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Testing & Adjusting

Service Tests
Section 3_1

Section 3, Page 1/30 (10/04) Media # KT900603


Tier III 6D107 Engines

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Tier III 6D114 Engines

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Tier III 6D107 Engines
Testing & Adjusting
Service Tests

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Under Development

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Tier III 6D107 Engines
Testing & Adjusting
Service Tests

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Tier III 6D114 Engines
Testing & Adjusting
Service Tests

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Component Review
1. Fuel from supply tank
2. Fuel filter and water separator
3. OEM fuel supply connection
4. Fuel supply to ECM mounted fuel lift pump
5. ECM cooling plate
6. ECM mounted fuel lift pump
7. Fuel outlet from ECM mounted fuel lift pump
8. Fuel gear pump
9. Fuel from gear pump to fuel filter
10. Primary fuel filter
11. Fuel inlet to fuel pump actuator

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Component Review - 2

12. High-pressure fuel pump


13. Fuel outlet from high-pressure pump
14. High-pressure pump drain flow
connection
15. Fuel rail
16. High-pressure injector supply lines
17. High-pressure fuel connector
18. Fuel injector
19. Fuel pressure relief valve
20. Fuel injector drain flow line
21. Fuel return to supply tanks

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Fuel System Layout Tier 3 - 6D114Engine

High Pressure Relief


Fuel Pump Drain Line Valve Drain Line

Injector Drain Line

Fuel Pump

ECM Cooling Plate ECM 2 micron Fuel Filter

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Fuel System Layout (Back)

Fuel Drain
Connection

Fuel Lift Pump

Fuel Supply
Connection
ECM Cooling Plate
ECM Cooling Plate
Check Valve
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Low Pressure Components

1) OEM Block Out


(to ECM Cooler In)

7) IMV In

6) Filter Out (to IMV)

3) LPP In

5) Filter In (from LPP


4) LPP Out Out)

2) ECM Cooler out with internal


LPP = Low Pressure Pump check valve (to LPP in Out)
IMV = Inlet Metering Valve

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The Low Pressure Subsystem Fuel Flow

1. Fuel enters at the OEM Block and flows to the ECM


Cooler input
2. Fuel flows through the ECM Cooler to its output. The
output of the ECM Cooler includes an integral check
valve so that when the lift pump is on fuel does flow
back out of the cooler
3. From the ECM Cooler out, fuel flows to the input of the
Low Pressure Pump
4. Four points at the Low Pressure Pump Output
5. From there the fuel flows to the filter input
6. The Filter Output flows onto the IMV
7. This points at the IMV input

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Fuel System Flow

8 - Fuel Inlet to
High Pressure 7 - Fuel Outlet
Pump 6 - Fuel Inlet to From Fuel Filter
Fuel Filter
1 - Fuel Inlet

4 - Fuel Inlet to
Gear Pump

5 - Fuel Outlet 2 - Fuel Inlet to ECM


From Gear Pump 3 - Fuel Outlet From
Cooling Plate
ECM Cooling Plate
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ECM Cooling Plate Assembly

● The primary purpose of the priming circuit is to provide


pressure to the gear pump for quick engine starts.
● The fuel lift pump only runs for 30 seconds at key-on. It is
only used for priming the fuel system at start-up.
● The priming pump will fill the pressure side filter when
installed dry. 5 or 6 key cycles is required to fill the pressure
side filter.
● It is recommended that the suction filter be pre-filled with
clean fuel when replaced.

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ECM Cooling Plate Assembly

ECM Cooling Plate Assembly

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ECM Cooling Plate Check Valve

● The ECM cooling plate check valve prevents fuel from flowing
through the ECM cooling plate when the fuel lift pump is in
operation.
● Without the ECM cooling plate check valve, fuel would
continuously circulate through the lift pump when the lift pump is
not running.
● The check valve can become damaged upon installation. Inspect
the check valve for damage or debris when troubleshooting low
power and performance problems.
● High fuel inlet restriction will be measured at the gear pump inlet
if the check valve is damaged.

