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IP Addressing

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.


Foreword

The Internet Protocol (IP) is designed to provide a means for internetwork


communication that is not supported by lower layer protocols such as
Ethernet. The implementation of logical (IP) addressing enables the
Internet Protocol to be employed by other protocols for the forwarding of
data in the form of packets between networks. A strong knowledge of IP
addressing must be attained for effective network design along with clear
familiarity of the protocol behavior, to support a clear understanding of
the implementation of IP as a routed protocol.

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Objectives

Upon completion of this section, trainees will be able to:


 Describe the fields and characteristics contained within IP.

 Distinguish between public, private and special IP address ranges.

 Successfully implement VLSM addressing.

 Explain the function of an IP gateway.

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Next Header Processing

6 Bytes 6 Bytes 2 Bytes 46-1500 Bytes 4 Bytes

DMAC SMAC Type Data FCS

IP 0x0800

 The next set of instructions for processing are referenced in the


type field of the frame header.

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IP Packet Header

20-60 Bytes

IP Data

0 16 31
Header DS Field Total Length
Version
Length

Identification Flags Fragment Offset


Fixed
Message Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum 20
Header Bytes
Source IP Address

Destination IP Address

IP Options

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IP Addressing

Network Host

192.168.1 .1

11000000.10101000.00000001 .00000001

 The IP address identifies networks, and network hosts.

 Binary is the base numbering system used for IP addressing.

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IP Addressing

Network Address

192.168.1 .0

11000000.10101000.00000001 .00000000

Broadcast Address

192.168.1 .255

11000000.10101000.00000001 11111111

 The upper and lower most host address values are reserved.

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Decimal, Binary and Hexadecimal

Format Value Range Base Value

Binary 0—1 2

Decimal 0—9 10

Hexadecimal 0—F 16

 Binary and Hexadecimal are common numbering systems used


within IP networks.

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Binary vs. Decimal Conversion

Bit Order 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Binary
Power 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

Binary 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

Decimal Binary Hexadecimal Decimal Binary Hexadecimal

0 00000000 00 9 00001001 09

1 00000001 01 10 00001010 0A

2 00000010 02 11 00001011 0B

3 00000011 03 12 00001100 0C

4 00000100 04 13 00001101 0D

5 00000101 05 14 00001110 0E

6 00000110 06 15 00001111 0F

7 00000111 07 … … …

8 00001000 08 255 11111111 FF

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Binary Conversion

Network Host

Binary 11000000 10101000 00000001 00000001

27+26 27+25+23 20 20

Decimal 192 168 1 1

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IP Address Classes

1.0.0.0~126.255.255.255

Class A 0 Network(8bit) Host (24bit)


Host (24bit)

128.1.0.0~191.254.255.255

Class B 10 Network (16bit) Host (16bit)

192.0.1.0~223.255.254.255
Class C 110 Network (24bit) Host (8bit)

224.0.0.0~239.255.255.255
Class D 1110 Multicast

240.0.0.0~255.255.255.254

Class E 1111 Experimental

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IP Address Types

Private Address Ranges


Class A 10.0.0.0~10.255.255.255
Class B 172.16.0.0~172.31.255.255
Class C 192.168.0.0~192.168.255.255

Special Addresses
Diagnostic 127.0.0.0 ~ 127.255.255.255
Any Network 0.0.0.0
Network Broadcast 255.255.255.255

 The IP network address range has been divided, and certain


addresses and ranges assigned special functions in the network.

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IP Communication

Host A Host B

192.168.1.1 192.168.2.1

192.168.1.2 192.168.2.2

Host C Host D

Network Host
192 168 1 0

192 168 2 0

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Subnet Mask

Network Host
192.168.1 0

11000000.10101000.000000001 00000000

Subnet
255.255.255 0

11111111.11111111.11111111 00000000

 Subnet masks distinguish between the binary values that


represent each (sub)network and those that represent each host.

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Default Subnet Mask

Class A 255 0 0 0

Class B 255 255 0 0

Class C 255 255 255 0

 Certain subnet masks are applied to address ranges by default


to denote the fixed range that is used for each network class.

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Address Planning

IP Address 192 168 1 7

Subnet Mask 255 255 255 0

11000000 10101000 00000001 00000111


11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000

Network Address
(Binary) 11000000 10101000 00000001 00000000

Network Address 192 168 1 0

Host Addresses: 2n 256

Valid Hosts: 2n - 2 254

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Case Scenario

IP Address 172 16 1 7

Subnet Mask 255 255 0 0

Network Address ? ? ? ?

Host Addresses: 2n ?

Valid Hosts: 2n - 2 ?

 Determine the network for the given IP address, and the


number of actual, and valid host addresses in the network.

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Addressing Limitations

192.168.2.0/24

192.168.1.0/24 20 Hosts

30 Hosts 192.168.3.0/24
10 Hosts

 Network design using the default subnet mask results in


address wastage.

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VLSM Calculation

IP Address 192 168 1 7

Subnet Mask 255 255 255 128

11000000 10101000 00000001 00000111


11111111 11111111 11111111 10000000

11000000 10101000 00000001 00000000

Network Address 192 168 1 0

Host Addresses: 2n 128

Valid Hosts: 2n - 2 126

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VLSM Case Scenario

20 Hosts

30 Hosts
10 Hosts

 Using only the network 192.168.1.0/24, implement VLSM for


the given number of hosts in each network segment.

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Classless Inter-Domain Routing

10.24.0.0/24

10.24.1.0/24
Announce route
10.24.0.0/22

10.24.2.0/24

10.24.3.0/24

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IP Gateways

Host A L3 Host B
L2 L2

192.168.1.1 192.168.1.253 192.168.2.253 192.168.2.1

Host A Host B

L3 L3

192.168.1.1 L2 192.168.2.1

 Gateways use IP to forward packets between networks.

 Hosts may act as gateways between networks in a LAN.


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IP Fragmentation

Host A Host B
L3

L2 L2

Header DS Field Total Length


Version
Length

Identification Flags Fragment Offset

Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum

Source IP Address

Destination IP Address

IP Options

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Time To Live

Host A Host B

TTL=255 TTL=254 TTL=253

Header DS Field Total Length


Version
Length

Identification Flags Fragment Offset

Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum

Source IP Address

Destination IP Address

IP Options

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Protocol Field

IP Data

0x06/0x11 TCP/UDP

0x01 ICMP

Header DS Field Total Length


Version
Length

Identification Flags Fragment Offset

Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum

Source IP Address

Destination IP Address

IP Options

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Summary

 What is the IP subnet mask used for?

 What is the purpose of the TTL field in the IP header?

 How are gateways used in an IP network?

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Thank you
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