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BEAM-COLUMN

Ali Awaludin, Ph.D.


Definition
• While many structural members can be treated as axially loaded columns or as beams with
only flexural loading, most beams and columns are subjected to some degree of both bending
and axial load.
• The roller support of a simple beam can experience friction that restrains the beam
longitudinally, inducing axial tension when transverse loads are applied.
• This secondary effects are usually small and can be neglected. For many structural members,
however, there will be a significant amount of both effects, and such members are called
beam–columns.

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Beam-Column
• For the given loading condition, the horizontal member
AB must not only support the vertical uniform load but
must also assist the vertical members in resisting the
concentrated lateral load P1.
• The vertical members of this frame must also be treated
as beam–columns. In the upper story, members AC and
BD will bend under the influence of P1. In addition, at A
and B, bending moments are transmitted from the
horizontal member through the rigid joints.
• Most columns in rigid frames are actually beam–
columns, and the effects of bending should not be
ignored.
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Interaction Formulas
• The relationship between required and available strengths
may be expressed as:
𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ
≤ 1.0
𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ
• For compression members, the strengths are axial forces
𝑃𝑢
≤ 1.0
𝜙𝑐 𝑃𝑛
• If both bending and axial compression are acting, the
interaction formula would be (LRFD)
𝑃𝑢 𝑀𝑢
+ ≤ 1.0
𝜙𝑐 𝑃𝑛 𝜙𝑏 𝑀𝑛
• For biaxial bending,
𝑃𝑢 𝑀𝑢𝑥 𝑀𝑢𝑦
r : Required
+ + ≤ 1.0 c : Capacity
𝜙𝑐 𝑃𝑛 𝜙𝑏 𝑀𝑛𝑥 𝜙𝑏 𝑀𝑛𝑦
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Interaction Equation
• If the axial load is small, the axial load term is reduced. For large axial load, the bending term is
slightly reduced.
𝑃𝑢
• For < 0.2
𝜙𝑐 𝑃𝑛
𝑃𝑢 𝑀𝑢𝑥 𝑀𝑢𝑦
+ + ≤ 1.0
2𝜙𝑐 𝑃𝑛 𝜙𝑏 𝑀𝑛𝑥 𝜙𝑏 𝑀𝑛𝑦
𝑃𝑢
• For ≥ 0.2
𝜙𝑐 𝑃𝑛
𝑃𝑢 8 𝑀𝑢𝑥 𝑀𝑢𝑦
+ + ≤ 1.0
𝜙𝑐 𝑃𝑛 9 𝜙𝑏 𝑀𝑛𝑥 𝜙𝑏 𝑀𝑛𝑦
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P-δ moments
• The presence of the axial load produces secondary
moments, and unless the axial load is relatively small,
these additional moments must be accounted for.

• At an arbitrary point O, there is a bending moment caused


by the uniform load and an additional moment Py, caused
by the axial load acting at an eccentricity from the
longitudinal axis of the member. This secondary moment
(P-δ moments) is largest where the deflection is largest.

• Because the total deflection cannot be found directly, this


problem is nonlinear, and without knowing the deflection,
we cannot compute the moment.
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P-Δ moments
• In addition to the P-δ moments, additional secondary
moments are present when one end of the member
translates with respect to the other. These moments are
called P-Δ moments

• In a braced frame, the member ends do not undergo


translation, so only the P-δ moments are present. In an
unbraced frame, the additional moment, P-Δ, increases
the end moment.

• The distribution of moments in the member is therefore a


combination of the primary moment, the P- δ moment,
and the P-Δ moment.

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Method of Analysis for
Required Strength
• The analysis for the required strength should account for the displaced geometry,
member out-of-plumbness (deviation from vertical), and inelasticity.
• Ordinary structural analysis methods that do not take the displaced geometry
into account are called first-order methods. Iterative analyses that account for
these effects are referred to as second-order methods.
• There area three approaches for determining the required flexural and axial
compressive strength: The Direct Analysis Method, The Effective Length Method,
and the First-Order Analysis Method.