Check Valve

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Fuel System Layout

ECM Cooling Plate


Check Valve

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Low Pressure Drain Fuel

Pump Drain

Injector Drain and


Integral Check Valve

Dump Valve Output

•The high pressure pump and injector drain flows as well as the drain
collector.
•The accumulator has a pressure dump valve which is also plumbed
into the drain collector.
•The Injector Drain connector includes a check valve which maintains
the required back pressure of 0.7 to 2.0 BAR to the injectors

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Fuel Drain Manifold

High Pressure Relief Fuel Pump Drain Injector Drain

To Fuel Tank

From Fuel Tank

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Review Fuel System Specifications

● Maximum Inlet Restriction at OEM Connection Point


 4inHg (clean suction filter)
 8inHg (dirty suction filter)
● Maximum Restriction at Gear Pump Inlet Point
 10 inHg (dirty suction filter)
● Minimum lift pump pressure while cranking (for starting)
 5 PSI (at cranking)
● Maximum Pressure Filter Pressure Drop
 20 PSI
● Minimum gear pump pressure while cranking (for
starting)
 7 PSI

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Review Fuel System Specifications continued

● Normal Operating Pressure in Accumulator


 300 - 1600 bar (4,350 - 23,200 psi)
● Maximum MDV Leakage (performance troubleshooting
 100cc in MORE than 1 minute at 1500 bar idle
 300cc in MORE than 1 minute at cranking
● Maximum Injector Leakage (performance troubleshooting
 300cc in MORE than 60sec at 1500 bar idle
 300cc in MORE than 60sec at cranking
● Maximum HPP Leakage (performance troubleshooting
 300cc in MORE than 30sec at 1500 bar idle
 300cc in MORE than 30sec at cranking

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Fault Code 2215 Diagnostics

● Fault code 2215 indicates that measured fuel pressure in the fuel
rail cannot meet commanded fuel pressure from the ECM.
● Several different failure modes can cause this fault code.
 Loose or damage HPC connectors
 High fuel inlet restriction
 Plugged suction fuel filter
 ECM cooling plate check valve broken or plugged
 OEM fuel supply lines collapsed or damaged
 Failed fuel pump actuator causing the high pressure relief valve to open
 Failed gear pump
 Stuck open fuel injector
● Replacing a failed component, the engine must run to clear the
fault and the ECM must have a successful power-down cycle.
 A successful power-down cycle consists of turning the keyswitch power off
and waiting 10 seconds before removing the main ECM power.

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Inlet Restriction
● Procedure
 Install a Compuchek fitting and the
0.043” orificed diagnostic fuel line at the
pressure filter.
 Install a compute fitting and the 0-30
inHg vacuum gauge at the point where
restriction is to be measured.
 Operate the engine at idle and measure
vacuum.
● When to Perform Test
 FC2215 or FC2292
 Low power complaints

Fuel Inlet Restriction


Measurement Port

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Fuel System Diagnostics

● Tools necessary to troubleshoot the HPCR fuel system


include:
 M10 Compuchek Fittings
 0.043” Orifice Diagnostic Fuel Line
 0-30 inHg Vacuum Gauge M10 CUC fitting
 Diagnostic T-Adapter
 0-300 PSI pressure gauge
 M12 Drain Flow Adapter
 Fuel Rail “Blocker” (for injector isolation)
 INSITE (to raise pressure)

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Gear Pump Pressure

● Procedure
 Install CUC fitting and diagnostic T-Adapter at the pressure filter outlet
 Install the pressure gauge and the 0.043” orificed diagnostic fuel line at
the T-Adapter
 Operate the engine at idle Fuel Filter Inlet Fuel Filter Outlet

● When to Perform Test


 FC2215 or FC2292
 Low power complaints
 Engine will not start

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Air-in-Fuel

● Procedure
 Install Compuchek fitting and the 0.043” orificed diagnostic fuel
line at pressure filter outlet
 Route the output of the 0.043” orificed diagnostic fuel line into a
bucket
 Operate the engine at idle
 Allow fuel to fill the collection bucket until the outlet of the fuel
line is submerged
 Check for excessive amounts of air bubbles exiting the fuel line
● When to Perform Test
 Engine runs rough or excessive smoke
 Surge (continuous surging)
 Engine difficult to start / loss of prime

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High Pressure Relief Valve

● High pressure relief valve acts like a ‘fuse’ in the fuel system.
● If fuel pressure exceeds the relief valve pop-off pressure, fuel rail
pressure will be regulated to 900 bar and the excess fuel will be
returned to drain.
● If the high pressure relief valve opens, fault code 449 will activate
indicating high fuel pressure.

