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PARUL POLY TECHCNIC INSTITUTE 5/25/2018 1

GROUP NO: 1
Internal Guide:
Mr. Himanshu Patel Prepared by:
Lecturer Palak Parmar
E&C Dept. (096390311001)

HOD: Divya Shah


Mrs. Unnati Shah (096390311017)
E&C Dept.
Aarsi Jethwa
External Guide: (096390311025)
Mr.Pratik Shah
HOD Khyati Khanpara
Access Computech Pvt. Ltd (096390311054)

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 Access Computech Pvt. Ltd. begun operations
in August 1994 .

 Aim of providing customized innovative user


friendly and reliable technology for attendance
recording and allied services.

 They have a state of the art complex for


product design, manufacture, testing and
development.

 They also manufacture ID Cards, Fused PVC &


Instant PVC dye-sublimated cards & access
control equipments like turnstiles & other
physical access control devices.

 Some of major clients are like BHEL, ABB, IPCL,


NMDC, BEL, L&T, KAMROCK, NHPC, RPL,
ELECTROLUX, G S R T C, ASHIMA, ATUL , AMUL,
etc.

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 A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform
tasks automatically or with guidance, typically by remote control.

 In practice a robot is usually an electro-mechanical machine that is


guided by computer and electronic programming.

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 robot is designed to be able to follow a black line on the surface.
 This robot has two sensors installed underneath the front part of the
body & two DC motors drive wheels moving forward.
 A circuit inside takes an input signal from two sensors and controls
the speed of wheels rotation.
 The control is done in such a way that when a sensor does not sense
a black line, the motor stops.
 Then the difference of rotation speed makes it possible to make
turns.

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 Capable of sensing a track.

 Various degrees of turns.

 The robot must be insensitive to environmental factor.

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MONTH WORK

AUGUST Got conformation letter from the company.

SEPTEMBER After discussing the project topics ,we choose “track


sensing robot with webcam”.

OCTOBER We learnt multisim & practiced it.

NOVEMBER We learnt keil & practiced on it.


DECEMBER We prepared circuit diagram.

JANUARY We purchased the components.


FEBRUARY We started hardware related work & first made power
supply circuit.
MARCH We made IC, sensor, comparators ,relay tracks &
connections.
APRIL Finally we made motor connection also connected
wheels & made wooden platform.
7
Main Motor
Crystal
Power Power
11.0592Hz
Supply Supply

Left
Motor
AT89S52 ULN 2803
Microcontroller Right
Motor

Priority
Encoder Threshold
Analog
Voltage
Comparators

Sensor Array

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 Power supply circuit :[bridge rectifier, voltage regulator IC,capacitors &
resistors]

 Connection of main IC’s :[Atmel,ULN,crystal oscillator,capacitors]

 Sensor circuit :[LDR,LED & resistor]

 Comparator circuitry :[LM324 IC,variable resistors & indicators]

 Motor & Relay

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• Firstly ON the switch.
• As the switch is ON, the battery (12V DC) starts working.
• 12V DC is applied to power supply circuit which supplies voltage according to
the requirement of the components.
• The sensor senses the black track and this signal goes to the comparator.
• The comparator then compares the signal whether high or low an according to
it the indication is given from LED. When the signal is low the LED glows and
when high it does not glow.
• The output signal of comparator goes to the Atmel controller
• The output signal of controller goes to ULN which is the motor driver circuit.
• The output signal of ULN goes to relay which works as a switch to drive the
motors
• Finally the TSRW starts moving on the track applied to it.
• And the webcam starts recording as soon as you click the recording button.

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A microcontroller is a single chip that contains the
processor (the CPU), non-volatile memory for the program (ROM or
flash), volatile memory for input and output (RAM), a clock and an
I/O control unit.

Here we have used Atmel AT89S52 microcontroller.

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 The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller
with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory.
 The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system
or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer.

 By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a


monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller, which
provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many, embedded
control applications.

 The AT89S52 provides the following standard features:

 S 8K bytes of Flash,
 256 bytes of RAM,
 32 I/O lines,
 Watchdog timer,
 two data pointers,
 three 16-bit timer/counters,
 six-vector two-level interrupt architecture
 full duplex serial port,
 on-chip oscillator &
 clock circuitry.

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 The 7805 voltage regulators
employ built-in current
limiting, thermal shutdown,
and safe-operating area
protection which makes them
virtually immune to damage
from output overloads.

 7805 is a three-terminal
positive voltage regulator.

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 LDRs or Light Dependent
Resistors are very useful
especially in light/dark sensor
circuits.
 Normally the resistance of an
LDR is very high, sometimes as
high as 1000 000 ohms but
when they are illuminated with
light.
 The animation opposite shows
that when the torch is turned
on, the resistance of the LDR
falls allowing current to pass
through it & resistance drops
dramatically.

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 It is a three terminal device.

 It is also known as presets.

 Its one input is constant &


another comes from the
sensor.

 And the third is for ground.

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 The LM324 consist of four
independent, high gain,
internally frequency
compensated operational
amplifiers which were designed
specifically to operate from a
single power supply over a wide
voltage range.

 Operation from split power


supplies is also possible so long
as the difference between the
two supplies is 3 volts to 32
volts.

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The ULN2803APG Series is
high−voltage,high−current
Darlington drivers comprised of
eight NPN Darlington pairs.

All units featur clamp diodes for


switching inductive loads.

Applications include relay, lamp &


display (LED) drivers.

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 A Relay as an electromagnetic
switch.

 When the current passes


through the coil magnetic field
is generated & its causes to
make connection.

 Relay can handle the high


power required to directly
control an electric motor or
other load.
This is a low cost DC motor suitable
for most robotic and general
applications.

Control of DC motor is split into two


parts: Speed & Direction

Features:
Output RPM: 10 rpm
Input Voltage: 6-12 V
Stall Current: 500-600mA
Shaft length: 2.4 cm

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 Webcam is a video camera
that feeds its images in real
time to computer or
computer network, often via
USB, Ethernet, or Wi-Fi.
 The most popular use is the
establishment of video links,
permitting computers to act
as videophones or video
conference stations.
 Here we use it for security
surveillance, computer
vision, video broadcasting &
for recording.

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 Easy assembly

 Only for self travelling use

 Maximum video capacity

 Easily photo capturing

 Low maintains

 Affordable cost

 Affordable working
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 Choice of line is made in the hardware abstraction and cannot be changed
by software.

 Few curves are not made efficiently, and must be avoided.

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 Industrial automated equipment carriers.

 Tour guides in museums and other similar applications.

 Photography and audio recording in detective agency.

 Farming.

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 “Obstacle detecting sensors” to avoid physical obstacles and
continue on the line.

 Logic control by PLC.

 Wireless controlling for use GSM and RF protocol.

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 The robot senses a track as demonstrated.

 It effectively overcomes problems such as “barren land syndrome” and


line breaks.

 The hardware and software works as designed.

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