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Method of Analysis for
Required Strength
• The direct analysis method is a second-order analysis that
considers both P-d and P-Δ effects. This approach uses amplified
first-order moments and axial loads. In the direct analysis method,
member stiffnesses are reduced, and an effective length factor of
K = 1 is used both in the analysis and in computing the available
strength
• The effective length method of analysis requires a second-order
or approximate second-order analysis. As the name implies, an
effective length factor, K, must be determined. Member
stiffnesses are not reduced.
• The first-order analysis method is a simplified version of the direct
analysis method that can be used when certain conditions are
satisfied. An effective length factor of K = 1 is used. Member
stiffnesses are not reduced.

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Moment Amplification
Method
• The moment amplification method entails computing the maximum bending
moment resulting from flexural loading by a first order analysis, then multiplying
by a moment amplification factor to account for the secondary moment.
• there are two types of secondary moments: P- δ (caused by member deflection)
and P-Δ (caused by the effect of sway when the member is part of an unbraced
frame). Because of this, two amplification factors must be used.
• To approximate these two effects, two amplification factors, B1 and B2, are used
for the two types of moments.

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Moment Amplification
Method
• The amplified moment to be used in design is computed from the loads and moments as
follows:
𝑀𝑢 = 𝐵1 𝑀𝑛𝑡 + 𝐵2 𝑀𝑛𝑡
Where:
𝑀𝑢 = required moment strength
𝑀𝑛𝑡 = maximum moment assuming that no sidesway occurs, whether the frame is actually braced or not
𝑀𝑙𝑡 = maximum moment caused by sidesway. This moment can be caused by lateral loads or by unbalanced
gravity loads. Gravity load can produce sidesway if the frame is unsymmetrical or if the gravity loads are
unsymmetrically placed. Mlt will be zero if the frame is actually braced.
𝐵1 = amplification factor for the moments occurring in the member when it is braced against sidesway (P-δ
moments).
𝐵2 = amplification factor for the moments resulting from sidesway (P-Δ moments). 11
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Required Axial Strength
• In addition to the required moment strength, the required axial strength must account for
second-order effects.
• The required axial strength is affected by the displaced geometry of the structure during loading.
This is not an issue with member displacement (δ), but it is with joint displacement (Δ). The
required axial compressive strength is given by
𝑃𝑟 = 𝑃𝑛𝑡 + 𝐵2 𝑃𝑙𝑡
Where:
𝑃𝑛𝑡 =axial load corresponding to the braced condition
𝑃𝑙𝑡 = axial load corresponding to the sidesway condition

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Members in Braced

Frames
The maximum primary moment is at one of the ends, and
maximum moment amplification occurs between the ends.
Depending on the value of the axial load P, the amplified moment
can be either larger or smaller than the end moment.
• The maximum moment in a beam–column therefore depends on
the distribution of bending moment within the member. This
distribution is accounted for by a factor, Cm, applied to the
amplification factor, B1.
𝐶𝑚
𝐵1 = ≥1
1 − 𝛼𝑃𝑢 Τ𝑃𝑒1
Where:
𝑃𝑢 = required unamplified axial compressive strength
𝛼 =1
𝜋2 𝐸𝐼 ∗
𝑃𝑒1 =
𝐾1 𝐿 2 13
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Evaluation of Cm
• The factor Cm applies only to the braced condition.
There are two categories of members: those with
transverse loads applied between the ends and
those with no transverse loads.
1. If there are no transverse loads acting on the
member
𝑀1
𝐶𝑚 = 0.6 − 0.4
𝑀2
2. For transversely loaded members, Cm, can be
taken as 1.0
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Members in Unbraced
Frame
• In a beam–column whose ends are free to translate, the
maximum primary moment resulting from the sidesway
is almost always at one end.
• As a consequence of this condition, the maximum
primary and secondary moments are usually additive
and there is no need for the factor Cm; in effect, Cm =
1.0.
• The equal end moments are caused by the sidesway.
The axial load, which partly results from loads not
causing the sidesway, is carried along and amplifies the
end moment.
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Members in Unbraced
Frames
• The amplification factor for the sidesway moments, B2, is given by
𝐶𝑚
𝐵1 = ≥1
1 − 𝛼𝑃storyΤ𝑃𝑒 story
Where:
𝑃story = sum of required load capacities for all columns in the story under consideration
𝑃story = total elastic buckling strength of the story under consideration
• This story buckling strength may be obtained by a sidesway buckling analysis or as
𝐻𝐿
𝑃story = 𝑅𝑀
∆𝐻
Where:
𝑅𝑀 = sum of vertical loads in all columns in the story that are part of moment frames
𝐿 = story height
∆𝐻 = interstory drift
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Example
• A segment column is a part of braced frame
(no sway).The moments and forces shown in
the figure beside are the results of linear
elastic analysis (without P-Δ effect). BJ37. KL 19 kNm
= 4.8. check if the column meets the
requirements!