High Pressure Relief


Valve

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High Pressure Relief Valve Test

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Leakage Test

● When to perform test


 FC2215 or FC2292
 No start and can not build rail pressure (perform test while cranking)
● HPP Failures:
 HP Seal Leaks to Drain, Pump Head Cracks, Severe B/P Leakage
● Injector Failures:
 Injector body cracked
 P.V. severe erosion
● HPC Failures:
 Poor seal with injector
● High Pressure Relief Valve Failures:
 Valve seat leaks
 Broken Spring
● High Pressure Lines:
 Observe fuel seepage at high pressure

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Leakage Test
● Procedure
 Install drain flow adapters for the high pressure relief valve, high
pressure pump, and injectors.
 Route fuel lines from the flow adapter to a bucket
 Operate the engine at idle and begin the INSITE test
 Measure the drain flow from each device into a graduated cylinder
 Use “blocker” tool to isolate injector/HPC leakage if necessary

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Fuel System Diagnostics

● Tools necessary to troubleshoot the high pressure


common rail fuel system include:
 M10 Compuchek Fittings (measure pressure or vacuum)
 0.043” Orificed Diagnostic Fuel Line (create rated flow without
dyno)
 0-30 inHg Vacuum Gauge (measure inlet restriction)
 Diagnostic T-Adapter (allows measuring pressure while having
wasteline at outlet of filter)
 0-200 PSI pressure gauge (measures gear pump pressure)
 M12 Drain Flow Adapter (measures leakage from high pressure
components)
 Fuel Rail “Blocker” (for injector isolation)
 INSITE or Monitor Panel (to raise pressure for leakage tests)
 INSITE or Monitor Panel (to perform cylinder cut-out)

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Fuel System Fault Codes
● Fault Code 2215: Pressure is low
 Fuel pressure is lower than commanded (2311, 449, and 275 are
inactive)
● Fault Code 2216: Pressure is high
 Fuel pressure is higher than commanded but still under pressure
relief valve opening pressure.
● Fault Code 275:
 Bank pressure deviation of the fuel pump. Replace fuel pump head.
● Fault Code 271 and 272:
 Fuel pump actuator open or short circuit
● Fault Code 2311: Fuel pump actuator circuit error
 Open or short circuit
 Resistance high or low
 Fuel rail pressure has exceeded 1950 bar and pressure relief valve
has opened with circuit errors detected on the fuel pump actuator.
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Fuel System Fault Codes
● Fault Code 449: Pressure high (relief valve)
 Fuel rail pressure has exceeded 1950 bar and pressure relief
valve has opened with no circuit errors detected.
● Fault Code 451 and 452
 Fuel pressure sensor out-of-range circuit errors
● Fault Code NEW: Fuel Pressure Sensor In-Range
 If fuel pressure sensor signal is noisy this diagnostic will prevent
NTF pump replacement.
 This failure mode will cause fault codes 2215 and 275.
● Fault Code 268: Stuck-in-range error
 If fuel pressure sensor signal stops updating (has “0 noise”), the
sensor is failed… this may lead to other fault code detection
(example: loss of signal may cause fuel rail pressure relief valve
to open and then fault code 2215?).

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Injector Details

Injector Fuel Return

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High Pressure Connectors

Edge Filter
The built in edge filter ensures that
HPC Body particles larger than 80 microns can
not enter the injector.

Anti-rotation pin

The high pressure connector The anti-rotation pin prevents HPC


rotation during installation.
transfers fuel from the fuel delivery
line to the injector.

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Stuck Open Injector

● With a High Pressure Common Rail fuel system, stuck open


injectors will cause continuous injection in the cylinder with the
stuck injector.
● This is caused by debris in the fuel system being transferred to the
injector.
● The engine will smoke, knock loudly, and possible die if an injector
sticks open.
● Caused by debris in the injector holding the injector needle open.
● Always check for progressive engine damage if an injector is found
to be stuck open.
 Scuffed cylinder
 Cracked or broken piston
Piston damage may occur in as little as 3 seconds !

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Service Tests - Locating Faulty Injector
If the torque converter stall speed or the hydraulic pump relief
speed is low and bad combustion seems to be caused by
defective fuel injection, perform troubleshooting for the injector
according to the following procedure.

Injector Cut-out
Test

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Questions?

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Tier III 6D107 Engines
Testing & Adjusting
Service Tests

Return to Menu
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Testing & Adjusting
Service Tests

Section 3_1

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