of numbness and a
burning feeling in his right foot. His
physician diagnoses this condition as
(paraplegia, paresis, paresthesia).

2. Mr. F. complains of pain radiating from his


lower back and down his left leg. The
physician suspects an inflammation of the
major leg nerve, causing a condition called
sciatica.
41
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


3. Mr. S. undergoes surgery to correct a
herniated disk. The surgeon excises the
vertebral posterior arch in a procedure called
(dislodgement, herniorrhaphy, laminectomy).

4. Treatment for herniated disk involves relief


of pain and pressure, treating muscle
spasms, and the use of weights and pulleys
to immobilize the site and facilitate healing,
which is called (traction, tractotomy, tractus).
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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


3. Mr. S. undergoes surgery to correct a
herniated disk. The surgeon excises the
vertebral posterior arch in a procedure called
(dislodgement, herniorrhaphy, laminectomy).

4. Treatment for herniated disk involves relief


of pain and pressure, treating muscle
spasms, and the use of weights and pulleys
to immobilize the site and facilitate healing,
which is called (traction, tractotomy, tractus).
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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Rheumatoid arthritis
•Chronic, progressive,
systemic inflammatory
disease
•Affects the synovial
membranes of joints
•Possibly cartilage
destruction, bone erosion,
and joint deformity (See
illustration.)
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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Rheumatoid arthritis (continued)
•Congestion and edema of the synovial
membrane and joint
•Fibrous immobility of joints, or ankylosis,
resulting in visible deformities and total
immobility as the disease progresses

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Rheumatoid arthritis (continued)
•Signs and symptoms
•Joint pain and stiffness
•Crippling deformities result
•Most common in women between ages 23 and 35,
but may affect people in any age group
•Atrophy of muscles, bones, and skin adjacent to the
affected joint

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Rheumatoid arthritis (continued)
•Treatment
•Primary objective to reduce inflammation and pain,
preserve joint function, and prevent joint deformity
•Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),
physical therapy, and orthopedic measures for less
severe cases
•Surgery to reduce pain and improve mobility

47
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mrs. Y. has a history of rheumatoid arthritis
and is concerned about its effects on joint
cartilage. How should the doctor explain the
disease to her?

48
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mrs. Y. has a history of rheumatoid arthritis
and is concerned about its effects on joint
cartilage. How should the doctor explain the
disease to her? Joint cartilage is slowly
destroyed by changes associated with the
inflammatory process.

49
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


2. Ms. R. suffers from a chronic, progressive
systemic inflammatory disease that is
deforming the joints in her hands. The
physician diagnoses this condition as
arthritis.

50
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


2. Ms. R. suffers from a chronic, progressive
systemic inflammatory disease that is
deforming the joints in her hands. The
physician diagnoses this condition as
rheumatoid arthritis.

51
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


3. The physician assistant (PA) is speaking to a
support group of patients with rheumatoid
arthritis (RA). How should she explain the
prognosis of RA and why it is such a
crippling disease?

52
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


3. The physician assistant (PA) is speaking to a
support group of patients with rheumatoid
arthritis (RA). How should she explain the
prognosis of RA and why it is such a
crippling disease? Because there is no cure
for RA, the disease progresses until cartilage
and connective tissues of joints are
destroyed.

53
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Osteomyelitis
•Acute or chronic infection of
the bone-forming tissue
•Disease progression (see
illustration)
•Beginning infection (A)
•Blocked blood flow in the area
of infection (B)
• Death of bone at infection site
(C), with continued pus
formation
54
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Osteomyelitis (continued)
•Signs and symptoms
•Acute
•Fever
•Local signs of inflammation (such as tenderness, redness,
heat, pain, and swelling)
•Chronic
•Ulceration
•Drainage
•Localized pain

55
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Osteomyelitis (continued)
•Treatment
•Goal of eliminating infection
•Long-term antibiotic therapy
•Surgical drainage to remove pus and necrotic bone
tissue
•Tissue and bone grafts if necessary to restore blood
flow to the site

56
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mr. K. suffers from infected bone tissue that
has become necrotic and results in a bone
abscess. This infection of bone and bone
marrow is diagnosed as (osteoporosis,
osteitis, osteomyelitis).

57
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mr. K. suffers from infected bone tissue that
has become necrotic and results in a bone
abscess. This infection of bone and bone
marrow is diagnosed as (osteoporosis,
osteitis, osteomyelitis).

