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# Heat transfer from extended surface

3.1 Introduction
 Extended surface (also known as fins) is commonly used to
depict an important special case involving combination of
conduction-convection system.
 Consider a strut that connects two walls at different
temperatures and across which there is fluid flow

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: Heat transfer from extended surface
3.1 Introduction
 Extended surface (also known as fins) is commonly used to
depict an important special case involving combination of
conduction-convection system.
 Why its important ?
 The most frequent application to enhance heat transfer
between a solid joining and an adjoining fluid
 Basically, there are 2 ways of increasing heat transfer
i) Increase fluid velocity to reduce temperature (many
limitation)
ii) Increase surface area

## *Particularly beneficial when h

is small i.e. gas and natural
convection
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Heat transfer from extended surface
 Applications ?

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Heat transfer from extended surface
 Typical fin configurations (after simplification)

## Straight fins of (a) uniform;

(b) non-uniform cross sections;
(c) annular fin;
(d) pin fin of non-uniform cross section

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Heat transfer from extended surface
3.2 A general conduction analysis for an extended surfaces
Applying the conservation of energy

Using,

Eq. (3.61)

## General form of the energy equation for an extended

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surface
Heat transfer from extended surface
3.3 The Fin Equation
 Assuming 1-D case, steady state conduction in an extended
surface, constant k, uniform cross sectional area, negligible
 Cross section area, Ac is constant
and fin surface area, As = Px, this
mean dAc/dx = 0 and dAs/dx = P
 General equation becomes:

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Heat transfer from extended surface

##  To simplify the equation, we define an excess temperature ( the

reduced temperature) as:

where,

## * m also known as fin parameter

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Heat transfer from extended surface
at different case of heat transfer
analysis

## • Temperature distribution, /b

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Chapter 3d : Heat transfer from extended surface

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Chapter 3d : Heat transfer from extended surface

Example (3.120):
A brass rod 100 mm long and 5 mm in diameter extends
horizontally from a casting at 200C. The rod is in an air
environment with T = 20C and h = 30 W/m2K. What is the
temperature of the rod at 25, 50 and 100 mm from the casting
body ?

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Heat transfer from extended surface
3.4 Fin performance parameters (single fin case)
 Fin effectiveness – ratio of heat transfer with and without fin

 Fin resistance

##  Fin efficiency – max. potential heat transfer rate

Expressions for f are provided in Table 3.5 for common geometries, for example a
triangular fin: - Surface area of the fin

- Profile area

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Fin
Effectiveness

Effectiveness of
a fin

## • The thermal conductivity k of the fin

material should be as high as possible. Use
aluminum, copper, iron.
• The ratio of the perimeter to the cross-
sectional area of the fin p/Ac should be as
high as possible. Use slender pin fins.
• Low convection heat transfer coefficient h.
Place fins on the gas (air) side.

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Fin Efficiency

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(cont.)

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Proper Length of a Fin

## mL = 5  an infinitely long fin

Because of the gradual temperature drop along mL = 1 offers a good compromise
the fin, the region near the fin tip makes little or between heat transfer performance
no contribution to heat transfer. and the fin size.
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A common approximation used in the analysis of fins is to assume the fin
temperature to vary in one direction only (along the fin length) and the
temperature variation along other directions is negligible.
Perhaps you are wondering if this one-dimensional approximation is a
reasonable one.
This is certainly the case for fins made of thin metal sheets such as the fins on
a car radiator, but we wouldn’t be so sure for fins made of thick materials.
Studies have shown that the error involved in one-dimensional fin analysis is
negligible (less than about 1 percent) when

## where  is the characteristic thickness of the fin, which is taken to be

the plate thickness t for rectangular fins and the diameter D for
cylindrical ones.

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Capter 3d : Heat transfer from extended surface

Example (3.123):
A straight fin fabricated from 2024 aluminium alloy (k = 185 W/mK) has a
base thickness of t = 3 mm and a length of L = 15 mm. Its base
temperature is Tb = 100 C, and it is exposed to a fluid for which T = 20C
and h = 50 W/m2K. For the foregoing conditions and a fin of unit width,
compare the fin heat rate, efficiency and volume for
i) Rectangular profile
ii) Triangular profile
iii) Parabolic profile

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Heat transfer from extended surface
3.5 Fin arrays
 Representative arrays of
a) Rectangular fins
b) Annular fins

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