49 kNm 17
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Example
• Section properties
H 300x300x10x15
𝐸 = 200,000 𝑀𝑃𝑎 𝐺 = 80,000 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝐴 = 119.8 𝑐𝑚2
1Τ 𝑏 Τ𝑡 = 10 ℎ/𝑡𝑤 = 27
2 𝑓 𝑓

𝐼𝑥 = 20,400 𝑐𝑚4 𝐼𝑦 = 6,750 𝑐𝑚4


𝑆𝑥 = 1,360 𝑐𝑚3 𝑆𝑦 = 450 𝑐𝑚3

• Required strength
𝑃𝑢 = 1.2𝑃𝐷 + 1.6𝑃𝐿 = 1.2 × 200 + 1.6 × 500 = 1040 𝑘𝑁
𝑀𝑢 = 1.2𝑀𝐷 + 1.6𝑀𝐿 = 1.2 × 15 + 1.6 × 19 = 48.4 𝑘𝑁 𝑀1
𝑀𝑢 = 1.2𝑀𝐷 + 1.6𝑀𝐿 = 1.2 × 49 + 1.6 × 56 = 148.4 𝑘𝑁 𝑀2 18
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Example
• Moment amplification factor
𝜋 2 𝐸𝐼 ∗ 𝜋 2 × 200,000 × 204,000,000
𝑃𝑒1 = 2
= 2
× 10−3 = 17,477.4 𝑘𝑁
𝐾1 𝐿 1 × 4800
𝑀1 48.4
𝐶𝑚 = 0.6 − 0.4 = 0.6 − 0.4 − = 0.73
𝑀2 148.4
𝐶𝑚 0.73
𝐵1 = = = 0.78  𝐵1 = 1
1− 𝛼𝑃𝑢 Τ𝑃𝑒1 1− 1040Τ17,477.4

No sway  𝐵2 = 0
𝑃𝑟 = 𝑃𝑛𝑡 + 𝐵2 𝑃𝑙𝑡 = 𝑃𝑢 + 0 = 1040 𝑘𝑁
𝑀𝑟 = 𝐵1 𝑀𝑛𝑡 + 𝐵2 𝑀𝑛𝑡 = 1 × 𝑀𝑢 + 0 = 148.4 𝑘𝑁𝑚
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Example
• Compression capacity of the column is obtained using compressive member design procedure (SNI
1729:2015, Chapter E)
𝑃𝑐 = 𝜙𝑃𝑛 = 1943.4 𝑘𝑁
• Flexural capacity of the column is obtained using flexural member design procedure (SNI 1729:2015,
Chapter F)
𝑀𝑐 = 𝜙𝑀𝑛 = 316. 4 𝑘𝑁𝑚
• Axial force and bending moment interaction
𝑃𝑟 1040
= 1943.4 = 0.535 > 0.2, then
𝑃𝑐
𝑃𝑢 8 𝑀𝑢
+ ≤ 1.0
𝜙𝑐 𝑃𝑛 9 𝜙𝑏 𝑀𝑛
8 148.4
0.535 + ≤ 1.0
9 316.4
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0.952 ≤ 1.0 … OK!

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• A cantilever column, bending moment applied
on the major axis. The minor (weak) axis is
restrained. BJ37 with 𝐾𝐿𝑥 = 2 × 4.8 = 9.6 𝑚,
𝐾𝐿𝑦 = 4.8 𝑚. Check if the column meet the
requirements!

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