58
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


2. Mr. Z. is diagnosed with osteomyelitis. The
physician explains that, if the infection goes
untreated, over a period of time the bone
tissue dies. This condition is known as
(nectoriasis, necropsy, necrosis).

59
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


2. Mr. Z. is diagnosed with osteomyelitis. The
physician explains that, if the infection goes
untreated, over a period of time the bone
tissue dies. This condition is known as
(nectoriasis, necropsy, necrosis).

60
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


3. Mrs. P. had hip surgery a few weeks ago and
complains of pain around the incision site.
After a series of tests, the physician
determines that there is local infection of
bone and bone marrow, most likely due to
bacteria introduced during her surgery. The
physician diagnoses her condition as
(osteomalacia, osteomyelitis, osteophlebitis).

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


3. Mrs. P. had hip surgery a few weeks ago and
complains of pain around the incision site.
After a series of tests, the physician
determines that there is local infection of
bone and bone marrow, most likely due to
bacteria introduced during her surgery. The
physician diagnoses her condition as
(osteomalacia, osteomyelitis, osteophlebitis).

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Gout
•Systemic connective tissue
disorder
•Chronic disorder of uric
acid metabolism
•More common in middle-
aged and older men
•Illustration: Gout of the
great toe

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Gout (continued)
•Signs and symptoms
•One or more severely inflamed joints due to build-up
of uric acid crystals
•Swollen joint that is hot and usually painful to the
touch
•Typically occurring in small joints
•Commonly occurring in the joint of the great toe

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diseases and Conditions (continued)


Gout (continued)
•Treatment
•Drug therapy (first-line treatment)
•NSAIDs to reduce inflammatory response to urate crystals
•Medications taken until joint inflammation subsides
•Applications of heat or cold with analgesics
•Control of uric acid formation with low-purine diet

65
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mr. J.'s right great toe is swollen and painful.
He suffers from a metabolic disease caused
by accumulation of uric acid crystals in the
blood. His condition is diagnosed as
.

2. Mrs. R. has a history of "aches and pains" in


her knees, and she has red, swollen, painful
knees. The nurse charts her symptoms as
(arthralgia, arthrodesis, arthrolysis).
66
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mr. J.'s right great toe is swollen and painful.
He suffers from a metabolic disease caused
by accumulation of uric acid crystals in the
blood. His condition is diagnosed as
gout.

2. Mrs. R. has a history of "aches and pains" in


her knees, and she has red, swollen, painful
knees. The nurse charts her symptoms as
(arthralgia, arthrodesis, arthrolysis).
67
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Vocabulary Challenge Exercise


1. muscular dystrophy:

2. necrosis:

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Vocabulary Challenge Exercise


1. muscular dystrophy: group of hereditary
diseases characterized by progressive
degeneration of muscles, leading to
increased weakness and debilitation,
including Duchenne dystrophy (most
common form)

2. necrosis: localized tissue death that occurs in


groups of cells in response to disease or
injury
69
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Vocabulary Challenge Exercise


3. spondylolisthesis:

4. osteoporosis:

70
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Vocabulary Challenge Exercise


3. spondylolisthesis: forward slipping of one
vertebra onto the one below it with
predisposing factors that include
spondylosis, degeneration, and birth defects
in the spine, such as spina bifida
4. osteoporosis: abnormal bone density loss
with increased porosity, causing brittle bones
and increased risk of fracture and occurring
most commonly in postmenopausal women
or sedentary or immobilized persons
71
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Vocabulary Challenge Exercise


5. talipes:

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Vocabulary Challenge Exercise


5. talipes: deformity of
the foot and ankle
(usually congenital),
in which the foot is
twisted and relatively
fixed in an abnormal
position (See
illustration: Talipes
equinovarus.)

73
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Medical and Surgical Procedures


•Total hip arthroplasty
•Replacement of the femoral
head and acetabulum with
prostheses that are
fastened to the bone (See
illustration.)
•Amputation
•Partial or complete removal
of an extremity due to
trauma or circulatory
disease
74
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Medical and Surgical Procedures


(continued)

•Arthrocentesis
•Puncture of a joint space using a needle to remove
accumulated fluid
•Laminectomy
•Excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra

75
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mr. K. injures his knee in a high-school
football game. X-rays reveal a torn ligament.
He undergoes a procedure in which the
surgeon inserts a small instrument into the
joint of the knee to repair the ligament. This
procedure is known as (arthroclasis,
arthrodesis, arthroscopy).

