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Facilitated Diffusion

• The movement of hydrophilic molecules or


ions across the plasma membrane with
the help of transport proteins.
• Substances that are not soluble in lipids
do not pass readily through the
phospholipid bilayer.

• Substances such as glucose, amino


acids, proteins and nucleic acids pass
through the membrane by facilitated
diffusion.
Facilitated Diffusion
Involves 2 types of protein

Channel proteins Carrier proteins

Provide functional pore in the Pick up the diffusion molecules on


membrane for the diffusion of ions. one side of the membrane and
The pore are selective about which release them on the other side
ions can pass through
glucose

Ammino
acids

Absorption of certain nutrients through the villi of the small


intestine.
Carrier proteins found on the membrane of cells that line
the intestinal wall transport small molecules such as amino
acids and glucose into the blood capillaries of the villi
• Many biochemical reactions take
place in a cell.
• The cells require many substances
to carry out these biochemical
reaction.
• Waste products that are formed
during biochemical reactions within
the cells must be eliminated because
they are poisonous.
• There is movement of substances across
the plasma membrane so that the cell can

Obtain nutrients and gases

Excrete metabolic wastes

Maintain a suitable pH and


ionic concentration with the
cell for enzyme activity
Red Blood Cell Near Some
Body cell

Carbon dioxide

Oxygen

Moving in Moving out


Photosyntesising Plant Cell

Carbon dioxide

Oxygen

Water

Glucose

Moving in Moving out


Plant Cell With No
Chloroplast
Carbon dioxide

Oxygen

Glucose

Water

Moving in Moving out


Carbon dioxide Liver cell
Oxygen

Glucose

Water

Amino acids

Urea

Moving in Moving out


The structure of the plasma membrane
The plasma
membrane has 3
components
1. Double layer of
phospholipids
molecules.
2. Pore
3. Carrier Proteins
A phospholipid molecule

Hydrophilic head

Hydrophobic tails
Outside of cell

Phospholipid layer
Phospholipid
bilayer

Inside of cell
• The phospholipids bilayer, proteins and other
parts are not rigid or static, but form a dynamic
and flexible structure.

• The protein molecules float about in the


phospholipid bilayer to form a mosaic pattern
that is always changing like fluid.

• Singer and Nicolson call it ‘fluid-mosaic model’


The plasma membrane is generally described as
semi-permeable or selectively permeable because
it only lets certain substances through.

Fat soluble molecules and small


molecules such as oxygen are
able to pass through unaided.

Water molecules can move across


plasma membrane.

Water soluble substances such as


glucose and amino acids and ions need
to aided by carrier protein.
Which of these substances can pass
through phospholipids layer or carrier
protein?

Channel
Protein Carrier Na+ Sodium
ion
Protein

K+ Potassium
ion
Movement Of Substances Across
The Plasma Membrane

Passive transport Active transport

Simple Facilitated Osmosis


diffusion diffusion
The differences between PT and AT
Passive Transport Active Transport
Does not require Require energy
energy from cell respiration

Substances move Substances move


with concentration against concentration
gradient gradient

Process leads to
Will continue until accumulation or
an equilibrium is elimination of the
reached substance from the cell