76
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mr. K. injures his knee in a high-school
football game. X-rays reveal a torn ligament.
He undergoes a procedure in which the
surgeon inserts a small instrument into the
joint of the knee to repair the ligament. This
procedure is known as (arthroclasis,
arthrodesis, arthroscopy).

77
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


2. The orthopedic surgeon informs Mr. W. that
he must undergo an operation to remove his
herniated disk. The surgery is charted as
(traction, herniorrhaphy, laminectomy).

3. Mr. A. injures his right upper thigh muscle


when stabbed in a fight. Because of the
injury's severity, he must undergo a surgical
repair of the muscle, known as (myoplasty,
myotomy, myorrhaphy).
78
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


2. The orthopedic surgeon informs Mr. W. that
he must undergo an operation to remove his
herniated disk. The surgery is charted as
(traction, herniorrhaphy, laminectomy).

3. Mr. A. injures his right upper thigh muscle


when stabbed in a fight. Because of the
injury's severity, he must undergo a surgical
repair of the muscle, known as (myoplasty,
myotomy, myorrhaphy).
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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


4. Mr. E. has a history of arthritis that has
damaged his hip joint. The physician
recommends a surgical procedure to replace
the hip joint, known as total hip .

80
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Clinically Related Exercise


4. Mr. E. has a history of arthritis that has
damaged his hip joint. The physician
recommends a surgical procedure to replace
the hip joint, known as total hip arthroplasty.

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diagnostic Procedures
•Arthroscopy
•Visual examination of the
interior of a joint
•Insertion of an endoscope
through a small incision to
repair and remove joint
tissue (See illustration.)

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Diagnostic Procedures (continued)


•Myelography
•Radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a
contrast medium
•Used to identify and study spinal distortions caused
by tumors, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks, or
other lesions
•Rheumatoid factor
•Blood test used to detect the presence of rheumatoid
factor, an antibody present in patients with
rheumatoid arthritis

83
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Build a Medical Word Exercise


1. visual examination of a joint:

2. pertaining to the neck and face:

3. disease of bones and joints:

84
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Build a Medical Word Exercise


1. visual examination of a joint: arthr/o/scopy

2. pertaining to the neck and face:


cervic/o/facial

3. disease of bones and joints:


oste/o/arthr/o/pathy

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10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Build a Medical Word Exercise


4. act of measuring the pelvis:

5. suture of muscle:

6. tumor of bone marrow:

86
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Build a Medical Word Exercise


4. act of measuring the pelvis: pelv/i/metry

5. suture of muscle: my/o/rrhaphy

6. tumor of bone marrow: myel/oma

87
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Pharmacology
•Bone reabsorption inhibitors
•Gold salts
•Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
•Salicylates
•Skeletal muscle relaxants

88
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mr. C. experiences pain and inflammation
due to tendinitis. His physician prescribes a
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug,
abbreviated as .

2. Ms. M. is diagnosed with osteoporosis. To


inhibit further breakdown of her bones, the
physician prescribes a (bone reabsorption
inhibitor, gold salt, salicylate).

89
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


1. Mr. C. experiences pain and inflammation
due to tendinitis. His physician prescribes a
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug,
abbreviated as NSAID.

2. Ms. M. is diagnosed with osteoporosis. To


inhibit further breakdown of her bones, the
physician prescribes a (bone reabsorption
inhibitor, gold salt, salicylate).

90
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


3. Mrs. N. complains of morning pain and
stiffness in her joints caused by arthritis. The
physician prescribes a (bone reabsorption
inhibitor, muscle relaxant, salicylate).

4. Mr. H. suffers from muscle spasms in his


back due to old sports injury. To relieve his
pain, the physician prescribes a (bone
reabsorption inhibitor, gold salt, muscle
relaxant).
91
10 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Clinically Related Exercise


3. Mrs. N. complains of morning pain and
stiffness in her joints caused by arthritis. The
physician prescribes a (bone reabsorption
inhibitor, muscle relaxant, salicylate).

4. Mr. H. suffers from muscle spasms in his


back due to old sports injury. To relieve his
pain, the physician prescribes a (bone
reabsorption inhibitor, gold salt, muscle
relaxant).
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